1

The Torah's expression, [Deuteronomy, 24:1]: "He will... place it in her hand," need not be interpreted only [according to its strict literal meaning], that the get must be placed in her hand. Regardless of whether the get is placed in her hand, her bosom or her courtyard, or is given to her agent whom she charged that his hand would be as her hand, the same law applies.1

The same laws apply to a courtyard that she acquired, one that she rented or one that is lent to her. They are all considered to be her property, and once the get reaches her property, the divorce is effective.

א

זֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (דברים כד א) ״‎וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ״‎ אֵין עִנְיַן הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַגֵּט לָהּ. וְאֶחָד יָדָהּ אוֹ חֵיקָהּ אוֹ חֲצֵרָהּ אוֹ שְׁלוּחָהּ שֶׁעָשְׂתָה יָדוֹ כְּיָדָהּ הַכּל אֶחָד הוּא. וְאֶחָד חֲצֵרָהּ הַקְּנוּיָה לָהּ אוֹ חֲצֵרָהּ הַמֻּשְׂכֶּרֶת לָהּ אוֹ שְׁאוּלָה לָהּ הַכּל רְשׁוּתָהּ הוּא. וּמִשֶּׁיַגִּיעַ גֵּט לִרְשׁוּתָהּ נִתְגָּרְשָׁה:

2

[The following laws apply when a man] throws a get for his wife into her courtyard. If she is standing next to her courtyard, the divorce is effective.2 If she is not standing next to her courtyard, the divorce is not effective until she stands next to her courtyard.3

[These principles apply] even when the get will be guarded in the courtyard in which [it is placed]. [The rationale is that] divorce is considered to be a liability [and not an advantage] for [a woman]. And a liability may not be invoked against [a person] outside his [or her] presence.4

ב

הַזּוֹרֵק גֵּט לְאִשְׁתּוֹ לְתוֹךְ חֲצֵרָהּ. אִם הָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת שָׁם בְּצַד חֲצֵרָהּ נִתְגָּרְשָׁה. וְאִם לָאו לֹא נִתְגָּרְשָׁה עַד שֶׁתַּעֲמֹד בְּצַד חֲצֵרָהּ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא חָצֵר שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּר הַגֵּט בְּתוֹכָהּ. שֶׁחוֹב הִיא לָהּ הַגֵּרוּשִׁין וְאֵין חָבִין לָאָדָם אֶלָּא בְּפָנָיו:

3

[These rules apply when a get is given in the following situation. A woman] is standing on her roof, and [her husband] is standing in his courtyard that is located below it. He throws a get upwards to her.

Once the get reaches the space of the guardrail [to her roof] or comes within three handbreadths5 of the roof [when her roof does not have a guardrail], the divorce is effective.6 [This applies provided the get ultimately] comes to rest on her roof.7

If, however, [the writing of the get] is erased or [the get] is consumed by fire before it reaches her, the divorce is not effective. [This applies] even if the get is erased or consumed by fire after it passes the barriers of the woman's property or after it reaches within three handbreadths of her roof. [The rationale is that] since the get will never come to rest [in a complete state], it is void.

ג

הָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הַגַּג שֶׁלָּהּ וְהוּא מִלְּמַטָּה בַּחֲצֵרוֹ וּזְרָקוֹ לָהּ לְמַעְלָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לַאֲוִיר מְחִצּוֹת הַמַּעֲקֶה אוֹ לְפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לַגַּג נִתְגָּרְשָׁה וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיָּנוּחַ. אֲבָל אִם נִמְחַק אוֹ נִשְׂרַף קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמְחַק לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לַאֲוִיר מְחִצּוֹת אוֹ אַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לַגַּג כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּשְׁבָה הָרוּחַ וְהֶעֱלַתְהוּ וְנִמְחַק אוֹ נִשְׂרַף הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ הוֹלֵךְ לָנוּחַ אֵינוֹ גֵּט וְלֹא נִתְגָּרְשָׁה:

4

[Different rules apply when] the roof belongs to the husband and he stands on it, while his wife stands below in a courtyard that belongs to her, and he throws her a get. Once the get passes the boundaries of his property and enters the boundaries of her property, where she is standing, the divorce is binding.8

ד

הָיָה הַגַּג שֶׁלּוֹ וְהוּא מִלְּמַעְלָה בּוֹ וְהִיא מִלְּמַטָּה בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁלָּהּ וְזָרַק לָהּ גִּטָּהּ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא הַגֵּט מִמְּחִצּוֹת הַגַּג וְהִגִּיעַ לִמְחִצּוֹת מְקוֹמָהּ שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת בּוֹ נִתְגָּרְשָׁה:

5

If, however, he throws a get into a fire located on the woman's property and it is consumed by the flames, or into water and it is erased or lost, the get is void.9 If, however, it enters her property (and comes to rest),10 and afterwards fire comes and consumes it, the divorce is effective.

ה

זְרָקוֹ לִרְשׁוּתָהּ לְתוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ וְנִשְׂרַף אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם [וְנִמְחַק אוֹ] נֶאֱבַד אֵינוֹ גֵּט. אֲבָל אִם הִגִּיעַ לִרְשׁוּתָהּ [וְנָח] וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּא הָאֵשׁ וּשְׂרָפַתְהוּ הֲרֵי זֶה גֵּט:

6

When the husband tosses the get on top of a reed or a spear implanted in her domain,11 the divorce is not effective until [the get] comes to rest in a place that is protected by her.12

[The following rule applies when] there are two courtyards, the inner courtyard belongs to the woman, the outer courtyard belongs to the man, and the walls of the outer courtyard are taller than those of the inner courtyard. If [the husband] throws the get into the space [of the inner courtyard, above its walls, but lower than the walls] of the outer courtyard, the divorce is effective.13 [The rationale is] the inner [courtyard] is protected by the walls of the outer [courtyard]. This concept does not apply with regard to containers.

ו

זְרָקוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קָנֶה אוֹ רֹמַח הַנְּעוּצִים בִּרְשׁוּתָהּ אֵינוֹ גֵּט עַד שֶׁיָּנוּחַ בְּמָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר בּוֹ. שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לְפָנִים מִזּוֹ הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁלָּהּ וְהַחִיצוֹנָה שֶׁלּוֹ וְכָתְלֵי הַחִיצוֹנָה גְּבוֹהוֹת עַל הַפְּנִימִית כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּרַק הַגֵּט לְתוֹךְ אֲוִיר הַחִיצוֹנָה נִתְגָּרְשָׁה. שֶׁהַפְּנִימִית בְּכָתְלֵי הַחִיצוֹנָה מִשְׁתַּמֶּרֶת מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּקֻפּוֹת:

7

What is implied?14 There are two containers, located one inside the other [and both are located in the husband's domain].15 The inner container belongs to her and the outer container belongs to him. If [the husband] throws the get to [his wife] toward the containers, the divorce is not effective16 - even when the get reaches the space of the inner container - until it comes to rest on the side of the inner container.

[Moreover,] the above applies only when [the woman's container] is lying on its side and does not have a bottom.17 If it has a bottom, even if [the get] comes to rest on that bottom, the divorce is not effective.18 For when a container belonging to a woman is located in the domain of the husband, the woman may not acquire a get by means of it unless the husband is not concerned about the place it occupies.

ז

כֵּיצַד. שְׁתֵּי קֻפּוֹת זוֹ לְפָנִים מִזּוֹ הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁלָּהּ וְהַחִיצוֹנָה שֶׁלּוֹ וְזָרַק לָהּ גִּטָּהּ בְּתוֹכָן אֲפִלּוּ הִגִּיעַ לַאֲוִיר הַפְּנִימִית אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת עַד שֶׁיָּנוּחַ עַל צַד הַקֻּפָּה הַפְּנִימִית. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהָיְתָה מֻטָּה עַל צִדָּהּ וְאֵין לָהּ שׁוּלַיִם אֲבָל יֵשׁ לָהּ שׁוּלַיִם אֲפִלּוּ נָח בְּקַרְקָעִיתָהּ אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת שֶׁכְּלִי הָאִשָּׁה בִּרְשׁוּת הַבַּעַל אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה לָהּ הַגֵּט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עַל מְקוֹמוֹ:

8

When [a husband] throws a get to his wife while she is located in his house or in his courtyard, the divorce is not effective until the get reaches the woman's hand or a container that belongs to her, to whose presence within his domain the husband does not object - e.g., a small bottle or basket or the like.19

Similarly, if the get reaches a couch belonging to her20 on which she is sitting that is ten handbreadths high, the divorce is effective. For [the couch] is considered to be a separate domain,21 and the husband does not object to the place taken by its legs.22

ח

זָרַק לָהּ גִּטָּהּ וְהִיא בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ חֲצֵרוֹ אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַגֵּט לְיָדָהּ אוֹ לִכְלִי מִן הַכֵּלִים שֶׁלָּהּ שֶׁאֵין הַבַּעַל מַקְפִּיד עַל מְקוֹמוֹ כְּגוֹן צְלוֹחִית אוֹ קְפִיפָה קְטַנָּה אוֹ כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְכֵן אִם הִגִּיעַ לַמִּטָּה שֶׁלָּהּ שֶׁהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת עָלֶיהָ וְהָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת שֶׁהֲרֵי חָלְקָה רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמָהּ וְאֵין הַבַּעַל מַקְפִּיד עַל מְקוֹם כִּרְעֵי הַמִּטָּה:

9

[The following rules apply when] the husband lends his wife a place in his courtyard [for the purpose of receiving her get], without defining its borders.23 If he throws her the get and it reaches within four cubits of where she is standing, the divorce is effective.24

When [in the above instance, the get] rolled away [from the place where the woman is standing,] and fell on a beam or on a rock further removed from her,25 [the following rules apply]. If the place where [the get] fell is not four cubits by four cubits, nor is it ten [handbreadths] high, nor does it have a separate name of its own, it is not considered to be a distinct entity, and it is as if [the get] and [the woman] were in the same place. [Therefore, the divorce is effective.]

If the place is characterized by any of these three factors, it is considered to be a distinct entity. [Since] the husband lent the woman one place, but not two places, the divorce is not effective until the get reaches her hand.

ט

הִשְׁאִיל לָהּ הַבַּעַל מָקוֹם בַּחֲצֵרוֹ וְלֹא יִחֲדוֹ [לָהּ] וְזָרַק לָהּ גֵּט וְהִגִּיעַ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת שֶׁלָּהּ שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת בָּהֶן הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. נִתְגַּלְגֵּל וְנָפַל עַל גַּבֵּי קוֹרָה אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי סֶלַע רָחוֹק מִמֶּנָּה. אִם הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנָּפַל עָלָיו אֵין בּוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת עַל אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְאֵינוֹ גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וְאֵין לוֹ שָׁם לְוַוי הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא חָלַק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ וּכְאִלּוּ הוּא וְהִיא בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד. וְאִם יֵשׁ שָׁם אֶחָד מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ חָלַק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ וּמָקוֹם אֶחָד הִשְׁאִיל לָהּ שְׁנֵי מְקוֹמוֹת לֹא הִשְׁאִיל לָהּ וְאֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַגֵּט לְיָדָהּ:

10

If [the husband] throws the get to her [while she is in her domain], and [the get] passes through the domain and falls outside her domain [the divorce is not effective]. Even if the get passes within three [handbreadths] of the ground,26 the divorce is not effective27 until [the get] comes to rest in her domain.

י

זָרַק לָהּ גִּטָּהּ לִרְשׁוּתָהּ וְעָבַר בְּתוֹךְ רְשׁוּתָהּ שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת בָּהּ וְנָפַל חוּץ לִרְשׁוּתָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת עַד שֶׁיָּנוּחַ בִּרְשׁוּתָהּ:

11

[The following rule applies when a woman] is standing on her roof, [her husband] throws her [a get], and [instead of reaching her,] it falls on a roof [belonging to another person].28 If the woman can stretch out her hand and take it, the divorce is effective.

[The rationale is that] although the domains are divided above as they are divided below, [and thus the get is located on a domain that does not belong to the woman, this is not significant,] for people are not concerned with [a neighbor's making use of] their property in such a manner.

יא

הָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת עַל גַּגָּהּ (זוֹ) וּזְרָקוֹ לָהּ וְנָפַל בְּגַג אַחֵר סָמוּךְ לוֹ. אִם יְכוֹלָה לִפְשֹׁט יָדָהּ וְלִטְּלוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדִּיּוּרִין חֲלוּקִין לְמַעְלָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֵן חֲלוּקִין לְמַטָּה אֵין בְּנֵי אָדָם מַקְפִּידִין עַל מָקוֹם כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

12

[The following rules apply if a woman holds] her hand at an incline, [her husband] throws a get to her hand, and it falls to the earth. If it falls within four cubits of where she is standing and comes to rest there, the divorce is effective.29

When, [however, the get] falls into the sea or into a fire, the divorce is not effective, if she is standing next to the water or the fire [when the get is thrown to her]. [The rationale is] that, at the outset, it would be destroyed as it fell.

יב

הָיְתָה יָדָהּ קַטַפְרֵס וְזָרַק הַגֵּט עַל יָדָהּ וְנָפַל לָאָרֶץ. אִם נָפַל לְתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת שֶׁלָּהּ וְנָח הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. נָפַל לְתוֹךְ הַיָּם אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. וְהוּא שֶׁהָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת עַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּיִם אוֹ סָמוּךְ לָאֵשׁ שֶׁמִּתְּחִלַּת נְפִילָתוֹ לְאִבּוּד הָיָה עוֹמֵד:

13

[The following rules apply when a husband] throws a get to [his wife] in the public domain or in a domain that does not belong to either of them. If [the get] is "close to him," the divorce is not effective. If [the get] is partially "close to him," and partially "close to her," the status of the divorce is in doubt unless it is definitely close to her. If [the get] is close enough to her that she can bend down and pick it up, the divorce is unacceptable [according to Rabbinic decree].30 [Only when] the get reaches her hand may she remarry on this basis a priori.

יג

זְרָקוֹ לָהּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל שְׁנֵיהֶם קָרוֹב לוֹ אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. הָיָה הַגֵּט מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה וּמִמֶּחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קָרוֹב לָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. הָיָה קָרוֹב לָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתָּשׁוּחַ וְתִטְּלֶנּוּ הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ גֵּט לְיָדָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ תִּנָּשֵׂא בּוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה:

14

What is meant by "close to him"? That he could protect the get while she could not. If both are able to protect [the get], or both are unable to protect it, it is considered to be partially "close to him," and partially "close to her."31

יד

כֵּיצַד הוּא קָרוֹב לוֹ. הָיָה הוּא יָכוֹל לְשָׁמְרוֹ וְהִיא אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְשָׁמְרוֹ זֶה הוּא קָרוֹב לוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶם יְכוֹלִים לְשָׁמְרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם אֵין יְכוֹלִין לְשָׁמְרוֹ זֶה הוּא מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה:

15

[If a husband] comes to a place first and stands there, and then [his wife] comes and stands opposite him, the divorce is not effective if he throws her [a get] and [it falls] within his four cubits,32 even if she can bend down and pick it up.

If she comes to the place first and stands, and then he comes and stands opposite her and throws it to her, even when [the get] is partially "close to him" and partially "close to her," the get is [merely] deemed unacceptable [by virtue of Rabbinic decree] because it is within her four cubits.33 [Only when] the get reaches her hand [is the divorce effective a priori].

טו

בָּא הוּא תְּחִלָּה וְעָמַד וְאַחַר כָּךְ עָמְדָה הִיא כְּנֶגְדּוֹ וּזְרָקוֹ לָהּ. אִם הָיָה הַגֵּט בְּתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם תָּשׁוּחַ תִּטְּלֶנּוּ. עָמְדָה הִיא תְּחִלָּה וּבָא הוּא וְעָמַד כְּנֶגְדָּהּ וּזְרָקוֹ לָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה הוֹאִיל וְהוּא לְתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת שֶׁלָּהּ הֲרֵי זֶה גֵּט פָּסוּל עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַגֵּט לְיָדָהּ:

16

[The following rules apply when a husband] throws a get that is tied with a string into [his wife's] hand and he remains holding the other end of the string. If he can pull [the get from her hand] and bring it back to him,34 the divorce is not effective35 until he snaps the string.36 If he cannot pull [the get from her], the divorce is effective.

טז

זָרַק הַגֵּט לְיָדָהּ וְהָיָה קָשׁוּר בִּמְשִׁיחָה וּקְצָת הַמְּשִׁיחָה בְּיָדוֹ. אִם יָכוֹל לְנַתְּקוֹ וְלַהֲבִיאוֹ אֶצְלוֹ אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת עַד שֶׁתִּפְסֹק הַמְּשִׁיחָה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְנַתְּקוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת:

17

[The following rules apply when a husband] gives [a woman's] get to a servant belonging to her. If he is awake, he is bound and she is guarding him, the divorce is effective. It is considered to be as if [the get] were placed in a courtyard belonging to her and she is standing at its side. If [the servant] is not bound, the divorce is not effective.37

If [the husband] places [the get] in the servant's hand while he is sleeping, and [the woman] is guarding him, the get is unacceptable [by virtue of Rabbinic decree].38 If [the servant] is bound, the divorce is acceptable.

יז

נָתַן הַגֵּט בְּיַד עַבְדָּהּ וְהוּא נֵעוֹר וְהִיא מְשַׁמַּרְתּוֹ. אִם הָיָה כָּפוּת הֲרֵי זֶה גֵּט וּכְאִלּוּ הִגִּיעַ לַחֲצֵרָהּ שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת בְּצִדָּהּ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ כָּפוּת אֵינוֹ גֵּט. נְתָנוֹ בְּיַד הָעֶבֶד וְהוּא יָשֵׁן וְהִיא מְשַׁמַּרְתּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל. וְאִם הָיָה כָּפוּת הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת:

18

[The following rules apply if a husband] writes a get, places it in the hand of a servant belonging to him and writes a deed for the woman, giving her the servant as a present. If the servant is bound, the divorce is effective, for when she acquires the servant she also acquires the get. If the servant is unbound and awake, [the woman] acquires the servant; the divorce, however, is not effective until the get reaches her hand.39

Similarly, if [a man] placed a get in a courtyard belonging to him and sold or gave the courtyard to [his wife], the divorce is effective once she acquires the courtyard by virtue of the transfer of a deed or money, or by manifesting her ownership over it.

יח

כָּתַב הַגֵּט וּנְתָנוֹ בְּיַד עַבְדּוֹ וְכָתַב לָהּ שְׁטָר מַתָּנָה עָלָיו כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּכְתָה בָּעֶבֶד זָכְתָה בַּגֵּט וְנִתְגָּרְשָׁה אִם הָיָה כָּפוּת. וְאִם אֵינוֹ כָּפוּת וְנֵעוֹר קָנְתָה הָעֶבֶד וְאֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַגֵּט לְיָדָהּ. וְכֵן אִם נָתַן הַגֵּט בַּחֲצֵרוֹ וּמוֹכֵר לָהּ הֶחָצֵר אוֹ נְתָנוֹ לָהּ כֵּיוָן שֶׁקָּנְתָה הֶחָצֵר בִּשְׁטָר אוֹ בְּכֶסֶף אוֹ בַּחֲזָקָה נִתְגָּרְשָׁה: