1

A get may be written only with a substance that leaves a permanent impression - e.g., ink,1 sikra, kumus, kankantum2 or the like. If, however, [a get] is written with a substance that does not leave a permanent impression - e.g., beverages, fruit juices or the like - the get is void.

If [a get] is written with lead, a stylus or charcoal,3it is acceptable. At the outset, however, these substances should not be used.

א

אֵין כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַגֵּט אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁרִשּׁוּמוֹ עוֹמֵד כְּגוֹן דְּיוֹ וְסִקְרָא וְקוֹמוֹס וְקַנְקַנְתּוֹם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. אֲבָל אִם כְּתָבוֹ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד כְּגוֹן מַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֵינוֹ גֵּט. כְּתָבוֹ בַּאֲבַר בְּשָׁחוֹר וּבְשִׁיחוֹר כָּשֵׁר. וְאֵין כּוֹתְבִין בָּהֶן לְכַתְּחִלָּה:

2

A priori, we may write with gallnut juice on paper, on a hide or the like. We may not use it to write on parchment that has been treated with gallnut juice, for it will not be distinct. If such a get is written, it is void. The same applies in all similar situations.

A get may be written on any substance, even a substance from which one is forbidden to benefit.4 We may write [a get] on a substance on which an erasure would not be noticed, provided it is given [to the woman] in the presence of witnesses who observe the transfer.5

ב

כּוֹתְבִין בְּמֵי עַפְּצָא לְכַתְּחִלָּה עַל גַּב הַנְּיָר וְהָעוֹר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֲבָל לֹא עַל גַּבֵּי מְגִלָּה עֲפוּצָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכָּר. וְאִם כָּתַב אֵינוֹ גֵּט. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. עַל הַכּל כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַגֵּט וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל אִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה. וְכוֹתְבִין עַל דָּבָר שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהִזְדַּיֵּף וְהוּא שֶׁיִּתְּנוֹ לָהּ בְּעֵדֵי מְסִירָה:

3

What is implied? If a get is written on paper with erasures,6 on parchment that has not been fully processed, on a shard, on leaves, on the arm of a servant or on the horn of a cow,7 [it is acceptable, provided the husband] gives [his wife] the servant, the cow,8 the paper, the parchment or the like in the presence of witnesses.

ג

כֵּיצַד כּוֹתֵב (אוֹתוֹ). עַל הַנְּיָר הַמָּחוּק וְעַל הַדִּפְתְּרָא וְעַל הַחֶרֶס וְעַל הֶעָלִין וְעַל יָדוֹ שֶׁל עֶבֶד וְעַל קֶרֶן שֶׁל פָּרָה. וּמוֹסֵר לָהּ הָעֶבֶד וְהַפָּרָה אוֹ הַנְּיָר הַמָּחוּק וְהַדִּפְתְּרָא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ בִּפְנֵי עֵדִים:

4

When the get is tattooed on the hand of a servant,9the signature of the witnesses is also tattooed there,10 and he is in the possession of [the wife], the divorce is effective, even though there are no witnesses to [the servant's] transfer,11 for [the tattoo] cannot be forged.

Even when it is known to us that the servant [previously] belonged to the husband, the get is tattooed on his hand, and he is in the possession of the woman, and she says: "He was given to me in the presence of witnesses," the status of the divorce is in doubt.12 For the possession of living beings that can move independently is not considered proof of their ownership.13

ד

הָיָה הַגֵּט חָקוּק עַל יָדוֹ שֶׁל עֶבֶד בִּכְתֹבֶת קַעֲקַע וְהָיָה יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ וְהָיוּ הָעֵדִים חֲקוּקִים עַל יָדוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ עֵדֵי מְסִירָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין יָכוֹל לְהִזְדַּיֵּף. אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ מֻחְזָקִין בְּעֶבֶד שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלּוֹ וְגֵט חָקוּק עַל יָדוֹ וְהוּא יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ וְהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת בְּעֵדִים נִמְסַר לִי הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק מְגֹרֶשֶׁת שֶׁמָּא מֵעַצְמוֹ נִכְנַס לָהּ שֶׁהַגּוֹדְרוֹת אֵין לָהֶן חֲזָקָה:

5

If a get is engraved on a tablet [with a stylus], and it is signed by witnesses, and [the tablet] is in [the woman's] possession, the divorce is effective. [This applies] even when it is known to us that the tablet [had previously] belonged to [the wife].14For a woman is allowed to write her get herself. The verification of a get is dependent on [the witnesses who] signed it, if there are no witnesses to its transfer.15

ה

הָיָה הַגֵּט חָקוּק עַל הַטַּבְלָא וְהָעֵדִים עָלָיו וְהוּא יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מֻחְזָקִין בְּטַבְלָא שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלָּהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת, שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה עַצְמָהּ כּוֹתֶבֶת אֶת גִּטָּהּ. שֶׁאֵין קִיּוּם הַגֵּט אֶלָּא בְּחוֹתְמָיו אִם אֵין שָׁם עֵדֵי מְסִירָה:

6

[The following laws apply when] a get is engraved on a board, on a stone or on a metal plate: If the scribe engraved the form of the letters,16 it is acceptable. This is considered writing, as [reflected by] the verse, [Jeremiah 17:1]: "Written with a pen of iron" - i.e., hewed out. Similarly, if one engraved the letters from the back of the plate until they projected from the front of the plate [the get is acceptable].

If, however, one hewed out the inside of the letter, [and the area around it,] until the form of the letter protruded on both sides, like the protruding writing on golden dinarim, the get is void, because this is not considered writing.17

ו

חָקַק הַגֵּט עַל הַלּוּחַ אוֹ עַל הָאֶבֶן אוֹ עַל טַס שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת אִם חָפַר יַרְכֵי הָאוֹתִיּוֹת כָּשֵׁר. שֶׁזֶּה כְּתָב הוּא. הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (ירמיה יז א) "כְּתוּבָה בְּעֵט בַּרְזֶל" כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא חֲפָרוֹ. וְכֵן אִם חָקַק הַיְרֵכוֹת מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַטַּס עַד שֶׁבָּלְטוּ בִּפְנֵי הַטַּס. אֲבָל אִם חָפַר תּוֹךְ הָאוֹת עַד שֶׁיֵּרָאוּ הַיְרֵכוֹת גְּבוֹהוֹת מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן כִּכְתַב דִּינַר זָהָב שֶׁהַכְּתָב בּוֹלֵט אֵינוֹ גֵּט שֶׁאֵין זֶה כְּתָב:

7

If one etches out the shape of letters on a hide,18 or one sketches the form of letters on a hide19 [the get is acceptable].20

A get may be written with any letters21 and in any language.22 A get that is written with the letters of one language and whose witnesses sign with the letters of another language is acceptable, provided the witnesses comprehend the language and the letters used.23

ז

הַמְקָרֵעַ עַל הָעוֹר תַּבְנִית כְּתָב אוֹ שֶׁרָשַׁם עַל הָעוֹר תַּבְנִית כְּתָב הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַגֵּט בְּכָל כְּתָב וּבְכָל לָשׁוֹן. גֵּט שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּכְתָב מִן הַלְּשׁוֹנוֹת וְעֵדָיו חֲתוּמִין בִּכְתָב אַחֵר כָּשֵׁר. וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהוּ הָעֵדִים מַכִּירִין לְשׁוֹן הַכְּתָב וְהַכְּתִיבָה

8

If one of the witnesses signed the get with letters [from one language], and the other signed with letters of another language, the get is acceptable.24

If, however, a portion of the get is written in one language, and another portion is written in another language, it is unacceptable.25

ח

אֶחָד מִן הָעֵדִים חָתַם בִּכְתָב (לָשׁוֹן אַחַת) וְהָעֵד הַשֵּׁנִי בִּכְתַב לָשׁוֹן אַחֶרֶת כָּשֵׁר. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מִקְצָת הַגֵּט כָּתוּב בְּלָשׁוֹן אַחַת וּמִקְצָתוֹ בְּלָשׁוֹן אַחֶרֶת פָּסוּל:

9

Regardless of the language in which a get is written, the scribe must be careful that the wording of the get does not allow for two meanings. It should not [leave] the reader [in doubt, wondering]: "Perhaps this was his intention" - i.e., something other than divorce - "or perhaps this was his intention" - i.e., divorce.26 Instead, [whatever] the language [of the get], the wording should unequivocally state one concept: that so and so divorces so and so.

ט

כָּל לָשׁוֹן שֶׁיִּכָּתֵב בָּהּ הַגֵּט צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּזָהֵר הַסּוֹפֵר בְּדִבְרֵי הַגֵּט שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מַשְׁמָעָן שְׁנֵי עִנְיָנִים עַד שֶׁנִּמְצָא הַקּוֹרֵא אוֹמֵר שֶׁמָּא לְכָךְ וּלְכָךְ נִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁאֵין מַשְׁמָעוֹ לְשׁוֹן גֵּרוּשִׁין אוֹ שֶׁמָּא לְעִנְיָן זֶה נִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁמַּשְׁמָעוֹ לְשׁוֹן גֵּרוּשִׁין. אֶלָּא יִהְיוּ הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן סָפֵק בְּאוֹתוֹ הַלָּשׁוֹן אֶלָּא מַשְׁמָעָן עִנְיָן אֶחָד שֶׁגֵּרֵשׁ וְשָׁלַח פְּלוֹנִי אֶת פְּלוֹנִית:

10

Similarly, regardless of the letters used, the penmanship [of the scribe] must be clear, so that children who know those letters would be able to read it. [The intent is] children who are not overly bright, nor those who are overly slow, but rather those of average intelligence.27

The writing should not be crooked, nor incoherent, lest one letter be confused with another, changing the meaning of the text.28

י

וְכֵן צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אוֹתוֹ הַכְּתָב מְבֹאָר הֵיטֵב בְּאוֹתוֹ הַכְּתָב שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב בּוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ הַקְּטַנִּים לִקְרוֹתוֹ שֶׁמַּכִּירִים אוֹתוֹ כְּתָב שֶׁאֵינָן לֹא נְבוֹנִים וְלֹא סְכָלִים (וְלֹא בִּקְטַנִּים) אֶלָּא בֵּינוֹנִים. וְלֹא יִהְיֶה כְּתָב מְעֻקָּם וּמְבֻלְבָּל שֶׁמָּא תִּדְמֶה אוֹת לְאוֹת וְנִמְצָא הָעִנְיָן מִשְׁתַּנֶּה:

11

If [the wording of a get] has two implications, or its writing is crooked or incoherent to the extent that it is possible to understand a different concept from it, it is unacceptable. [It is not void,] because it may be read as referring to a divorce and its meaning involves divorce.

Although a priori it is permissible to write a get in any language, it has already become universal Jewish practice to write gittin in Aramaic, using the following text.29

יא

הָיָה בּוֹ מַשְׁמָעוּת שְׁנֵי עִנְיָנִים אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בִּכְתָבוֹ עִקּוּם אוֹ בִּלְבּוּל עַד שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּקְרָא מִמֶּנּוּ עִנְיָן אַחֵר. הוֹאִיל וְנִקְרָא לְעִנְיַן הַגֵּרוּשִׁין וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מַשְׁמַע גֵּרוּשִׁין הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל. כְּבָר נָהֲגוּ כָּל עַם יִשְׂרָאֵל לִכְתֹּב הַגֵּט לְשׁוֹן אֲרָמִי וּכְנֹסַח זֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְכָתְבוֹ בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן לְכַתְּחִלָּה:

12

This is the text of the get:

On this day of the week, on this day of the month, in this year from creation - or according to the chronology employed for legal documents30 - according to the reckoning that we keep here in [the name of the place where the get is being given], in the following way, I [the husband's name,] the son of [his father's name], from [the name of his city]31 or by whatever names or nicknames32 by which I, my father, my place or his place are called, desire out of independent will without anyone forcing me, to dismiss, to release, to divorce you, [the woman's name,] the daughter of [her father's name], from [the name of her city] or by whatever names or nicknames you, your father, your place or his place is known.33

[Although] previously, you were my wife, now I am dismissing, releasing and divorcing you, so that you have the license and the authority to go and marry any man whom you desire. No one will protest [your actions] from the present day onward. You are free [to marry] any man. This will serve you as a bill of divorce, a get dismissing you, and a letter releasing you, from me, according to the faith of Moses and Israel.

The witnesses sign below, as we explained:34 [The witness's name] the son of [his father's name], a witness, [the witness's name] the son of [his father's name], a witness.

יב

וזה הוא נוסח הגט
בְּכָךְ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ לְיֶרַח פְּלוֹנִי בִּשְׁנַת כָּךְ וְכָךְ לַיְצִירָה אוֹ לַשְּׁטָרוֹת לְמִנְיָנָא דְּרָגִילְנָא לְמִימְנֵי בָּהּ הָכָא בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אֵיךְ אֲנָא פְּלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי דְּמִמָּקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי וְכָל שׁוּם אָחֳרָן וַחֲנִיכָה דְּאִית לִי וְלַאֲבָהָתִי וּלְאַתְרִי וּלְאַתְרֵיהוֹן דַּאֲבָהָתִי צָבִיתִי בִּרְעוּת נַפְשִׁי בִּדְלָא אֲנִיסְנָא וּפַטְרִית וְשַׁבְקִית וּתְרוּכִית יָתִיכִי לֵיכִי אַנְתְּ פְּלוֹנִית בַּת פְּלוֹנִי דְּמִמָּתָא פְּלוֹנִית וְכָל שׁוּם אָחֳרָן וַחֲנִיכָה דְּאִית לֵיכִי וְלַאֲבָהָתִיכִי וּלְאַתְרִיכִי וּלְאַתְרֵיהוֹן דַּאֲבָהָתִיכִי דִּי הֲוִית אִנְתָּתִי מִן קַדְמַת דְּנָא. וּכְדוֹ פַּטְרִית וְשַׁבְקִית וּתְרוּכִית יָתִיכִי לֵיכִי דְּיִתְהַוְיָין רַשָּׁאָה וְשַׁלְטָאָה בְּנַפְשִׁיכִי לִמְהָךְ לְהִתְנַסְבָּא לְכָל גְּבַר דְּיִתְצַבְיָין וְאִינַשׁ לֹא יִמְחֶה בְּיָדִיכִי (מִן שְׁמִי) מִן יוֹמָא דְּנָן וּלְעָלַם וַהֲרֵי אַתְּ מֻתֶּרֶת לְכָל אָדָם וְדֵן דִּי יֶהֱוֵי לֵיכִי מִנָּאִי סֵפֶר תֵּרוּכִין וְגֵט פִּטּוּרִין וְאִגֶּרֶת שִׁבוּקִין כְּדַת משֶׁה וְיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְהָעֵדִים חוֹתְמִים לְמַטָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי עֵד. פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי עֵד:

13

When a get is written using the above text and wording, [the following rules should be adhered to:] The word ודן should not be written with a yud, so that it might be read as ודין, which might be interpreted as meaning: "There will be a judgment between me and you."

The word ואגרת should not be written with a yud, lest it be read as ואי גרת, meaning "If you commit adultery."

The word למהך should not be written with a yud, lest it be read as לי מהך - i.e., that it is a joke for me.35

The words תהוייין and תצבייין should not be written with only two yuddin, lest a reader get the impression that the man is speaking with two women, and rather than divorce the one, he is divorcing two others.

Similarly, he should elongate the [latter] vav in the word וכדו lest it resemble a yud, which would cause the word to be read as uch'dei, in which instance, it would mean that "I am divorcing you on this condition." By the same token, he should elongate the vav in the words תרוכין and שבוקין, lest they resemble yuddin, in which instance it would mean that he is telling her that she is releasing and divorcing him.

In a similar fashion, care must be taken in every language and with every form of lettering to make certain that [the wording of the get] does not leave the possibility for two implications.

יג

כְּשֶׁיִּכְתֹּב הַגֵּט בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה וּבְנֹסַח זֶה לֹא יִכְתֹּב וְדֵין בְּיוּ״‎ד שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא הַקּוֹרֵא וְדִין כְּלוֹמַר מִשְׁפָּט יִהְיֶה בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵךְ. וְלֹא יִכְתֹּב וְאִגֶּרֶת בְּיוּ״‎ד שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא הַקּוֹרֵא וְאִי גָרַת כְּלוֹמַר אִם זָנִית. לֹא יִכְתֹּב לִימְהָךְ בְּיוּ״‎ד שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא הַקּוֹרֵא לִי מֵהַךְ [וְכֵן יַרְחִיק רֶגֶל הַהֵ״‎א מִגַּגָּהּ שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא לִמְחַךְ] כְּלוֹמַר לִשְׂחוֹק. וְלֹא יִכְתֹּב תֶּהֱוְיָן וְתִצְבְּיָן בִּשְׁתֵּי יוּדִי״‎ן שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא הַקּוֹרֵא תֶּהֱוְיָין וְתִצְבְּיָין כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא מְדַבֵּר עִם שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְגָרֵשׁ לָזוֹ אֶלָּא לִשְׁתַּיִם אֲחֵרוֹת. וְכֵן יַאֲרִיךְ לְוָי״‎ו דְּוּכְדוֹ שֶׁמָּא תִּדְמֶה לְיוּ״‎ד וְיִהְיֶה מַשְׁמָעוֹ וּכְדִי כְּלוֹמַר בִּתְנַאי זֶה אֶפְטֹר אוֹתָךְ. וְכֵן יַאֲרִיךְ לְוָי״‎ו דְּתֵרוּכִין וְשִׁבוּקִין שֶׁמָּא תִּדְמֶה לְיוּ״‎ד וְיִהְיֶה מַשְׁמָע תְּרִיכִין וּשְׁבִיקִין כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר לָהּ שֶׁהִיא שָׁבְקָה וְגֵרְשָׁה אוֹתוֹ. וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ זֶה צָרִיךְ לְהִזָּהֵר בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן וּבְכָל כְּתָב שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ מַשְׁמַע שְׁתֵּי עִנְיָנוֹת:

14

If [a scribe] wrote [a get] using this text and did not elongate the vavin mentioned, did not write the extra yuddin, or wrote the yuddin that we said should not be written, the get is unacceptable.36 Similarly, [if a get is written] in another language, and imprecise wording or writing is used, it is unacceptable.

יד

הֲרֵי שֶׁכָּתַב בְּנֹסַח זֶה וְלֹא הֶאֱרִיךְ וָוִי״‎ן אֵלּוּ אוֹ לֹא כָּתַב הַיּוּדִי״‎ן הַיְתֵרוֹת אוֹ שֶׁכָּתַב הַיּוּדִי״‎ן שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּתְבוּ הֲרֵי זֶה גֵּט פָּסוּל. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן פָּסוּל:

15

[The following rules apply if] a letter or a word of a get was rubbed out or written between the lines. If it is from the standard portion of the get, it is acceptable. If it is from the portions of the get that are of fundamental importance, the get is void. If, however, at the conclusion of the get, it is stated that the particular letter has been written between the lines or has been rubbed out, the get is acceptable, as other legal documents would be,37 even if [the difficulty] concerns the portions of the get that are of fundamental importance.38

Similarly, if a get was discovered to be torn [both] horizontally and vertically, as is customary for a court [to tear a legal document], the get is void, as would be other legal documents.39 If, however, it is torn in a way other than the manner customary for a court [to tear a legal document], it is acceptable.

טו

גֵּט שֶׁמָּחַק בּוֹ אוֹת אוֹ תֵּבָה אוֹ שֶׁתָּלָה בֵּין הַשִּׁיטִין. אִם מִטֹּפֶס הַגֵּט הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. וְאִם מִן הַתֹּרֶף אֵינוֹ גֵּט. וְאִם חָזַר וּפֵרֵשׁ בְּסוֹף הַגֵּט שֶׁאוֹת פְּלוֹנִית תְּלוּיָה אוֹ עַל מַחַק אֲפִלּוּ מִתֹּרֶף הַגֵּט כָּשֵׁר כִּשְׁאָר שְׁטָרוֹת. וְכֵן גֵּט שֶׁנִּמְצָא קָרוּעַ שְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב שֶׁהוּא קֶרַע שֶׁל בֵּית דִּין הֲרֵי זֶה גֵּט בָּטֵל כִּשְׁאָר הַשְּׁטָרוֹת. אֲבָל אִם נִקְרַע וְאֵינוֹ קֶרַע שֶׁל בֵּית דִּין כָּשֵׁר:

16

If [the get] has faded, rotted or become [filled with holes like] a sieve, it is acceptable. [The following rules apply if] it has been rubbed out or the letters have become blurred, but their form remains. If it can be read, it is acceptable;40 if not, it is void.

טז

נִמֹּק אוֹ שֶׁהִרְקִיב אוֹ שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה כִּכְבָרָה כָּשֵׁר. נִמְחַק אוֹ נִטַּשְׁטֵשׁ וּבָבוּאָה שֶׁלּוֹ קַיֶּמֶת אִם יָכוֹל לִקְרוֹת כָּשֵׁר וְאִם לָאו אֵינוֹ גֵּט:

17

When does the above41 apply? When the woman is in possession of a get that has been signed by witnesses, and there are no witnesses to its transfer. If, however, there are witnesses who testify that the get was transferred in their presence, and at that time it was acceptable, the divorce is binding.42

[This applies] even if the fundamental portions of the get were written on erased parchment or between the lines, or [the get] was torn [both] horizontally and vertically when it was given to [the woman] in their presence.43

יז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַגֵּט יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ בְּעֵדֵי חֲתִימָה וְאֵין שָׁם עֵדֵי מְסִירָה. אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם עֵדִים שֶׁנִּמְסַר לָהּ הַגֵּט בִּפְנֵיהֶם וְהָיָה כָּשֵׁר הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה תֹּרֶף הַגֵּט עַל הַמַּחַק אוֹ בֵּין הַשִּׁיטִין אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה קָרוּעַ שְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב כְּשֶׁנָּתַן לָהּ בִּפְנֵיהֶם:

18

[The following rules apply when] five men write a single get to divorce their five wives. The get is acceptable if the wording they use is inclusive - i.e., they wrote "On the day of the week, so and so divorced so and so, and so and so divorced so and so..." - every husband making a statement to his wife. Similarly, each of them told his wife: "so that you have the license to...," including the entire standard portion of the get. Two witnesses must sign below.

[This get] must be given to each of the women in the presence of witnesses who observe its transfer. If no witnesses observe its transfer at all, the woman who is in possession of the get is considered to be divorced.44

[Different rules apply if,] by contrast, [the scribe] wrote: "On the day of the week, so and so divorced so and so...," completing the entire text of the get and then began writing a second get directly under it in the same scroll. [He continued] writing: "On the day of the week, so and so divorced so and so...," and so completed the entire text of the second get and similarly completed all the gittin in this manner [on the same scroll], and the witnesses signed below [the final get].

If this scroll was given to each of the women in the presence of witnesses who observed the transfer, all their divorces are effective.45 [More stringent rules apply] if there are no witnesses who observed the transfer, and the scroll is in the possession of one of the women: If hers was the last get written on the scroll and the signatures of the witnesses are read together with [that statement], her divorce is effective.46 If the scroll is in the possession of one of the women whose gittin precede the last one, the status of her divorce is in doubt.

יח

חֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁכָּתְבוּ גֵּט אֶחָד לַחֲמֵשׁ נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן. אִם כְּתָבוּהוּ בַּכְּלָל כְּגוֹן שֶׁכָּתְבוּ בְּכָךְ בְּשַׁבָּת גֵּרֵשׁ פְּלוֹנִי לִפְלוֹנִית וּפְלוֹנִי לִפְלוֹנִית וְכֵן אָמַר כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לְאִשְׁתּוֹ לֵיכִי דִּי תֶּהֱוְיָן וְכָל טֹפֶס הַגֵּט וּשְׁנֵי עֵדִים חוֹתְמִין מִלְּמַטָּה הֲרֵי זֶה גֵּט כָּשֵׁר וְיִנָּתֵן לְכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן בְּעֵדֵי מְסִירָה. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם עֵדֵי מְסִירָה כְּלָל כָּל מִי שֶׁתֵּצֵא מְגִלָּה זוֹ מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. אֲבָל אִם כָּתַב בְּכָךְ בְּשַׁבָּת גֵּרֵשׁ פְּלוֹנִי לִפְלוֹנִית וְהִשְׁלִים הַגֵּט וְהִתְחִיל תַּחְתָּיו גֵּט אַחֵר בְּאוֹתָהּ מְגִלָּה וְכָתַב וּבְיוֹם זֶה אוֹ בְּכָךְ בְּשַׁבָּת גֵּרֵשׁ פְּלוֹנִי לִפְלוֹנִית וְהִשְׁלִים הַגֵּט הַשֵּׁנִי. וְכֵן עַד שֶׁהִשְׁלִים כָּל הַגִּטִּין וְהָעֵדִים מִלְּמַטָּה. אִם נִתְּנָה מְגִלָּה זוֹ לְכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן בְּעֵדֵי מְסִירָה הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְגֹרָשׁוֹת. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם עֵדֵי מְסִירָה וְהָיְתָה מְגִלָּה זוֹ יוֹצְאָה מִתַּחַת יַד אַחַת מֵהֶן. אִם הָיְתָה זוֹ שֶׁגִּטָּהּ בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁהָעֵדִים נִקְרָאִין עִמּוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמְּגִלָּה יוֹצְאָה מִתַּחַת יַד אַחַת מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק מְגֹרֶשֶׁת:

19

If [the scribe] writes: "We, so and so and so and so, divorce our wives, so and so and so and so,..." and then completes the get, the get is void, even though it was given to each one of them in the presence of witnesses who observed its transfer. [The rationale:] two women cannot be divorced with the same get, as [we can infer from Deuteronomy 24:1]: "And he shall write for her," [implied is:] for her and not for her and her colleague.

If after [writing the text as above], he continued and wrote individual statements for each one within the get, stating, "So and so is divorcing so and so, and so and so is divorcing so and so on this date,"47 the divorces are acceptable.

יט

כָּתַב אָנוּ פְּלוֹנִי וּפְלוֹנִי גֵּרַשְׁנוּ נְשׁוֹתֵינוּ פְּלוֹנִית וּפְלוֹנִית וְהִשְׁלִים הַגֵּט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמְסַר לְכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן בְּעֵדֵי מְסִירָה אֵינוֹ גֵּט שֶׁאֵין שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים מִתְגָּרְשׁוֹת בְּגֵט אֶחָד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד א) "וְכָתַב לָהּ" וְלֹא לָהּ וְלַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ. חָזַר וּפְרָטָן בְּתוֹךְ הַגֵּט וְכָתַב פְּלוֹנִי גֵּרֵשׁ פְּלוֹנִית וּפְלוֹנִי גֵּרֵשׁ פְּלוֹנִית בִּזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרִים:

20

[The following rules apply when a scribe] wrote two gittin in two columns on one scroll side by side. If there are two witnesses [whose signatures] are read [as a continuation of] one get, and two witnesses [whose signatures] are read [as a continuation of] the other get, the get is acceptable.48 Whichever woman is in possession of the get is divorced.49

כ

כָּתַב שְׁנֵי גִּטִּין בִּשְׁנֵי דַּפִּין בִּמְגִלָּה אַחַת זֶה בְּצַד זֶה. אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם שְׁנֵי עֵדִים נִקְרָאִים בְּסוֹף גֵּט זֶה וּשְׁנֵי עֵדִים בְּסוֹף גֵּט זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. וְכָל שֶׁתֵּצֵא מְגִלָּה זוֹ מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת:

21

[In the above instance, if the gittin] were signed by only two witnesses, who signed across the width of both gittin, the divorce is valid only when the scroll is in the possession of the woman under whose get the signatures appear.50

If the scroll is in the possession of the woman under whose get the signatures of the witnesses do not appear, the get is not acceptable unless it is given to her in the presence of witnesses [who observe the transfer].51

כא

הָיוּ שָׁם שְׁנֵי עֵדִים בִּלְבַד בָּאִים מִתַּחַת גֵּט זֶה לְתַחַת גֵּט זֶה. אִם יָצָא מִתַּחַת יָד זוֹ שֶׁהָעֵדִים נִקְרָאִים עִם גִּטָּהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. וְאִם יָצָא מִתַּחַת יָד שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁאֵין הָעֵדִים נִקְרָאִים עִמּוֹ אֵינוֹ גֵּט עַד שֶׁיִּמְסֹר לָהּ בְּעֵדִים:

22

[The following rules apply if a scribe] writes two gittin, one above the other, and the witnesses sign between the two gittin - their signatures thus being below the first get and above the second get. If the scroll is in the possession of the woman under whose get the signatures appear, her divorce is valid, and the woman above whose get the signatures appear is not divorced.52

If the witnesses signed at the top of a get, at its side or on its overside, it is not a get.53 If it was given to [the woman] in the presence of witnesses, it is acceptable.54

כב

כָּתַב שְׁנֵי גִּטִּין בִּשְׁנֵי דַּפִּין זֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה וְהָעֵדִים בֵּין שְׁנֵי הַגִּטִּין שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ בְּסוֹף הָרִאשׁוֹן וּלְמַעְלָה מִן הַשֵּׁנִי. אִם הָיָה יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָד זוֹ שֶׁהָעֵדִים נִקְרָאִין בְּסוֹף גִּטָּהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. וְזוֹ שֶׁהָעֵדִים נִקְרָאִין בְּרֹאשׁ גִּטָּהּ מִלְּמַעְלָה אֵינָהּ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. הָעֵדִים שֶׁחָתְמוּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַדַּף שֶׁל גֵּט אוֹ מִצִּדּוֹ אוֹ מֵאֲחוֹרָיו אֵינוֹ גֵּט. וְאִם נִמְסַר לָהּ בְּעֵדִים כָּשֵׁר:

23

If two gittin [were written in an arc,] with the beginning of one get facing the beginning of the other get, and the signature of the witnesses is located between the tops of both gittin, both are void. If they are transferred in the presence of witnesses, both are acceptable.

כג

הִקִּיף רֹאשׁ הַדַּף זֶה לְרֹאשׁ דַּף זֶה וְהָעֵדִים בָּאֶמְצַע שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ הָעֵדִים בְּרֹאשׁ שְׁנֵי הַגִּטִּין שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּטֵלִין. וְאִם נִמְסְרוּ לָהֶן בְּעֵדִים שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּשֵׁרִים:

24

[The following rules apply if the scribe did not complete the text of the get in one column,] left a portion unwritten and wrote it at the top of a second column. If the witnesses signed below, at the end of the second column, it is acceptable, provided it is obvious that the scroll was not cut off, and it was the scribe's intent to complete the get in the second column.

If, however, this is not apparent, the status of the divorce is in doubt, even if the get was given in the presence of witnesses. [The rationale is that] perhaps there were two gittin, and the portion below the get in the first column and a portion above the get in the second column were cut off.55

כד

שִׁיֵּר מִקְצָת הַגֵּט וּכְתָבוֹ בַּדַּף הַשֵּׁנִי וְהָעֵדִים מִלְּמַטָּה בְּסוֹף הַדַּף הַשֵּׁנִי כָּשֵׁר. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נִכָּר בַּמְּגִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא נֶחְתַּךְ וְשֶׁלְּכָךְ נִתְכַּוֵּן הַסּוֹפֵר שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים בַּדַּף הַשֵּׁנִי. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ נִכָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמְסַר בְּעֵדִים הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. שֶׁמָּא שְׁנֵי גִּטִּין הָיוּ וְנֶחְתַּךְ מִקְצָת זֶה מִסּוֹף הַדַּף וּמִקְצָת הַשֵּׁנִי מֵרֹאשׁ הַדַּף:

25

If, after writing the get and completing it, [the scribe] wrote: "Give regards to so and so," "Greetings to you, so and so, my friend," or the like, and afterwards the witnesses signed beneath the greeting, the status of the divorce is doubtful,56 despite the fact that the woman is in possession of the get. [The rationale is] perhaps the witnesses signed only for the greeting [without paying attention to the get].

If, however, the scribe wrote: "And give regards to so and so," "And greetings to you, so and so, my friend," or the like, the get is acceptable. Since [the greeting] accompanies the get,57 [we presume that the witnesses] signed with both these thoughts in mind.

If [the get] was given to her in the presence of witnesses, it is acceptable in either instance.58

כה

הֲרֵי שֶׁכָּתַב הַגֵּט וְאַחַר שֶׁגָּמַר כָּתַב שַׁאֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אוֹ שָׁלוֹם עָלֶיךָ פְּלוֹנִי רֵעִי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה וְחָתְמוּ הָעֵדִים מִלְּמַטָּה וַהֲרֵי גֵּט זֶה יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. שֶׁמָּא לֹא חָתְמוּ הָעֵדִים אֶלָּא עַל שְׁאִילַת שָׁלוֹם. אֲבָל אִם כָּתַב וְשַׁאֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אוֹ וְשָׁלוֹם עָלֶיךָ רֵעִי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי לִוָּה דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ עַל דִּבְרֵי הַגֵּט וְעַל שְׁנֵיהֶם חָתְמוּ הֲרֵי זוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת. וְאִם נִמְסַר לָהּ בְּעֵדִים בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ הֲרֵי זֶה גֵּט כָּשֵׁר: