1

When a man marries a woman, whether she is a virgin or a non-virgin, whether she is above the age of majority or a minor, and whether she was born Jewish, is a convert or a freed slave, he incurs ten responsibilities toward her and receives four privileges.1

א

כְּשֶׁנּוֹשֵׂא אָדָם אִשָּׁה בֵּין בְּתוּלָה בֵּין בְּעוּלָה בֵּין גְּדוֹלָה בֵּין קְטַנָּה אַחַת בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאַחַת הַגִּיֹּרֶת אוֹ הַמְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת יִתְחַיֵּב לָהּ בַּעֲשָׂרָה דְּבָרִים וְיִזְכֶּה בְּאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים:

2

With regard to his ten responsibilities: three stem from the Torah. They include sha'arah, kesutah v'onatah.2 Sha'arah means providing her with subsistence.3 Kesutah means supplying her with garments, and onatah refers to conjugal rights.

The seven responsibilities ordained by the Rabbis are all conditions [of the marriage contract] established by the court. The first is the fundamental requirement of the marriage contract. The others are referred to as t'na'ei ketubah, the conditions of the marriage contract. They are:

a) to provide medical treatment if she becomes sick;

b) to redeem her if she is held captive:

c) to bury her if she dies;

d) to provide for her from his possessions;

e) the right for her to continue living in his home after his death as long as she remains a widow;

f) the right for her daughters to receive their subsistence from his estate after his death until they become consecrated;

g) the right for her sons to inherit her ketubah in addition to their share in her husband's estate together with their brothers [borne by other wives, if she dies before her husband does].

ב

וְהָעֲשָׂרָה שְׁלֹשָׁה מֵהֶן מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. (שמות כא י) "שְׁאֵרָהּ. כְּסוּתָהּ. וְעוֹנָתָהּ". שְׁאֵרָהּ אֵלּוּ מְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ. כְּסוּתָהּ כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ. עוֹנָתָהּ לָבֹא עָלֶיהָ כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל הָאָרֶץ. וְהַשִּׁבְעָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וְכֻלָּן תְּנַאי בֵּית דִּין הֵם. הָאֶחָד מֵהֶם עִקַּר כְּתֻבָּה. וְהַשְּׁאָר הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִין תְּנָאֵי כְּתֻבָּה וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. לְרַפֹּאתָהּ אִם חָלְתָה. וְלִפְדּוֹתָהּ אִם נִשְׁבֵּית. לְקָבְרָהּ אִם מֵתָה. וְלִהְיוֹת נִזּוֹנֶת מִן נְכָסָיו. וְיוֹשֶׁבֶת בְּבֵיתוֹ אַחַר מוֹתוֹ כָּל זְמַן אַלְמְנוּתָהּ. וְלִהְיוֹת בְּנוֹתֶיהָ מִמֶּנּוּ נִזּוֹנוֹת מִנְּכָסָיו אַחֲרֵי מוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁתִּתְאָרֵסְנָה. וְלִהְיוֹת בָּנֶיהָ הַזְּכָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ יוֹרְשִׁין כְּתֻבָּתָהּ יוֹתֵר עַל חֶלְקָם בַּיְרֻשָּׁה שֶׁעִם אֲחֵיהֶם:

3

The four privileges that the husband is granted are all Rabbinic in origin. They are:

a) the right to the fruits of her labor;

b) the right to any ownerless object she discovers;

c) the right to benefit from the profits of her property during her lifetime;

d) the right to inherit her [property] if she dies during his lifetime. His rights to her property supersede [the rights of] all others.4

ג

וְהָאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁזּוֹכָה בָּהֶן כֻּלָּם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. לִהְיוֹת מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ שֶׁלּוֹ. וְלִהְיוֹת מְצִיאָתָהּ שֶׁלּוֹ. וְשֶׁיִּהְיֶה אוֹכֵל כָּל פֵּרוֹת נְכָסֶיהָ בְּחַיֶּיהָ. וְאִם מֵתָה בְּחַיָּיו יִירָשֶׁנָּה. וְהוּא קוֹדֵם לְכָל אָדָם בַּיְרֻשָּׁה:

4

Our Sages also ordained that the fruits of a wife's labor should parallel her subsistence, [the obligation to] redeem her should parallel [the right to] the benefit from her property, and [the obligation to] bury her should parallel [the right to] inherit [the property mentioned in] her ketubah.

Therefore, if a woman says: "I will not [hold you obligated for] my subsistence, but I will not work,"5 she is given this option, and she cannot be compelled to work.6 If, however, her husband says: "I will not provide for your subsistence, and I will not receive the right to the fruits of your labor," he is not given this option, lest the woman be unable to earn her subsistence.7 Because of this institution, [the obligation to provide for a woman's] subsistence is considered to be one of the t'na'ei ketubah.8

ד

וְעוֹד תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי הָאִשָּׁה כְּנֶגֶד מְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ. וּפִדְיוֹנָהּ כְּנֶגֶד אֲכִילַת פֵּרוֹת נְכָסֶיהָ. וּקְבוּרָתָהּ כְּנֶגֶד יְרֻשָּׁתוֹ לִכְתֻבָּתָהּ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אֵינִי נִזּוֹנִית וְאֵינִי עוֹשָׂה שׁוֹמְעִין לָהּ וְאֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתָהּ. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר הַבַּעַל אֵינִי זָנֵךְ וְאֵינִי נוֹטֵל כְּלוּם מִמַּעֲשֵׂה יָדַיִךְ אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ שֶׁמָּא לֹא יְסַפְּקוּ לָהּ מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ בִּמְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ. וּמִפְּנֵי תַּקָּנָה זוֹ יֵחָשְׁבוּ הַמְּזוֹנוֹת מִתְּנָאֵי הַכְּתֻבָּה:

5

Whether or not these matters were written in the marriage contract - indeed, even if a marriage contract was not written and the couple merely married - once they marry, the husband is granted the four privileges mentioned, and the woman is granted the ten rights mentioned. There is no need to state them explicitly.9

ה

כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִכְתְּבוּ בִּשְׁטַר הַכְּתֻבָּה וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא כָּתְבוּ כְּתֻבָּה אֶלָּא נָשָׂא סְתָם כֵּיוָן שֶׁנְּשָׂאָהּ זָכָה בְּאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים שֶׁלּוֹ וְזָכְתָה הָאִשָּׁה בַּעֲשָׂרָה דְּבָרִים שֶׁלָּהּ וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְפָרֵשׁ:

6

If the husband made a stipulation that he would not be responsible for one of these obligations - or the wife made a stipulation that [her husband] would not be granted one of these privileges - [and the other party agreed,] the stipulation is binding,10 with the exception of three matters with regard to which it is impossible for a stipulation to be made. Indeed, if a stipulation is made with regard to these three matters, it is of no consequence. These [three] are: [the woman's] conjugal rights, the fundamental requirement of the marriage contract and [the husband's right] to inherit [his wife's property].

ו

הִתְנָה הַבַּעַל שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַיֵּב בְּאֶחָד מִן הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בָּהֶן. אוֹ שֶׁהִתְנַת הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא יִזְכֶּה הַבַּעַל בְּאֶחָד מִן הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁהוּא זוֹכֶה בָּהֶם הַתְּנַאי קַיָּם חוּץ מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין הַתְּנַאי מוֹעִיל בָּהֶן. וְכָל הַמַּתְנֶה עֲלֵיהֶן תְּנָאוֹ בָּטֵל. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. עוֹנָתָהּ. וְעִקַּר כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. וִירֻשָּׁתָהּ:

7

What is implied? If [the groom] made a stipulation with his bride that he is not obligated to give her conjugal rights, his stipulation is of no substance. For he has made a stipulation against what is written in the Torah, and the stipulation does not concern financial matters.11

ז

כֵּיצַד. הִתְנָה עִם הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ עָלָיו עוֹנָה תְּנָאוֹ בָּטֵל וְחַיָּב בְּעוֹנָתָהּ. שֶׁהֲרֵי הִתְנָה עַל מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה וְאֵינוֹ תְּנַאי מָמוֹן:

8

When a man makes a stipulation to reduce the amount of the fundamental requirement of the marriage contract - or he writes a ketubah for either 200 or 100 [zuz], but she writes that she has already received a portion of the sum, when in fact she did not12 - his stipulation is of no substance.13 For whenever a person establishes a marriage contract with a virgin for less than 200 [zuz] or with a non-virgin for less than 100 [zuz], the sexual relations [he conducts with his wife] are considered promiscuous.14

ח

הִתְנָה עִמָּהּ לִפְחֹת מֵעִקַּר כְּתֻבָּה אוֹ שֶׁכָּתַב לָהּ מָאתַיִם אוֹ מֵאָה עִקַּר כְּתֻבָּה וְכָתְבָה לוֹ שֶׁנִּתְקַבְּלָה מֵהֶן כָּךְ וְכָךְ וְהִיא לֹא נִתְקַבְּלָה תְּנָאוֹ בָּטֵל שֶׁכָּל הַפּוֹחֵת לִבְתוּלָה מִמָּאתַיִם וּלְאַלְמָנָה מִמֵּאָה הֲרֵי בְּעִילָתוֹ בְּעִילַת זְנוּת:

9

If he makes a stipulation after he weds her15 that he will not inherit her property, his stipulation is of no consequence. Although the husband's [right to] inherit [his wife's property] is a rabbinic institution, [our Sages] reinforced their edict, [giving it the power of a statute of] the Torah.

With regard to [the Torah's statutes of] inheritance, all stipulations that are made are of no consequence, despite the fact that financial matters are concerned, as [derived from Numbers 27:11]: "the statutes of judgment."16

With regard to other [aspects of the marriage contract], a stipulation [made by the husband and accepted by his wife] is binding. For example, if he made a stipulation that he is not obligated to supply her with her subsistence or with clothing, or that he would not receive the benefits from her property, his stipulation is binding.

ט

הִתְנָה עִמָּהּ אַחַר שֶׁנְּשָׂאָהּ שֶׁלֹּא יִירָשֶׁנָּה תְּנָאוֹ בָּטֵל וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיְּרֻשַּׁת הַבַּעַל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים עָשׂוּ חִזּוּק לְדִבְרֵיהֶם כְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָה. וְכָל תְּנַאי שֶׁבַּיְרֻשָּׁה בָּטֵל וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מָמוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהּ (במדבר כז יא) "לְחֻקַּת מִשְׁפָּט". וּבִשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים תְּנָאוֹ קַיָּם, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמָּהּ שֶׁאֵין לָהּ שְׁאֵר וּכְסוּת, עַל מְנָת שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל פֵּרוֹת נְכָסֶיהָ, וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה, תְּנָאוֹ קַיָּם:

10

What is the amount that is designated for a woman's subsistence? We allot her bread for two meals every day, according to the norm of the people of her town, for a person who is neither sick nor a glutton.

The allotment is also made according to the type of bread eaten as a staple in that locale, be it wheat or barley, or rice, millet, or other grains, as is customary [in that locale]. Similarly, she is allotted other foods that are eaten together with bread - i.e., legumes, vegetables and the like. [She is also allotted] oil for food and to light a lamp and also fruit. She is also [allotted] a small amount of wine, if it is the local custom for women to drink wine.

On the Sabbath, she is allotted three meals,17 and meat or fish according to the local custom. And she is given a me'ah18 of silver for her private needs - e.g., a p'rutah for laundry, or for the bath and the like.

י

כַּמָּה מְזוֹנוֹת פּוֹסְקִין לָאִשָּׁה. פּוֹסְקִין לָהּ לֶחֶם שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת בְּכָל יוֹם סְעֻדָּה בֵּינוֹנִית שֶׁל כָּל אָדָם בְּאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר כְּאָדָם שֶׁאֵינוֹ לֹא חוֹלֶה וְלֹא גַּרְגְּרָן וּמֵאוֹתוֹ מַאֲכָל שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר. אִם חִטִּים חִטִּים וְאִם שְׂעוֹרִים שְׂעוֹרִים. וְכֵן אֹרֶז וְדֹחַן אוֹ מִשְּׁאָר מִינִין שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ בָּהֶן. וּפוֹסְקִין לָהּ פַּרְפֶּרֶת לֶאֱכל בָּהּ אֶת הַפַּת כְּגוֹן קִטְנִית אוֹ יְרָקוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְשֶׁמֶן לַאֲכִילָה וְשֶׁמֶן לְהַדְלָקַת הַנֵּר וּפֵרוֹת וּמְעַט יַיִן לִשְׁתּוֹת אִם הָיָה מִנְהַג הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיִּשְׁתּוּ הַנָּשִׁים יַיִן. וּפוֹסְקִין לָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ סְעֵדּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת וּבָשָׂר אוֹ דָּגִים כְּמִנְהַג הַמָּקוֹם. וְנוֹתֵן לָהּ בְּכָל שַׁבָּת וְשַׁבָּת מָעָה כֶּסֶף לִצְרָכֶיהָ כְּגוֹן פְּרוּטָה לְכִבּוּס אוֹ לְמֶרְחָץ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

11

To whom does the above apply? To a poor Jewish man. But if the husband is wealthy, [the support he is required to provide his wife is apportioned] according to his wealth. If he is wealthy enough to provide her with several dishes of meat each day, he is compelled to do so, and she is allotted [subsistence] commensurate with his wealth.

If he is extremely poor and is unable to provide his wife with even the bread that she requires,19 he is compelled to divorce her.20 He remains indebted for her ketubah until he finds the means to provide payment for it.

יא

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּעָנִי שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבָל אִם הָיָה עָשִׁיר הַכּל לְפִי עָשְׁרוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה מָמוֹנוֹ רָאוּי לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהּ כַּמָּה תַּבְשִׁילֵי בָּשָׂר בְּכָל יוֹם כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ וּפוֹסְקִין לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת כְּפִי מָמוֹנוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה עָנִי בְּיוֹתֵר וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִתֵּן לָהּ אֲפִלּוּ לֶחֶם שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה לוֹ כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְהוֹצִיא וְתִהְיֶה כְּתֻבָּתָהּ חוֹב עָלָיו עַד שֶׁתִּמְצָא יָדוֹ וְיִתֵּן:

12

When a husband desires to provide his wife with subsistence as befits her, on condition that she should eat and drink alone,21 and that he should eat and drink alone, he is given this prerogative, provided he eats together with her on Friday night.22

יב

בַּעַל שֶׁרָצָה לִתֵּן לְאִשְׁתּוֹ מְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ הָרְאוּיוֹת לָהּ וְתִהְיֶה אוֹכֶלֶת וְשׁוֹתָה לְעַצְמָהּ וְהוּא שׁוֹתֶה וְאוֹכֵל לְעַצְמוֹ הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל עִמָּהּ מִלֵּילֵי שַׁבָּת לְלֵילֵי שַׁבָּת:

13

When a woman has been allotted subsistence, and [the entire allotment was not used], the remainder belongs to her husband.23

If her husband is a priest, he is not entitled to provide her with all her provisions from terumah. [He is not given this option] because it is very difficult for her to protect [the terumah] from contacting ritual impurity, and to eat it while ritually pure [herself].24 Instead, he should give her half her provisions from ordinary [food] and half from terumah.

יג

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁפָּסְקוּ לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת וְהוֹתִירוּ הַמּוֹתָר לַבַּעַל. הָיָה בַּעְלָהּ כֹּהֵן אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן לָהּ כָּל מְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ תְּרוּמָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטֹּרַח גָּדוֹל הוּא לָהּ לְשָׁמְרָן מִדְּבָרִים הַמְטַמְּאִין וּלְאָכְלָן בְּטָהֳרָה אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן לָהּ מֶחֱצָה חֻלִּין וּמֶחֱצָה תְּרוּמָה:

14

Just as a man is required to provide his wife with her subsistence, he is required to provide for the maintenance of his children, both male and female, until they reach the age of six.25Afterwards, he should continue to provide for their maintenance until they reach majority, as ordained by our Sages.26

If, however, he does not, he should be rebuked and embarrassed publicly, and appeals should be made to him. If he [persists in his] refusal, a public announcement is made with regard to him: "So and so is cruel and does not desire to provide for the maintenance of his children. He is worse than an impure bird, which does provide for its chicks." Nevertheless, he should not be compelled to provide for the maintenance [of children] six and older.

יד

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָדָם חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ כָּךְ הוּא חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹת בָּנָיו וּבְנוֹתָיו הַקְּטַנִּים עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בְּנֵי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים. מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ מַאֲכִילָן עַד שֶׁיִּגְדְּלוּ כְּתַקָּנַת חֲכָמִים. וְאִם לֹא רָצָה גּוֹעֲרִין בּוֹ וּמַכְלִימִין אוֹתוֹ וּפוֹצְרִין בּוֹ. וְאִם לֹא רָצָה מַכְרִיזִין עָלָיו בַּצִּבּוּר וְאוֹמְרִים פְּלוֹנִי אַכְזָרִי הוּא וְאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לָזוּן בָּנָיו וַהֲרֵי פָּחוּת הוּא מֵעוֹף טָמֵא שֶׁהוּא זָן אֶת אֶפְרוֹחָיו. וְאֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְזוּנָם אַחַר שֵׁשׁ:

15

To what does the above apply? To a person who is not known to have resources, and it is not known whether or not he is capable of giving charity. If, however, he has resources and he possesses the means to give an amount to charity that would provide for [his children's] needs, his property is expropriated against his will27 for the purposes of charity,28 and [his children's] needs are provided for until they reach majority.

טו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּאִישׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ אָמוּד וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם רָאוּי לִתֵּן צְדָקָה אוֹ אֵינוֹ רָאוּי אֲבָל אִם הָיָה אָמוּד שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מָמוֹן הָרָאוּי לִתֵּן מִמֶּנּוּ צְדָקָה הַמַּסְפֶּקֶת לָהֶן מוֹצִיאִין מִמֶּנּוּ בַּעַל כָּרְחוֹ מִשּׁוּם צְדָקָה וְזָנִין אוֹתָן עַד שֶׁיִּגְדְּלוּ:

16

When a person travels to another country [and leaves his wife behind], [the following rules apply] should his wife come to court to place a claim [against her husband] for her subsistence. For the first three months from the day her husband departed, she is not given an allotment for her subsistence. [The rationale is that] it is an accepted assumption that a person does not depart without leaving provisions for his household.29

Afterwards,30 an allotment is made for her subsistence. If her husband owns property, the court expropriates his property and sells it to provide for his wife's subsistence. [When doing so,] no account is made for his wife's earnings until her husband comes.31 If it is discovered that she earned [money during the time that he was away], he is granted that sum.

Moreover, even if the matter is not taken to court, and instead the woman sells [her husband's property] on her own32 in order to pay for her subsistence, the sale is binding. There is no need for a public announcement [regarding the sale of the property].33 Similarly, the woman is not required to take an oath [that her husband did not leave her money] until her husband comes and lodges a claim [against her], or until she comes to claim [the money due her, as stated in her] ketubah in the event of her husband's death. [In the latter instance, together with the oaths she is required to take to collect her ketubah,]34 on the basis of the principle of gilgul shevu'ah,35 [she is also required to take an oath] that she did not sell [any more of her husband's property than] was necessary for her subsistence.

טז

מִי שֶׁהָלַךְ לִמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת וּבָאָה אִשְׁתּוֹ לְבֵית דִּין לִתְבֹּעַ מְזוֹנוֹת. שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים מִיּוֹם הֲלִיכָתוֹ אֵין פּוֹסְקִין לָהּ בָּהֶן מְזוֹנוֹת שֶׁחֲזָקָה שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַנִּיחַ בֵּיתוֹ רֵיקָן. מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ פּוֹסְקִין לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת. וְאִם הָיוּ לוֹ נְכָסִים בֵּית דִּין יוֹרְדִין לִנְכָסָיו וּמוֹכְרִין לִמְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ. וְאֵין מְחַשְּׁבִין עִמָּהּ עַל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא בַּעְלָהּ, אִם מָצָא שֶׁעָשְׂתָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. וְכֵן אִם לֹא עָמְדָה בַּדִּין אֶלָּא מָכְרָה לְעַצְמָהּ לִמְזוֹנוֹת מִכְרָהּ קַיָּם וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה הַכְרָזָה וְלֹא שְׁבוּעָה עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא בַּעְלָהּ וְיִטְעֹן אוֹ עַד שֶׁתָּבוֹא לִגְבּוֹת כְּתֻבָּתָהּ אַחַר מוֹתוֹ מְגַלְגְּלִין עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא מָכְרָה אֶלָּא לִמְזוֹנוֹת שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה לָהֶן:

17

Just as the court [expropriates and] sells [the property of] a husband who travelled [to another country to provide for] the subsistence of [his] wife, so too, it [expropriates and] sells property to provide for the subsistence of his sons and daughters who are six years old or less. If, however, they are more than six [years old], [the court] does not provide for their subsistence from his property when he is not present, even when he is reputed to have means.36

Similarly, when a person loses his mental faculties, the court expropriates his property and sells it to provide subsistence and other necessities for his wife and his children below the age of six.37

יז

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁבֵּית דִּין מוֹכְרִין לִמְזוֹן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהָלַךְ בַּעְלָהּ כָּךְ מוֹכְרִין לִמְזוֹן בָּנָיו וּבְנוֹתָיו כְּשֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹ פָּחוֹת. אֲבָל יֶתֶר עַל שֵׁשׁ אֵינָן זָנִין אוֹתָן מִנְּכָסָיו שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אָמוּד. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּטָּה בֵּית דִּין יוֹרְדִין לִנְכָסָיו וּמוֹכְרִים וְזָנִין אִשְׁתּוֹ וּבָנָיו וּבְנוֹתָיו שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹ פָּחוֹת וּמְפַרְנְסִין אוֹתָן:

18

Some geonim ruled that an assessment should not be made for the subsistence of a woman whose husband journeyed overseas, or who died, unless she evinces possession of her ketubah document. If she does not evince possession of her ketubah, she is not entitled to subsistence. Perhaps she has already received payment for her ketubah from her husband, or perhaps she forfeited her ketubah in his favor, as will be explained.38 Others maintain that an assessment is made on her behalf for her subsistence, for we accept it as a presumption that she neither received payment for nor forfeited [her ketubah]. Hence, she is not required to show her ketubah [when presenting her claim].

I favor [the latter view] with regard to [a woman] whose husband has departed,39 since her claim to her subsistence stems from the Torah itself.40 With regard to a woman whose husband died, however, she is not entitled to her subsistence until she brings her ketubah, for she [derives her subsistence] by virtue of a rabbinic enactment. Furthermore, her subsistence is paid from property belonging to [her husband's] heirs, and [the court] always advances claims in support of the interests of an heir.41

יח

יֵשׁ מִן הַגְּאוֹנִים שֶׁהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין פּוֹסְקִין מְזוֹנוֹת לְאִשָּׁה שֶׁהָלַךְ בַּעְלָהּ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם אוֹ שֶׁמֵּת בַּעְלָהּ עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא שְׁטַר כְּתֻבָּה יוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת יָדָהּ. וְאִם לֹא תּוֹצִיא שְׁטַר כְּתֻבָּה אֵין לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת שֶׁמָּא נָטְלָה כְּתֻבָּתָהּ מִבַּעְלָהּ אוֹ מָחֲלָה לוֹ כְּתֻבָּתָהּ שֶׁאֵין לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁהוֹרָה שֶׁפּוֹסְקִין לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁלֹּא נָטְלָה וְלֹא מָחֲלָה וְאֵין מַצְרִיכִין אוֹתָהּ לְהָבִיא כְּתֻבָּה. וְדַעְתִּי נוֹטָה לָזֶה בְּמִי שֶׁהָלַךְ בַּעְלָהּ הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת מִן הַתּוֹרָה. אֲבָל אִם מֵת בַּעְלָהּ אֵין לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת עַד שֶׁתָּבִיא כְּתֻבָּה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא אוֹכֶלֶת בְּתַקָּנַת חֲכָמִים וְעוֹד שֶׁנִּזֹּנֶת מִנִּכְסֵי יוֹרְשִׁים וּלְעוֹלָם טוֹעֲנִין לְיוֹרֵשׁ:

19

If [a woman's] husband departed on a journey, and she borrowed money for her subsistence, [her husband] is required to pay [the debt] when he returns.42

If a person voluntarily took the initiative of providing for her subsistence, when [her husband] returns the husband is not required to pay [that person]. The other person forfeited his money, [the rationale being] that [the husband] did not instruct him to provide for her, nor did she [request the assistance] as a loan.43

יט

הָלַךְ בַּעְלָהּ וְלָוְתָה וְאָכְלָה כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. עָמַד אֶחָד מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ וְזָנָהּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ אִם יָבוֹא הַבַּעַל אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ וַהֲרֵי זֶה אִבֵּד אֶת מְעוֹתָיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא צִוָּהוּ לְזוּנָהּ וְהִיא לֹא לָוְתָה מִמֶּנּוּ:

20

When a husband [who plans to] depart on a journey tells his wife: "Use your earnings to purchase your subsistence," she has no [right to demand] her subsistence [from him afterwards]. For if she had not accepted this agreement, and she had not felt confident, she could have issued a claim against him, or told him, "My earnings are not sufficient for me."44

כ

הַבַּעַל שֶׁאָמַר לְאִשְׁתּוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָלַךְ טְלִי מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַיִךְ בִּמְזוֹנוֹתַיִךְ אֵין לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת שֶׁאִלּוּ לֹא רָצְתָה בְּדָבָר זֶה וְלֹא סָמְכָה דַּעְתָּהּ הָיָה לָהּ לְתָבְעוֹ אוֹ לוֹמַר לוֹ אֵין מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי מַסְפִּיקִין לִי:

21

[The following rule applies if] the woman took the matter to court and was awarded an assessment for her subsistence, the court sold [her husband's landed property] and gave her [the proceeds] - or she sold [the property] herself - and afterwards, the husband came and claimed that he left provisions for her. She is required to take an oath, while holding a sacred article, that he did not make provisions for her [and then she is not held liable].

[The following rule applies when a husband departed on a journey, and the woman] did not take the matter to court, nor sell his property, but instead waited until he returned. [If upon his return there is a dispute,] he claims: "I made [provisions for you]," while she claims, "You did not make provisions. Instead, I borrowed money from this person to provide for myself," he is required to take a rabbinic oath45 that he left provisions for her, and then he is not held liable. She remains responsible for the debt.46

כא

הֲרֵי שֶׁעָמְדָה בַּדִּין וּפָסְקוּ לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת וּמָכְרוּ בֵּין דִּין וְנָתְנוּ לָהּ. אוֹ שֶׁמָּכְרָה הִיא לְעַצְמָהּ וּבָא הַבַּעַל וְאָמַר הִנַּחְתִּי לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת. הֲרֵי זוֹ נִשְׁבַּעַת בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ לָהּ. לֹא תָּבְעָה וְלֹא מָכְרָה אֶלָּא שָׁהֲתָה עַד שֶׁבָּא הוּא אוֹמֵר הִנַּחְתִּי וְהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת לֹא הִנַּחְתָּ אֶלָּא לָוִיתִי מִזֶּה וְנִתְפַּרְנַסְתִּי. נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת שֶׁהִנִּיחַ לָהּ וְנִפְטָר וְיִשָּׁאֵר הַחוֹב עָלֶיהָ:

22

[In the above instance,] if she sold movable property, claiming that she sold it to provide for her subsistence, and her husband claimed that he had left provisions for her, she is required to take a rabbinic oath that he did not leave her any provisions.47

If she did not issue a claim against him, did not borrow money, and she did not sell his property, but instead strained herself during the day and during the night and earned her livelihood, she is not entitled to any recompense.48

כב

מָכְרָה מִטַּלְטְלִין וְאָמְרָה לִמְזוֹנוֹת מָכַרְתִּי וְהוּא טוֹעֵן וְאוֹמֵר מְזוֹנוֹתַיִךְ הִנַּחְתִּי נִשְׁבַּעַת שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ. הֲרֵי שֶׁלֹּא תָּבְעָה וְלֹא לָוְתָה וְלֹא מָכְרָה אֶלָּא דָּחֲקָה עַצְמָהּ בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה וְעָשְׂתָה וְאָכְלָה אֵין לָהּ כְּלוּם:

23

[The following rules apply when] a man takes a vow that his wife should not derive any benefit from him [or his property]. Whether he specified the span of the vow or did not specify the span of the vow, we grant him an interval of thirty days.49 If the span of his vow is concluded, or even though it is not concluded, but he has his vow annulled, this is acceptable. If not, he must divorce his wife,50 and pay her [the money due her because of] her ketubah.

During those thirty days, she should work and [attempt to] sustain herself [through her labor]. One of [her husband's] friends should provide her51 with those things she needs that she cannot purchase through the fruits of her labor, if the fruits of her labor are not sufficient for her.

כג

הַמַּדִּיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ מִלֵּהָנוֹת לוֹ בֵּין שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ עַד זְמַן פְּלוֹנִי בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ אֶלָּא סְתָם מַמְתִּינִין לוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. אִם תַּמּוּ יְמֵי נִדְרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תַּמּוּ וְהִתִּיר נִדְרוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מוּטָב וְאִם לָאו יוֹצִיא וְיִתֵּן כְּתֻבָּה. וּבְאוֹתָן הַשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם תִּהְיֶה הִיא עוֹשָׂה וְאוֹכֶלֶת וְיִהְיֶה אֶחָד מֵחֲבֵרָיו מְפַרְנֵס אוֹתָהּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה לָהֶן יֶתֶר עַל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ אִם אֵין מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ מַסְפִּיקִין לַכּל:

24

When a person makes a vow [preventing] his wife from tasting one of the species of produce,52 he should be given an interval of thirty days. [If he prolongs the situation] beyond this time, he is required to divorce [his wife] and pay [her the money due her by virtue of her] ketubah. [This ruling applies] even when his vow prevents her from eating undesirable food, or a species that she has never tasted in her life.

[The following rules apply when a woman] took a vow not to partake of a particular species of produce, and [her husband] allowed the vow to stand, or she took a Nazarite vow and he did not annul it.53 If he desires to remain married to her and for her not to partake of this species or to be a Nazarite, he may.54 If, however, he says: "I do not desire a woman with vows," he may divorce her, but he is required to pay her the money due her because of her ketubah. [The rationale is that] he had the option to nullify [her vow], and instead, he willingly allowed the vow to stand.

כד

הַמַּדִּיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תִּטְעֹם אֶחָד מִכָּל הַפֵּרוֹת מַמְתִּינִין לוֹ עַד שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. יֶתֶר עַל כֵּן יוֹצִיא וְיִתֵּן כְּתֻבָּה. אֲפִלּוּ הִדִּירָהּ שֶׁלֹּא תֹּאכַל מַאֲכָל רַע. אֲפִלּוּ הִדִּירָהּ מִמִּין שֶׁלֹּא אָכְלָה אוֹתוֹ מִיָּמֶיהָ. יוֹצִיא אַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וְיִתֵּן כְּתֻבָּה. נָדְרָה הִיא שֶׁלֹּא תֹּאכַל אֶחָד מִכָּל הַפֵּרוֹת וְקִיֵּם לָהּ הוּא אֶת נִדְרָהּ אוֹ נָדְרָה בְּנָזִיר וְלֹא הֵפֵר לָהּ. אִם רָצָה שֶׁתֵּשֵׁב תַּחְתָּיו וְלֹא תֹּאכַל פֵּרוֹת אוֹ תִּהְיֶה נְזִירָה תֵּשֵׁב. וְאִם אָמַר אֵינִי רוֹצֶה בְּאִשָּׁה נַדְרָנִית יוֹצִיא וְיִתֵּן כְּתֻבָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי הָיָה בְּיָדוֹ לְהָפֵר וְהוּא קִיֵּם לָהּ בִּרְצוֹנוֹ: