1

[The following rules apply when] an agent brings a get from one place to another in Eretz Yisrael.1 Although [the agent] did not witness the writing of the get and does not know who the witnesses are, but rather the get was given to him by the husband, who instructed him to give it to his wife, [the agent] may give [the woman the get] in the presence of witnesses.2 Although the identity of the witnesses [who signed the get] is unknown to us, [the woman] is considered divorced, and she may remarry on this basis.

א

שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁהֵבִיא גֵּט מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה כְּתִיבַת הַגֵּט וְלֹא יָדַע מִי הֵם עֵדָיו אֶלָּא נָתַן לוֹ הַבַּעַל גֵּט וְאָמַר לוֹ תֵּן גֵּט זֶה לְאִשְׁתִּי הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתְנוֹ לָהּ בִּפְנֵי עֵדִים וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עֵדָיו יְדוּעִין אֶצְלֵנוּ וְתִהְיֶה מְגֹרֶשֶׁת וְתִנָּשֵׂא בּוֹ:

2

If the husband came and protested, saying: "I never divorced her. The get she was given is a forgery," the signatures [of the witnesses] should be verified.3 If this is impossible, and the witnesses are not known at all, she must leave [her second husband], and [any children born to them] are considered illegitimate,4 for [we assume that] she has not been divorced.5 If the get has been lost, the status of the divorce is in doubt.6

For this reason, women who we presume hate each other are not trusted to bring a get to one another in Eretz Yisrael. [We suspect that] it might be a forgery, because one desires that the other remarry and be forbidden to her husband[s].7

ב

בָּא הַבַּעַל וְעִרְעֵר וְאָמַר לֹא גֵּרַשְׁתִּיהָ מֵעוֹלָם וְגֵט שֶׁהוּבָא לָהּ מְזֻיָּף הוּא יִתְקַיֵּם בְּחוֹתְמָיו. וְאִם לֹא נִתְקַיֵּם וְלֹא נוֹדְעוּ עֵדָיו כְּלָל תֵּצֵא וְהַוָּלָד מַמְזֵר שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. [אָבַד הַגֵּט הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק מְגֹרֶשֶׁת]. לְפִיכָךְ נָשִׁים שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן שֶׁהֵן שׂוֹנְאוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ אֵין נֶאֱמָנוֹת לְהָבִיא גֵּט בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל זוֹ לָזוֹ שֶׁמָּא מְזֻיָּף הוּא וְתִתְכַּוֵּן לְקַלְקֵל אוֹתָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּנָּשֵׂא וְתֵאָסֵר עַל בַּעְלָהּ:

3

These are the women who we presume hate each other:8 A mother-in-law, the daughter of a mother-in-law, another woman married to the same man - this applies even if this woman has since remarried9 - her yevamah10 - this applies even if she was her sister11 - and her husband's daughter [from another marriage]. All other women are acceptable [to act in this capacity].

ג

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַנָּשִׁים שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן שׂוֹנְאוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ. חֲמוֹתָהּ וּבַת חֲמוֹתָהּ וְצָרָתָהּ אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה הַצָּרָה נְשׂוּאָה לְאַחֵר. וִיבִמְתָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה אֲחוֹתָהּ וּבַת בַּעְלָהּ. אֲבָל שְׁאָר כָּל הַנָּשִׁים כְּשֵׁרוֹת:

4

When a man brings a get from one place to another place in Eretz Yisrael and becomes sick or is prevented from fulfilling his agency because of factors beyond his control, he may send the get via a second agent.12 Similarly, if the second agent becomes sick, he may send it via another agent. Indeed, even 100 agents [may be appointed in this manner].

There is no need for the agent to appoint the second agent in the presence of witnesses.13 The final agent to whom the get is given should give it to the woman in the presence of two witnesses, and the divorce is effective. [This applies] even when the first agent dies [before the divorce takes effect].14

ד

הַמֵּבִיא גֵּט מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְחָלָה אוֹ נֶאֱנַס מְשַׁלְּחוֹ בְּיַד אַחֵר. וְכֵן הַשֵּׁנִי אִם חָלָה מְשַׁלְּחוֹ בְּיַד אַחֵר. וַאֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ עֵדִים לַחֲזֹר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת שָׁלִיחַ בִּפְנֵיהֶם. וְהָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַגֵּט לְיָדוֹ נוֹתְנוֹ לָהּ בִּפְנֵי שְׁנַיִם וְתִתְגָּרֵשׁ בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּת הָרִאשׁוֹן:

5

[The following rules apply when] an agent brings a get from one place to another in the diaspora, from Eretz Yisrael to the diaspora or from the diaspora to Eretz Yisrael. If the agent was present at the time of the composition and signature of the get, he should say, in the presence of two witnesses, "It was written in my presence and it was signed in my presence."15

Afterwards, it should be given in her presence, and the divorce takes effect, even though the identity of the witnesses is not known to us. Even if the witnesses' names resemble the names of gentiles, we do not suspect [that there is any difficulty].16

ה

שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁהֵבִיא גֵּט מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ אוֹ מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. אוֹ מֵחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ לָאָרֶץ. אִם הָיָה הַשָּׁלִיחַ עוֹמֵד בִּשְׁעַת כְּתִיבַת הַגֵּט וַחֲתִימָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹמֵר בִּפְנֵי שְׁנַיִם בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן לָהּ בִּפְנֵיהֶם וְתִתְגָּרֵשׁ בּוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עֵדָיו יְדוּעִין אֶצְלֵנוּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ שְׁמוֹת עֵדָיו כִּשְׁמוֹת הָעַכּוּ״‎ם אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָהֶן:

6

If [afterwards,] the husband came and protested [that the get is a forgery], his words are of no consequence.17 Therefore, even women who we presume hate each other are relied upon to bring a get in such a situation and state that it was written and signed in their presence.18

ו

בָּא הַבַּעַל וְעָמַד וְעִרְעֵר אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין בּוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ אַף הַנָּשִׁים שֶׁשּׂוֹנְאוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ נֶאֱמָנוֹת לְהָבִיא גֵּט זֶה וְלוֹמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם:

7

Similarly, when an agent who brings a get in Eretz Yisrael says: "It was written and signed in my presence," although he is not required to do so, if the husband comes and protests [that the get was forged], [the husband's] words are of no consequence.19

[With regard to a get sent to or from the diaspora,] if the agent was not present at the time of the writing or signing of the get, it may not be given to the woman unless the signatures [of the witnesses] were verified.20 The agent himself may serve as [one of] the three [judges] who verify the signatures of the witnesses.21

If [the signatures] were not verified, and the get was given to the woman, the divorce is unacceptable22 until [the signatures] are verified. If the husband comes and protests, and the signatures are not verified, we consider her not to be divorced.23 If the get has been lost, the status of the divorce is in doubt.

ז

וְכֵן שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁהֵבִיא גֵּט בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ אִם יָבֹא הַבַּעַל וִיעַרְעֵר אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין בּוֹ. וְאִם אֵין הַשָּׁלִיחַ עוֹמֵד בִּשְׁעַת כְּתִיבָה וַחֲתִימָה לֹא יִנָּתֵן לָהּ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְקַיֵּם בְּחוֹתְמָיו. וְיֵשׁ לַשָּׁלִיחַ לִהְיוֹת מִכְּלַל הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁקִּיְּמוּ אוֹתָן בְּחוֹתְמָיו. וְאִם לֹא נִתְקַיֵּם וְנָתַן לָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל עַד שֶׁיִּתְקַיֵּם. וְאִם בָּא הַבַּעַל וְעִרְעֵר וְלֹא נִתְקַיֵּם אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. אָבַד הַגֵּט הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק מְגֹרֶשֶׁת:

8

Why did [our Sages] require [the agent] to say: "It was written and signed in my presence" in the diaspora? So that the woman would not have to have [the signatures] verified if the husband comes and protests. [Our Sages did not desire that she be faced with such a predicament,] because witnesses are often not available to verify signatures [on a document that has been taken] from one place to another in the diaspora.

ח

וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הִצְרִיכוּ לוֹמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה הָאִשָּׁה צְרִיכָה לְקַיְּמוֹ אִם יָבוֹא הַבַּעַל וִיעַרְעֵר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין הָעֵדִים מְצוּיִין לְקַיְּמוֹ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ:

9

When a husband brought explicit proof24 that a get concerning which [an agent] said: "It was written and signed in my presence" is a forgery, [the get] is void. For [our Sages] accepted the statements of one person only in the face of a protest raised by a husband that was not accompanied by substantial proof. When, however, this person's statements are contradicted by witnesses, [his statements] are not accepted.

ט

בַּעַל שֶׁהֵבִיא רְאָיָה בְּרוּרָה שֶׁגֵּט זֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם מְזֻיָּף הוּא הֲרֵי זֶה בָּטֵל. שֶׁלֹּא הֶאֱמִינוּ דְּבָרָיו שֶׁל אֶחָד שֶׁאָמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם אֶלָּא לִדְחוֹת עִרְעוּר הַבַּעַל שֶׁאֵין עִמּוֹ רְאָיָה. אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹם עֵדִים שֶׁמַּכְחִישִׁין אוֹתוֹ לֹא הֶאֱמִינוּהוּ:

10

The rivers in Eretz Yisrael and the islands in the Mediterranean Sea that are within the boundaries of Eretz Yisrael25 are bound by the rules pertaining to Eretz Yisrael. [The islands] that are outside these boundaries are bound by the rules pertaining to the diaspora. The boundaries of Eretz Yisrael are described in Hilchot Terumot.

With regard to gittin, [the rules pertaining to] Eretz Yisrael also pertain to Babylonia.26

י

הַנְּהָרוֹת שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַנִּסִּין שֶׁבַּיָּם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲרֵי הֵן כְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְשֶׁחוּץ לַתְּחוּם כְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. וּבְהִלְכוֹת תְּרוּמוֹת יִתְבָּאֲרוּ תְּחוּמֵי אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּבָבֶל כְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְגִטִּין:

11

When a get was written in Eretz Yisrael and signed in the diaspora, [the agent] is required to say: "It was written and signed in my presence."27 If it was written in the diaspora and signed in Eretz Yisrael, [the agent] is not required to say: "It was written and signed in my presence."28

יא

גֵּט שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַחֲתָמוֹ בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם. כְּתָבוֹ בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ וַחֲתָמוֹ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם:

12

When a portion of the get is written in [the agent's] presence, and all the signatures were executed in his presence, he may say: "It was written and signed in my presence,"29 provided it was the initial portion - even one line30 - [that was written in his presence].

[Moreover,] even if he merely heard the noise [made by the scribe's] pen [writing], and the witnesses signed in his presence, he may say: "It was written and signed in my presence." Similarly, even if the scribe went out to the marketplace and then returned and completed the get, [the agent] does not fear that another [man] found [the scribe] and told him [to write a get for him], and he [completed] writing the get for another person.31 Instead, [the agent] may say: "It was written and signed in my presence."

יב

נִכְתַּב מִקְצָת הַגֵּט בְּפָנָיו וְנֶחְתַּם כֻּלּוֹ בְּפָנָיו. אִם מִקְצָתוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן הוּא הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹמֵר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִכְתַּב בּוֹ אֶלָּא שִׁיטָה אַחַת בְּפָנָיו וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁמַע קוֹל הַקֻּלְמוֹס כּוֹתֵב וְחָתְמוּ הָעֵדִים בְּפָנָיו הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹמֵר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם. וְכֵן אִם יָצָא הַסּוֹפֵר לַשּׁוּק וְחָזַר וְהִשְׁלִים אֶת הַגֵּט אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא אַחֵר מְצָאוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ וּלְשֵׁם אִשָּׁה אַחֶרֶת כְּתָבוֹ אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם:

13

If [the agent] said: "It was written in my presence," but did not say, "It was signed in my presence," [if he said,] "It was signed in my presence," but did not say, "It was written in my presence," or [if he said,] "The entire [get] was written in my presence, and one witness signed [in my presence], but not the other witness," even if he himself was the other witness,32 the signature of the witnesses must be verified.33 Only then, may [the get] be given to her.

If he and another person testify with regard to [the signature of] the second witness, who did not sign in his presence,34 [the get] is acceptable and may be given to her. Needless to say, if two other [witnesses] testify with regard to [the signature of] the second witness, [the get] is acceptable.

יג

אָמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב אֲבָל לֹא בְּפָנַי נֶחְתַּם. בְּפָנַי נֶחְתַּם אֲבָל לֹא בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב. בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב כֻּלּוֹ וְחָתַם עֵד אֶחָד אֲבָל לֹא הָעֵד הַשֵּׁנִי. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הוּא הָעֵד הַשֵּׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה יִתְקַיֵּם בְּחוֹתְמָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִנָּתֵן לָהּ. וְאִם הֵעִיד הוּא וְאַחֵר עַל הָעֵד הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁלֹּא חָתַם בְּפָנָיו הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר וְיִנָּתֵן לָהּ. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם הֵעִידוּ שְׁנַיִם אֲחֵרִים עַל כְּתַב הָעֵד הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁזֶּה כָּשֵׁר:

14

When two agents bring a get from the diaspora, they may give it to [the woman], causing the divorce to be effective, even though it was not written and signed in their presence. Since the husband gave it to them to give to his wife, his protests regarding this get are of no consequence.35 Although [the signatures of the witnesses] have not been verified, the agents he [appointed] serve as witnesses [to its authenticity].36 For if these witnesses said, "She was divorced in our presence," the divorce would be effective, even though there is no get present.

יד

שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ גֵּט בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִכְתַּב וְנֶחְתַּם בִּפְנֵיהֶם הוֹאִיל וּנְתָנוֹ לָהֶם הַבַּעַל לִתְּנוֹ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נוֹתְנִין לָהּ וְתִהְיֶה מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַבַּעַל יָכוֹל לְעַרְעֵר בְּגֵט זֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקֻיָּם שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁלוּחָיו הֵם עֵדָיו. שֶׁאִלּוּ אָמְרוּ הַשְּׁנַיִם בְּפָנֵינוּ נִתְגָּרְשָׁה הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם גֵּט:

15

When does the above apply? When the get is in the possession of both of them.37 If, however, the get is not in the possession of both of them, they must say: "It was written and signed in our presence."

Accordingly, if one agent says, "It was written in my presence," and the second38 says, "It was signed in my presence," or they both say, "It was written in our presence," and one39 says: "It was signed in my presence," since it is not in the possession of both of them, it should not be given to the woman unless the authenticity of the signatures has been verified.

טו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַגֵּט יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲבָל אִם אֵין הַגֵּט יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם צְרִיכִין לוֹמַר בְּפָנֵינוּ נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנֵינוּ נֶחְתַּם. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָמַר אֶחָד בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וְהָאַחֵר אוֹמֵר בְּפָנַי נֶחְתַּם וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁנַיִם אוֹמְרִים בְּפָנֵינוּ נִכְתַּב וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר בְּפָנַי נֶחְתַּם הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם לֹא יִנָּתֵן לָהּ עַד שֶׁיִּתְקַיֵּם בְּחוֹתְמָיו:

16

If one person said: "It was written in my presence,"40 and two people say: "It was signed in our presence," [the get] is acceptable. [This applies] even when they are not in possession [of the get], because the signatures [of the witnesses] have been verified.41

טז

אָמַר אֶחָד בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּשְׁנַיִם אוֹמְרִים בְּפָנֵינוּ נֶחְתַּם כָּשֵׁר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדָם שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְקַיֵּם בְּחוֹתְמָיו:

17

[The following rules apply when] an agent brings a get in the diaspora and gives it to the woman in private, or gives it to her in the presence of two witnesses, but does not tell her: "It was written and signed in my presence." Even if she has married, he should take the get back from her and then give it to her in the presence of two witnesses and say: "It was written and signed in my presence." If he does not take it back from her, the divorce is unacceptable42 until the signatures [of the witnesses] are verified.43

יז

שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁהֵבִיא גֵּט בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ וּנְתָנוֹ לָהּ בֵּינוֹ לְבֵינָהּ אוֹ שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ לָהּ בִּפְנֵי שְׁנַיִם וְלֹא אָמַר לָהּ בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת נוֹטְלוֹ מִמֶּנָּה וְחוֹזֵר וְנוֹתְנוֹ לָהּ בִּפְנֵי שְׁנַיִם וְאוֹמֵר בִּפְנֵיהֶם בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם. וְאִם לֹא נְטָלוֹ מִמֶּנָּה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל עַד שֶׁיִּתְקַיֵּם בְּחוֹתְמָיו:

18

If [the agent] gave a woman a get and did not suffice to say: "It was written and signed in my presence," before he lost the power of speech, the signatures [of the witnesses] should be verified.44 Afterwards, he may give it to her.

יח

נְתָנוֹ לָהּ וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לוֹמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתֵּק הֲרֵי זֶה יִתְקַיֵּם בְּחוֹתְמָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִנָּתֵן לָהּ:

19

A blind person may not bring a get from the diaspora, because he is unable to say: "It was written and signed in my presence." Accordingly, if [the get] was written and signed in his presence while he possessed the power of sight, and he became blind afterwards, he may say in the presence of three [men]: "It was written and signed in my presence," and give [the get] to her.45

Similarly, when a woman brings a get from the diaspora, she must say: "It was written and signed in my presence," in the presence of three [men]. The provision to make these statements in the presence of two men applies only when the agent is acceptable to serve as a witness.46 In such an instance, he joins the other two and serves as one of the three who verify the get, based on his statements.47 For a witness may serve as a judge in matters of Rabbinic law.

יט

הַסּוּמָא אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהָבִיא גֵּט זֶה שֶׁל חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִכְתַּב וְנֶחְתַּם בְּפָנָיו כְּשֶׁהוּא פָּתוּחַ וְנִסְתַּמָא הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹמֵר בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם וְנוֹתְנוֹ לָהּ. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהֵבִיאָה גֵּט זֶה שֶׁל חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ צְרִיכָה שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹמַר בִּפְנֵיהֶם בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם. שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ בִּפְנֵי שְׁנַיִם אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַשָּׁלִיחַ כָּשֵׁר לְעֵדוּת שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מִצְטָרֵף עִם הַשְּׁנַיִם וְנִמְצָא מִכְּלַל הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁקִּיְּמוּ גֵּט זֶה בִּדְבָרָיו. שֶׁהָעֵד נַעֲשָׂה דַּיָּן בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם:

20

When an agent becomes ill or is prevented from carrying out his agency by forces beyond his control, he should approach a Jewish court48 and tell them: "This get was written and signed in my presence."49 [The court,50 then, appoints] another agent and sends [the get to the woman] with him.

The second agent does not have to say: "It was written and signed in my presence." Instead, he says: "I am an agent of the court," and then he gives [the get to the woman] in the presence of witnesses.51

כ

חָלָה הַשָּׁלִיחַ אוֹ נֶאֱנַס בָּא לְבֵית דִּין וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם גֵּט זֶה בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם וְהֵן מְשַׁלְּחִין אוֹתוֹ בְּיַד שָׁלִיחַ אַחֵר. וְאֵין הַשָּׁלִיחַ הָאַחֲרוֹן צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר שְׁלִיחַ בֵּית דִּין אֲנִי וְנוֹתְנוֹ לָהּ בִּפְנֵי עֵדִים:

21

If the second agent becomes ill or is prevented from carrying out his agency by forces beyond his control, he should appoint another agent in the presence of the court. [Indeed,] even 100 [agents can be appointed in this manner].

[Before transferring the get,] the final agent says: "I am an agent of the court." He should then give the woman [the get]. [The get can be given] even if the first agent died.

Why must [the appointment be made] in court? Because [the first agent] must say: "It was written and signed in my presence."52 If, however, the signatures [of the witnesses] were verified, although one agent gives it to another in private - even if 100 agents are appointed in this way - the get is acceptable when it reaches the woman.

Although the husband did not explicitly tell the agent: "Send [the get] via another person if you are hindered by forces beyond your control," the agent may [appoint another agent] if he becomes ill or is hindered by forces beyond his control.53

כא

חָלָה הַשֵּׁנִי אוֹ נֶאֱנַס עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ אַחֵר בְּבֵית דִּין אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה וְהָאַחֲרוֹן אוֹמֵר שְׁלִיחַ בֵּית דִּין אֲנִי וְנוֹתְנוֹ לָהּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּת הַשָּׁלִיחַ הָרִאשׁוֹן. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה צָרִיךְ בֵּית דִּין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם. אֲבָל אִם נִתְקַיֵּם הַגֵּט בְּחוֹתְמָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ שָׁלִיחַ לְשָׁלִיחַ אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה בֵּינָם לְבֵין עַצְמָם עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַגֵּט לְיָדָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ הַבַּעַל וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹ שַׁלְּחוֹ בְּיַד אַחֵר אִם תֵּאָנֵס אִם חָלָה אוֹ נֶאֱנַס הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלְּחוֹ:

22

Whenever a person appoints an agent, the agent does not have to be present in court with him. Even if the agent is not present, he may tell [the court]: "So and so is my agent."54 Similarly, an agent may appoint an agent when the latter is not present. [Indeed,] even 100 [agents can be appointed in this manner].

כב

כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא הַשָּׁלִיחַ עִמּוֹ בְּבֵית דִּין אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶם הֲרֵי פְּלוֹנִי שְׁלוּחִי וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו. וְכֵן הַשָּׁלִיחַ עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו אֲפִלּוּ הֵן מֵאָה:

23

A husband [may appoint] his wife [as an agent to transport her get to another place]. After having it written and signed in her presence, he gives her the get and tells her: "You are an agent to bring it to the court of so and so. They will appoint an agent, who will give you this get and thus effect the divorce."

Should the woman say: "It was written and signed in my presence," [when delivering the get to the court], her statements are accepted.55 [The court] should take the get from her and give it to the agent so that he can give it to her as the husband instructed.

כג

הָאִישׁ שֶׁנָּתַן גֵּט לְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְנִכְתַּב וְנֶחְתַּם בְּפָנֶיהָ וְאָמַר לָהּ הֲרֵי אַתְּ שְׁלוּחָתִי לְהוֹלָכָה עַד בֵּית דִּין פְּלוֹנִי וְהֵם יַעֲמִידוּ שָׁלִיחַ וְיִתְּנוּ לִיךְ גֵּט זֶה וְתִתְגָּרְשִׁי בּוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹמַר בִּפְנֵיהֶם בְּפָנַי נִכְתַּב וּבְפָנַי נֶחְתַּם וְהֵם נוֹטְלִין אוֹתוֹ וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ לְשָׁלִיחַ לִתְּנוֹ לָהּ כְּמַאֲמַר הַבַּעַל:

24

When does the above apply? When the husband [explicitly] made this stipulation. But if this stipulation is not made, but instead the husband [merely] gave her the get and it is in her possession, she is not required to make any statements [to the court]. We assume that she is divorced, for she is in possession of a get that is written according to law and that is signed by witnesses.

Although we do not recognize the signatures of the witnesses, and [their authenticity] has not been verified, we do not suspect that [the woman] forged them, for she would not cause her own ruin.56

Moreover, it is considered as if the witnesses who signed the get had testified in court, until a protest is raised. Therefore, we assume that the get was written according to law and [grant the woman permission to] marry, as we assume that a get brought by an agent [in Eretz Yisrael] is acceptable until the husband raises a protest or until he brings proof that it is a forgery or that it is void.

For if we had suspicions concerning these matters and the like, we would have to suspect that perhaps when a husband gave a get in our presence, he nullified it before he gave it; perhaps the witnesses who sign it are unacceptable, causing it to be regarded as a forgery; or perhaps it was not written for the sake [of the man or the woman being divorced]. Just as we do not entertain suspicions concerning these factors and assume that the get [is acceptable] until it is discovered that it is void, so too, we do not entertain suspicions concerning an agent or a woman when a get is in their possession. [The rationale is] that the laws governing prohibitions differ from those governing financial transactions.57

כד

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהִתְנָה עָלֶיהָ הַבַּעַל תְּנַאי זֶה אֲבָל אִם לֹא הִתְנָה עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא נָתַן לָהּ גִּטָּהּ וַהֲרֵי הַגֵּט יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לוֹמַר כְּלוּם וַהֲרֵי הִיא בְּחֶזְקַת מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. הוֹאִיל וְגֵט שֶׁבְּיָדָהּ כָּתוּב כְּהִלְכָתוֹ וְהָעֵדִים חֲתוּמִים עָלָיו. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ מַכִּירִין כְּתַב אוֹתָן הָעֵדִים וְלֹא נִתְקַיֵּם אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָהּ שֶׁמָּא זִיְּפָה אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ מְקַלְקֶלֶת עַל עַצְמָהּ. וְעוֹד שֶׁהָעֵדִים הַחֲתוּמִים עַל הַגֵּט הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמִי שֶׁנֶּחְקְרָה עֵדוּתָן בְּבֵית דִּין עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא שָׁם מְעַרְעֵר. לְפִיכָךְ נַעֲמִיד הַגֵּט בְּחֶזְקָתוֹ וְתִנָּשֵׂא. וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִמָּצֵא מְזֻיָּף. כְּמוֹ שֶׁנַּעֲמִיד הַגֵּט בְּחֶזְקַת כָּשֵׁר כְּשֶׁיָּבִיא אוֹתוֹ הַשָּׁלִיחַ עַד שֶׁיְּעַרְעֵר הַבַּעַל אוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁהוּא מְזֻיָּף אוֹ בָּטֵל. שֶׁאִם נָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן כָּךְ הָיָה לָנוּ לָחוּשׁ לְגֵט שֶׁיִּתֵּן הַבַּעַל בְּפָנֵינוּ שֶׁמָּא בִּטְּלוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נְתָנוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁמָּא עֵדִים פְּסוּלִין חָתְמוּ בּוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְזֻיָּף מִתּוֹכוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁמָּא שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָהּ נִכְתַּב. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָזֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אֶלָּא נַעֲמִידֶנּוּ עַל חֶזְקָתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע שֶׁהוּא בָּטֵל כָּךְ לֹא נָחוּשׁ לֹא לַשָּׁלִיחַ וְלֹא לָאִשָּׁה עַצְמָהּ שֶׁהַגֵּט יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ. שֶׁאֵין דִּינֵי הָאִסּוּרִין כְּדִינֵי הַמָּמוֹנוֹת: