1

One should not marry a girl below the age of majority.1 When a man marries an orphan girl below the age of majority, and [before she attains majority] she [decides that] she does not desire [to remain married to] this husband, she rejects [the marriage] and departs; a get is not required, because a consecration effected by a minor does not establish a marriage bond in the full sense, as explained.2 [The annulment of a marriage in this manner is referred to as mi'un.]

Similarly, when a girl below majority was married at her father's initiative,3 but was then widowed or divorced while still a minor, she is considered to be an orphan, although her father is alive.4 If she marries again while she is below the age of majority, she may annul her marriage through mi'un.

א

אֵין נוֹשְׂאִין אֶת הַקְּטנָּה. וְהַנּוֹשֵׂא קְטַנָּה יְתוֹמָה וְלֹא רָצְתָה בַּבַּעַל הֲרֵי זוֹ מְמָאֶנֶת וְהוֹלֶכֶת וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ גֵּט. שֶׁאֵין קִדּוּשִׁין שֶׁל קְטַנָּה קִדּוּשִׁין גְּמוּרִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵן קְטַנָּה שֶׁהִשִּׂיאָהּ אָבִיהָ וְנִתְאַלְמְנָה אוֹ נִתְגָּרְשָׁה כְּשֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה הֲרֵי הִיא כִּיתוֹמָה בְּחַיֵּי אָבִיהָ. וְאִם נִשֵּׂאת כְּשֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ מְמָאֶנֶת:

2

Although the marriage of a woman who is a deaf-mute is a Rabbinic institution like that of a minor, our Sages did not give her the right to annul it through mi'un, so that men would not refrain from marrying her.5

ב

הַחֵרֶשֶׁת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשּׂוּאֶיהָ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּנִשּׂוּאֵי קְטַנָּה לֹא תִּקְּנוּ לָהּ שֶׁתְּמָאֵן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִמָּנְעוּ מִלְּנָשְׂאָהּ:

3

A minor can annul her marriage via mi'un whether she has been merely consecrated or [even if] the marriage has been consummated. [She can exercise this privilege] in her husband's presence, or outside his presence. Just as she can annul her marriage to her husband, she can annul her relationship to a yavam.6

Just as she can annul one marriage through mi'un, so too, she can annul a second marriage or a third marriage. Indeed, [she can exercise this privilege] any number of times.7

As long as she is a minor, she has the right to annul her marriage through mi'un. When a minor does not exercise the right of mi'un and becomes consecrated to another man despite the fact that she was married, [the consecration is binding]. Becoming consecrated is [obviously] a rejection [- and thus an annulment - of her previous marriage].

ג

מְמָאֶנֶת הִיא הַקְּטַנָּה בֵּין מִן הָאֵרוּסִין בֵּין מִן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין. בֵּין בִּפְנֵי בַּעְלָהּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמְּמָאֶנֶת בְּבַעַל כָּךְ מְמָאֶנֶת בְּיָבָם. וּמְמָאֶנֶת בְּבַעַל זֶה וּמְמָאֶנֶת בְּשֵׁנִי אִם נִשֵּׂאת לְאַחֵר וְכֵן בִּשְׁלִישִׁי אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה יֵשׁ לָהּ לְמָאֵן. וּקְטַנָּה שֶׁלֹּא מֵאֲנָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא נְשׂוּאָה וְהָלְכָה וְנִתְקַדְּשָׁה לְאַחֵר כְּשֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה קִדּוּשֶׁיהָ הֵם הֵם מֵאוּנֶיהָ:

4

Until when may a girl annul her marriage through mi'un? Throughout the entire time she is a minor, until she becomes a na'arah,8 or until it is known that she becomes classified as an aylonit.9

When does the above10 apply? When her husband did not engage in marital relations with her after she became twelve years and one day old. If, however, the couple engaged in relations after she reached this age, since these relations consecrate her according to Scriptural law, as explained,11 she no longer has the right to annul her marriage through mi'un.

Similarly, [when the woman reaches this age, we assume that she has lost her right to annul her marriage through mi'un]. She need not be checked for signs of physical maturity, for it is assumed that she has manifested them.12

ד

עַד מָתַי הַבַּת מְמָאֶנֶת. כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה נַעֲרָה אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע שֶׁהִיא אַיְלוֹנִית. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁלֹּא בָּא עָלֶיהָ הַבַּעַל אַחַר שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית בַּת י״‎ב שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד. אֲבָל אִם הִגִּיעָה לַזְּמַן הַזֶּה וְנִבְעֲלָה הוֹאִיל וְהַבְּעִילָה קוֹנָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הֲרֵי זוֹ אֵינָהּ מְמָאֶנֶת. וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה בְּדִיקָה לְמֵאוּן שֶׁחֶזְקָתָהּ שֶׁהֵבִיאָה סִימָנִין:

5

If she has undergone a physical inspection, and no signs of maturity were discovered, but she engaged in marital relations after the age when she could have manifested signs of maturity, we suspect that pubic hairs had grown and later fell off. Because of the doubt, the marriage must be dissolved with a get.

If a woman [who engaged in marital relations with her husband after reaching the age of twelve attempts to] annul her marriage through mi'un after undergoing a physical examination,13 and then is consecrated by another person, [her second husband also] must dissolve their relationship with a get, because of the doubt involved.14 If she married [the second husband], she must be divorced by both husbands and there is a doubt concerning the legitimacy of a child born to either of them [after her consecration to her second husband].15

ה

הֲרֵי שֶׁנִּבְדְּקָה וְלֹא נִמְצְאוּ לָהּ סִימָנִים הוֹאִיל וְנִבְעֲלָה אַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעָה לַזְּמַן הָרָאוּי לְסִימָנִין הֲרֵי זוֹ חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָהּ שֶׁמָּא הֵבִיאָה וְנָשְׁרוּ. וּלְפִיכָךְ צְרִיכָה גֵּט מִסָּפֵק. וְאִם מֵאֲנָה אַחַר שֶׁנִּבְדְּקָה וְנִתְקַדְּשָׁה לְאַחֵר צְרִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ גֵּט מִסָּפֵק. וְאִם נִשֵּׂאת תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה וְהַוָּלָד סְפֵק מַמְזֵר מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם:

6

When a minor does not exercise her right to mi'un and attains majority, she no longer has this privilege. [This applies] even when she did not engage in marital relations with her husband after reaching the age of twelve years and one day. Since she has attained majority, it is a Rabbinic decree that a divorce is required [if the marriage must be dissolved].

[The rationale for this ruling is as follows:] The couple did not engage in marital relations after she reached the age of na'arut, in which instance it would be necessary to suspect that she manifested signs of physical maturity, and accordinly, there would be a doubt whether or not a marriage bond had been established. Nor did they engage in relations after she attained majority, in which instance she would become a married woman in all regards. Accordingly, the only reason she requires a get is the fact of her marriage as a minor, which is a Rabbinic institution.

Based on the above, if another man consecrated her after she attained majority, [when she had not engaged in marital relations with her first husband from the age of twelve onward,] the second man's consecration is binding.16 As such, if her first husband divorces her, her second husband may consummate the marriage. If, however, her second husband divorces her, her first husband may not continue his marriage with her. [This is a decree, instituted] lest people say: "He remarried his divorcee after she was consecrated."17

If her second husband engaged in marital relations with her before her first husband divorced her, she must be divorced by both men. [This is a decree instituted] because [the situation] resembles an instance in which a woman heard that her husband died, she married, and then her first husband returned.18 [The laws governing the two situations are not entirely analogous. In this instance,] a child fathered by the second husband is not illegitimate.19 But if her first husband engages in relations with her before her second husband divorces her, any child born is illegitimate.20

ו

קְטַנָּה שֶׁלֹּא מֵאֲנָה וְהִגְדִּילָה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא בְּעָלָהּ בַּעְלָהּ מִשֶּׁנַּעֲשֵׂית בַּת שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד הֲרֵי זוֹ אֵינָהּ מְמָאֶנֶת שֶׁהֲרֵי הִגְדִּילָה. וּצְרִיכָה גֵּט מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא בָּא עָלֶיהָ אַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעָה לִשְׁנֵי נַעֲרוּת עַד שֶׁנָּחוּשׁ לָהּ שֶׁמָּא הֵבִיאָה סִימָנִין וְתִהְיֶה סָפֵק מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת, וְלֹא בָּא עָלֶיהָ אַחַר שֶׁהִגְדִּילָה כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ גְּמוּרָה. וְנִמְצֵאת שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה גֵּט אֶלָּא מִנִּשּׂוּאֵי קַטְנוּת שֶׁהֵן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. לְפִיכָךְ אִם עָמְדָה וְנִתְקַדְּשָׁה אַחַר שֶׁגָּדְלָה תּוֹפְסִין בָּהּ קִדּוּשִׁין שֶׁל שֵׁנִי. וְאִם גֵּרֵשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן יִכְנֹס הַשֵּׁנִי. אֲבָל אִם גֵּרֵשׁ שֵׁנִי לֹא יְקַיֵּם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ הֶחֱזִיר גְּרוּשָׁתוֹ מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְאָרְסָה. וְאִם בָּא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁנִי קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּגָרֵשׁ רִאשׁוֹן תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְאִשָּׁה שֶׁשָּׁמְעָה שֶׁמֵּת בַּעְלָהּ וְנִשֵּׂאת וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּא בַּעְלָהּ. וְאֵין הַוָּלָד מִן הַשֵּׁנִי מַמְזֵר. וְאִם בָּא עָלֶיהָ רִאשׁוֹן קֹדֶם שֶׁגֵּרֵשׁ שֵׁנִי הַוָּלָד מַמְזֵר:

7

In which instances must a minor perform the rite of mi'un [to nullify her marriage]? [Our Sages established the following guidelines.] If she was between six and ten [when she was consecrated], we investigate the extent of her sagacity.

If she knows to guard [the money given to her to effect] the kiddushin, appreciates that it was given for that purpose and will guard it differently from the way in which she would guard a nut, a date or the like, she must perform the rite of mi'un [to nullify her marriage].

If she does not know to guard [the money given to her to effect] the kiddushin, she need not perform the rite of mi'un [to nullify her marriage]. Instead, she returns to her mother's home as if she had never been consecrated. If she is less than six, even if she knows [how to guard the money given her,] she need not perform the rite of mi'un. If she is more than ten, even if she is very inept, she must perform the rite of mi'un.21

Whenever a girl's brother, mother or relatives arranged for her marriage without telling her of the identity of the groom, she need not perform the rite of mi'un [to nullify her marriage].22

ז

אֵי זוֹ הִיא קְטַנָּה שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לְמָאֵן. מִבַּת שֵׁשׁ עַד בַּת עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתָהּ לְפִי יְפִי דַּעְתָּהּ אִם יוֹדַעַת לִשְׁמֹר קִדּוּשֶׁיהָ וְשֶׁהֵן קִדּוּשִׁין לֹא שֶׁתִּשְׁמֹר אוֹתָן כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּשַׁמֶּרֶת הָאֱגוֹז וּתְמָרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי זוֹ צְרִיכָה מֵאוּן. וְאִם אֵינָהּ יוֹדַעַת לִשְׁמֹר קִדּוּשֶׁיהָ אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְמָאֵן אֶלָּא הוֹלֶכֶת לְבֵית אִמָּהּ כְּאִלּוּ לֹא נִתְקַדְּשָׁה מֵעוֹלָם. וּפְחוּתָה מִבַּת שֵׁשׁ אֲפִלּוּ יוֹדַעַת לִשְׁמֹר אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה מֵאוּן. וִיתֵרָה עַל בַּת עֶשֶׂר אֲפִלּוּ סְכָלָה בְּיוֹתֵר צְרִיכָה מֵאוּן. וְכָל מִי שֶׁהִשִּׂיאוּהָ אַחֶיהָ אוֹ אִמָּהּ אוֹ קְרוֹבֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא לְדַעְתָּהּ אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְמָאֵן:

8

What does the rite of mi'un entail? She tells two witnesses:23 "I no longer desire my husband so and so," "I no longer desire to be consecrated [to the man] to whom my mother - or my brother - consecrated me," or the like.

[The above applies] even if the two individuals are guests dining in her husband's home and she is serving them. If she tells them, "I no longer desire my husband so and so," she has performed mi'un.

ח

כֵּיצַד מְמָאֶנֶת. אוֹמֶרֶת בִּפְנֵי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אֵין רְצוֹנִי בִּפְלוֹנִי בַּעְלִי. אוֹ אֵין רְצוֹנִי בַּקִּדּוּשִׁין שֶׁקִּדְּשׁוּנִי אִמִּי אוֹ אַחַי. וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ. אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ אוֹרְחִין מְסֻבִּין בְּבֵית בַּעְלָהּ וְהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת וּמַשְׁקָה עֲלֵיהֶן וְאָמְרָה אֵינִי רוֹצָה בִּפְלוֹנִי בַּעְלִי הֲרֵי זֶה מֵאוּן:

9

The two individuals in whose presence the minor performs the rite of mi'un should write the following for her: "On this and this day, _______________the daughter of _____________ rejected her husband." They sign the document and give it to her. This is the essential portion of a deed of mi'un.

A deed of mi'un does not resemble a bill of divorce, in which the giving of the bill effects the divorce.24 It need not be written with the proper intent, nor must it be transferred, nor do any of the laws required for a bill of divorce apply with regard to it. The wording used for a get is not used for it, lest it appear to be a get.25 It is merely a legal record.

ט

הַשְּׁנַיִם שֶׁמְּמָאֶנֶת הַקְּטַנָּה בִּפְנֵיהֶן כּוֹתְבִין לָהּ בְּיוֹם פְּלוֹנִי מֵאֲנָה פְּלוֹנִית בַּת פְּלוֹנִי בְּפָנֵינוּ בִּפְלוֹנִי בַּעְלָהּ וְחוֹתְמִין וְנוֹתְנִין לָהּ. וְזֶה הוּא גּוּפוֹ שֶׁל גֵּט מֵאוּן. וְגֵט מֵאוּן אֵינוֹ כְּגֵט הַגֵּרוּשִׁין שֶׁנְּתִינָתוֹ מְגָרְשָׁהּ. וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כְּתִיבָה לִשְׁמָהּ וְלֹא מְסִירָה וְלֹא דָּבָר מִמִּשְׁפְּטֵי גֵּט הַגֵּרוּשִׁין. וְאֵין כּוֹתְבִין בּוֹ טָפְסֵי הַגֵּט שֶׁמָּא יֵרָאֶה כְּגֵט גֵּרוּשִׁין לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּמַעֲשֵׂה בֵּית דִּין:

10

The two individuals before whom a girl makes a statement of mi'un must know the identity of the girl and her husband. Therefore, whoever sees [a girl] make a statement of mi'un [in the presence of two other people] and hears that statement, is entitled to write a legal record of this statement, even though he was not aware of [the girl's] identity beforehand.26

It has become customary for the Jewish people to write a legal record of a statement of mi'un, employing the following text.

י

הַשְּׁנַיִם שֶׁמְּמָאֶנֶת בִּפְנֵיהֶן צְרִיכִין שֶׁיְּהוּ מַכִּירִין אוֹתָהּ וְאֶת בַּעְלָהּ שֶׁמֵּאֲנָה בּוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ כָּל מִי שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָהּ שֶׁמֵּאֲנָה וְשָׁמַע מֵאוּנֶיהָ יֵשׁ לוֹ לִכְתֹּב גֵּט מֵאוּן לָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מַכִּירָהּ. וּכְבָר נָהֲגוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִכְתֹּב גֵּט מֵאוּן בְּנֹסַח זֶה:

11

A legal record of a statement of mi'un:

On this day of the week, and on this day of the month, in this year according to the following reckoning,27 so and so, the daughter of so and so (her father's name) issued a protest in our presence, saying: "My mother or my brother misled me and had me married - or consecrated - to so and so, the son of so and so (his father's name) while I was a minor. I am now making a statement in your presence that I do not desire him, nor can I live with him." We have had so and so undergo a physical examination,28 and it has been established that she is still a minor. [Hence,] we have written and signed this [legal document] and have given it to her to serve as support and clear evidence.

So and so, the son of so and so (his father's name), a witness;

So and so, the son of so and so (his father's name), a witness.

יא

גט מאון:
בְּכָךְ בְּשַׁבָּת כָּךְ וְכָךְ יוֹם לְחֹדֶשׁ פְּלוֹנִי שְׁנַת כָּךְ וְכָךְ לְמִנְיַן פְּלוֹנִי מֵאֲנָה פְּלוֹנִית בַּת פְּלוֹנִי בְּפָנֵינוּ וְאָמְרָה שֶׁאִמִּי אוֹ אַחַי הִטְעוּנִי וְהִשִּׂיאוּנִי אוֹ קִדְּשׁוּנִי וַאֲנִי קְטַנָּה לִפְלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי וְהַשְׁתָּא גִּלִּיתִי דַּעְתִּי קָדֳמֵיכוֹן דְּלָא צָבִינָא בֵּיהּ וְלֹא קָאֵימְנָא עִמֵּיהּ. וּבְדַקְנָא פְּלוֹנִית דָּא וְאִתְבָּרֵר לָנָא דַּעֲדַיִן קְטַנָּה הִיא וּכְתַבְנָא וַחֲתַמְנָא וְיָהִיבְנָא לָהּ לִזְכוּת וְלִרְאָיָה בְּרוּרָה: פְּלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי עֵד: פְּלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי עֵד:

12

When a man divorces his wife, and she becomes consecrated to another man, she is forbidden to her first [husband], even though she has not engaged in marital relations [with her second husband]. If her first [husband] remarries her and engages in sexual relations with her,29 he [transgresses a negative commandment,30 and] is punished by lashes. He is forced to divorce her, as [implied by Deuteronomy 24:4]: "Her first husband, who sent her away, may not [return and remarry her]."

יב

הַמְגָרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְנִתְקַדְּשָׁה לְאַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא בְּעָלָהּ נֶאֶסְרָה עַל הָרִאשׁוֹן. וְאִם הֶחֱזִיר הָרִאשׁוֹן וּבְעָלָהּ לוֹקֶה וְכוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְהוֹצִיא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד ד) ״‎לֹא יוּכַל בַּעְלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן״‎ וְגוֹ':

13

If she engaged in promiscuous relations with another man while she was divorced, she is permitted to remarry her husband, for it is written [Deuteronomy 24:2]: "And she departed from his home and went and became another man's [wife]." It is "becom[ing] another man's [wife]" - i.e., being consecrated - which causes her to become forbidden to remarry her [first] husband.

יג

זִנְּתָה עִם אַחֵר כְּשֶׁהִיא גְּרוּשָׁה מֻתֶּרֶת לַחֲזֹר לְבַעְלָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד ב) ״‎וְיָצְאָה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ אַחֵר״‎. הֲוָיָתָהּ לְאִישׁ אַחֵר שֶׁהִיא הַקִּדּוּשִׁין הִיא שֶׁאוֹסֶרֶת אוֹתָהּ עַל בַּעְלָהּ לַחֲזֹר לוֹ:

14

Included in this prohibition is that every woman who engaged in adulterous relations becomes forbidden to her husband. He is punished by lashes [for engaging in marital relations with her],31as [implied by the inclusion of the phrase] "after she has become tainted" in [Deuteronomy 24:4]: "And [an adulterous woman] has been tainted." There is one exception: the wife of an Israelite32 who was raped.33

Therefore, whenever a woman becomes forbidden to her husband, because she violated his warning against entering into privacy with another man,34 and he engages in relations with her, he is punished by stripes of rebellion.35 If after divorcing his wife [for such reasons], the husband transgresses and remarries her, he must divorce her.

יד

וּבִכְלַל לָאו זֶה שֶׁכָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁזִּנְּתָה תַּחַת בַּעְלָהּ נֶאֶסְרָה עָלָיו וְלוֹקֶה עָלֶיהָ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד ד) ״‎אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הֻטַּמָּאָה״‎ וַהֲרֵי נִטְמְאָה. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה אֵשֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֶנְסָה. לְפִיכָךְ כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרָה עַל בַּעְלָהּ עַל יְדֵי קִנּוּי וּסְתִירָה אִם בָּעַל אוֹתָהּ מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת. וְאִם עָבַר וְהֶחֱזִירָהּ אַחַר שֶׁגֵּרְשָׁהּ יוֹצִיא בְּגֵט:

15

A deaf-mute may divorce his wife with signals, as explained.36 [If such a woman] went and became consecrated to another deaf-mute [and is then divorced], she is forbidden to be remarried to her first husband. Needless to say, [this applies if her second husband] was a mentally competent individual.

If, however, a woman who had been married to a mentally competent individual and was divorced, married a deaf-mute and was divorced, she is permitted to remarry her first husband.37

טו

חֵרֵשׁ שֶׁגֵּרֵשׁ בִּרְמִיזָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְהָלְכָה וְנִתְקַדְּשָׁה לְחֵרֵשׁ אַחֵר וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לְפִקֵּחַ אֲסוּרָה לַחֲזֹר לְבַעְלָהּ הַחֵרֵשׁ. אֲבָל אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל פִּקֵּחַ שֶׁנִּתְגָּרְשָׁה וְהָלְכָה וְנִשֵּׂאת לְחֵרֵשׁ וְנִתְגָּרְשָׁה מֻתֶּרֶת לַחֲזֹר לְבַעְלָהּ הַפִּקֵּחַ:

16

A girl who leaves her husband by virtue of the rite of mi'un is not considered to be divorced by him.38 The laws applying to her relations with her husband whom she rejected are the same as those applying to a man who has never consecrated her. She is permitted to marry his relatives. He is permitted to marry her relatives. Nor is she disqualified from marrying into the priesthood.

If she married another man and was divorced or widowed, or she nullified her relationship with him through mi'un, she is permitted to remarry him. Moreover, even if her first husband divorced her [while she was still a minor], remarried her, she then nullified their relationship via mi'un and married another man and was divorced by him, she may remarry her first husband.39

[The rationale is that] whenever a girl leaves a marriage via the rite of mi'un, it is considered as if she had never been divorced via a get, and she may remarry her first husband. [This applies] even if she was once divorced [by this man] before mi'un.

When, by contrast, a man divorces his wife - who is a minor - with a get, she marries another man and then nullifies the marriage through mi'un, she may not remarry her first husband, because although her final marriage was terminated by mi'un, her marriage [to her first husband] was terminated by a divorce.40 Needless to say, this applies if the second husband divorced her or he died.

Similarly, she is forbidden to the father of her first husband, his son and his brothers, as are other divorced women. [This applies despite the fact that] she terminates her marriage to her second husband via mi'un.

טז

הַמְמָאֶנֶת בְּאִישׁ אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת מִמֶּנּוּ. וְדִינָהּ עִם בַּעְלָהּ שֶׁמֵּאֲנָה בּוֹ כְּדִינָהּ עִם מִי שֶׁלֹּא קִדְּשָׁהּ מֵעוֹלָם. הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת בִּקְרוֹבָיו וְהוּא מֻתָּר בִּקְרוֹבוֹתֶיהָ וְלֹא פְּסָלָהּ מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה. וְאִם נִשֵּׂאת לְאַחֵר וְגֵרְשָׁהּ הָאַחֵר אוֹ מֵת אוֹ מֵאֲנָה בּוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת לַחֲזֹר לָרִאשׁוֹן. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ גֵּרְשָׁהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהֶחֱזִירָהּ וּמֵאֲנָה בּוֹ וְנִשֵּׂאת לְאַחֵר אַחַר שֶׁמֵּאֲנָה בּוֹ וְגֵרְשָׁהּ הָאַחֵר מֻתֶּרֶת לַחֲזֹר לָרִאשׁוֹן. שֶׁכָּל הַיּוֹצֵאת בְּמֵאוּן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקְּדָמוֹ גֵּט הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּמִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְגָּרְשָׁה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּגֵט מֵעוֹלָם וּמֻתֶּרֶת לַחֲזֹר לוֹ. אֲבָל הַמְגָרֵשׁ אֶת הַקְּטַנָּה בְּגֵט וְנִשֵּׂאת לְאַחֵר וּמֵאֲנָה בּוֹ אֲסוּרָה לַחֲזֹר לָרִאשׁוֹן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּצָאת מִמֶּנּוּ בְּגֵט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצָאת מִן הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּמֵאוּן. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם גֵּרְשָׁהּ הָאַחֲרוֹן אוֹ מֵת. וְכֵן אֲסוּרָה לַאֲבִי הָרִאשׁוֹן וְלִבְנוֹ וּלְאָחִיו כִּשְׁאָר הַגְּרוּשׁוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצָאת מִן הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּמֵאוּן:

17

When a girl nullifies her connection to a yavam through mi'un, she remains forbidden to his father, for she appears to be his daughter-in-law, since [that was her status] when his son died. She is, however, permitted to marry [her late husband's] other relatives.41 Thus, although she rejected a potential yavam with mi'un, she is permitted to marry his brother.

יז

הַמְמָאֶנֶת בְּיָבָם אֲסוּרָה לְאָבִיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֵית כְּכַלָּתוֹ בְּעֵת שֶׁמֵּת בְּנוֹ. אֲבָל לִשְׁאָר קְרוֹבִים מֻתֶּרֶת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם מֵאֲנָה בְּאֶחָד מִן הַיָּבָמִין מֻתֶּרֶת לְאֶחָיו:

18

Whenever a woman is divorced or widowed, she should neither marry nor be consecrated42 until 90 days pass between the day she was divorced or her husband died and the day on which she became consecrated. [This interval was required] to see whether or not she is pregnant, and thus to differentiate between the seed of the first husband and the seed of the second husband.43

יח

כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁנִּתְגָּרְשָׁה אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְאַלְמְנָה הֲרֵי זוֹ לֹא תִּנָּשֵׂא וְלֹא תִּתְאָרֵס עַד שֶׁתַּמְתִּין תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם חוּץ מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּתְגָּרְשָׁה אוֹ שֶׁמֵּת בַּעְלָהּ בּוֹ וְחוּץ מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּתְאָרְסָה בּוֹ. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּוָּדַע אִם הִיא מְעֻבֶּרֶת אוֹ אֵינָהּ מְעֻבֶּרֶת לְהַבְחִין בֵּין זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן לְזַרְעוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי:

19

We count [these 90 days] from the day the get is written; [this applies] even when it was written on a conditional basis, or it did not reach the woman until years afterwards. [The rationale is] that from the time [a get] is written, [a woman's husband] no longer enters into privacy with her.44

יט

וּמִיּוֹם כְּתִיבַת הַגֵּט מוֹנִין לִמְגֹרֶשֶׁת. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה עַל תְּנַאי אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לְיָדָהּ אֶלָּא לְאַחַר כַּמָּה שָׁנִים מִיּוֹם הַכְּתִיבָה מוֹנִין. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מִתְיַחֵד עִמָּהּ מִשֶּׁכְּתָבוֹ לָהּ:

20

[Included] in this decree of our Sages is that even a woman who is not fit to give birth, and even one who was divorced or widowed after merely being consecrated, must wait 90 days. I.e., even a minor, an elderly woman, a barren woman or an aylonit, even a woman whose husband was overseas, sick or imprisoned, and indeed, even a woman who is a virgin despite being consecrated, must wait 90 days.45

כ

וּגְזֵרַת חֲכָמִים הִיא שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לֵילֵד וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְגָּרְשָׁה אוֹ נִתְאַלְמְנָה מִן הָאֵרוּסִין צְרִיכָה לְהַמְתִּין תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם. אֲפִלּוּ קְטַנָּה אוֹ זְקֵנָה אוֹ עֲקָרָה אוֹ אַיְלוֹנִית. וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּעְלָהּ בִּמְדִינַת הַיָּם אוֹ חוֹלֶה אוֹ חָבוּשׁ בְּבֵית הַאֲסּוּרִין וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּתוּלָה מִן הָאֵרוּסִין צְרִיכוֹת לְהַמְתִּין תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם:

21

A maidservant who was freed and a non-Jewish woman who was converted are required to wait 90 days [before they marry].46 Even a gentile and his wife who convert together are required to separate for 90 days to differentiate between seed that was conceived in holiness and seed that was not conceived in holiness.

Similarly, although the Torah prescribed only [an interim of] 30 days for her own sake, a yefat to'ar47 must wait 90 days [to marry her captor] for the sake of the definition of her child's [status].48 The 30 [days mentioned by the Torah] are included in the 90-day interim.

כא

שִׁפְחָה שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּחְרְרָה וְגִיּוֹרֶת שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרָה מַמְתִּינִין תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם. וַאֲפִלּוּ גֵּר וְאִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרוּ מַפְרִישִׁין אוֹתָן תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם כְּדֵי לְהַבְחִין בֵּין זֶרַע שֶּׁנִּזְרַע בִּקְדֻשָּׁה לְזֶרַע שֶׁלֹּא נִזְרַע בִּקְדֻשָּׁה. וְכֵן יְפַת תֹּאַר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתְנָה לָהּ תּוֹרָה שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לְתַקָּנַת עַצְמָהּ צְרִיכָה לְהַמְתִּין תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם לְתַקָּנַת הַוָּלָד. וְהַשְּׁלֹשִׁים מִכְּלַל הַתִּשְׁעִים:

22

A girl who annuls her marriage through mi'un need not wait [before remarrying]; our Sages' decree applied only to a divorcee. Similarly, a woman who has promiscuous relations need not wait, for she guards herself against becoming pregnant. Similarly, a woman who was raped or seduced need not wait.

כב

הַמְמָאֶנֶת אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְהַמְתִּין. לֹא גָּזְרוּ אֶלָּא בִּגְרוּשָׁה. וְכֵן הַמְזַנָּה אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְהַמְתִּין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּשַׁמֶּרֶת עַצְמָהּ שֶׁלֹּא תִּתְעַבֵּר. וְכֵן אֲנוּסָה וּמְפֻתָּה אֵינָן צְרִיכוֹת לְהַמְתִּין:

23

[The following rule applies when] a girl below the age of majority who is not fit to give birth was married under a mistaken conception, discovered that she is forbidden to remain married to her husband and was forced to separate by the court. She need not wait, for this is an unlikely occurrence, and our Sages did not apply their decrees to situations that are out of the ordinary.49

כג

מִי שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת בְּטָעוּת וְנוֹדַע שֶׁהִיא אֲסוּרָה לְבַעְלָהּ וְהוֹצִיאוּהָ בֵּית דִּין מִתַּחְתָּיו. אִם הָיְתָה קְטַנָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לֵילֵד אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְהַמְתִּין. שֶׁזֶּה דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי הוּא וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי בְּרֹב לֹא גָּזְרוּ בּוֹ:

24

When, within this 90-day period, [a man] consecrates [a woman who is required to wait], he is placed under a ban of ostracism.50 If he consecrates the woman and then temporarily flees [to a distant country], he is not placed under a ban of ostracism.51 If he consummates the marriage within the 90-day period, the couple are forced to separate until the conclusion of the interval, at which time they are allowed to live together as man and wife.

כד

הַמְאָרֵס בְּתוֹךְ תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם מְנַדִּין אוֹתוֹ. אֵרֵס וּבָרַח אֵין מְנַדִּין אוֹתוֹ. כָּנַס בְּתוֹךְ תִּשְׁעִים יוֹם מַפְרִישִׁין אוֹתָן עַד אַחַר זְמַן וְיַעֲמֹד עִם אִשְׁתּוֹ:

25

Similarly, our Sages decreed that a man should not marry a woman who is pregnant with a child conceived by another man, or a woman who is nursing a child conceived by another man, even though the parentage of the fetus is known.52

[The restriction concerning] a pregnant woman [was instituted,] lest [the other man] harm the fetus during sexual relations, for he is not concerned about his colleague's child. [And the decree concerning] a nursing mother [was instituted], lest the woman's milk spoil and her second husband fail to show concern for restoring her ability to nurse, by providing her with a diet that will remedy her difficulty.

כה

וְכֵן גָּזְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׂא אָדָם מְעֵבֶּרֶת חֲבֵרוֹ וּמֵינֶקֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַזֶּרַע יָדוּעַ לְמִי הִיא מְעֻבֶּרֶת. שֶׁמָּא יַזִּיק הַוָּלָד בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עַל בֶּן חֲבֵרוֹ. וּמֵינִיקָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְעַכֵּר הֶחָלָב וְהוּא אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד לְרַפְּאוֹת הֶחָלָב בִּדְבָרִים הַמּוֹעִילִין לֶחָלָב כְּשֶׁיִּתְעַכֵּר:

26

For how long is the woman considered to be a nursing mother? For twenty-four months.53 This does not include the day the child was born, nor the day the woman becomes consecrated.

כו

כַּמָּה הוּא זְמַן הַיְנִיקָה. כ״‎ד חֹדֶשׁ חוּץ מִיּוֹם שֶׁנּוֹלַד בּוֹ וּמִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּתְאָרְסָה בּוֹ:

27

Just as it is forbidden to marry such a woman, it is forbidden to consecrate her until this time period passes. Even if [a woman] gives her child to a nursemaid or weans him during these 24 months, she should not marry.54 If her son dies, she is permitted to marry. We do not fear that perhaps she will kill [her son for this reason].

כז

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לִשָּׂא כָּךְ אָסוּר לְאָרֵס עַד אַחַר זְמַן זֶה. אֲפִלּוּ נָתְנָה בְּנָהּ לְמֵינִיקָה אוֹ שֶׁגְּמָלַתּוּ בְּתוֹךְ כ״‎ד חֹדֶשׁ לֹא תִּנָּשֵׂא. מֵת בְּנָהּ מֻתֶּרֶת לִנָּשֵׂא. וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא תַּהַרְגֶנּוּ:

28

If a man transgresses and marries a pregnant or nursing woman during this period, he should divorce her,55 even if he is a priest.56 If the man is an Israelite, he may remarry her after the 24 months of nursing pass.

If [a man] marries [such a woman] and then flees and returns after [the prescribed] period and lives together with his wife, there is no difficulty.

[A man who] consecrates a pregnant or nursing woman is not forced to divorce her.57 He may not, however, consummate the marriage until the nursing period passes or until the child dies.

כח

עָבַר וְנָשָׂא מְעֵבֶּרֶת אוֹ מֵינִיקָה בְּתוֹךְ זְמַן זֶה יוֹצִיא בְּגֵט וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כֹּהֵן. וְאִם הָיָה יִשְׂרָאֵל יַחֲזִירֶנָהּ אַחַר כ״‎ד חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁל מֵינִיקָה. נָשָׂא וּבָרַח וּלְאַחַר זְמַן בָּא וְיָשַׁב עִם אִשְׁתּוֹ אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם. אֵרֵס מְעֵבֶּרֶת אוֹ מֵינִיקָה אֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְהוֹצִיא וְלֹא לִכְנֹס עַד אַחַר זְמַן הַיְנִיקָה אוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת הַוָּלָד: