1

When [a man] tells a woman: "Behold, you are consecrated to me with this cup of wine," and the cup is discovered to contain honey [she is not consecrated]. [Similarly, if he tells her: "...Behold, you are consecrated to me with this cup] of honey," and the cup is discovered to contain wine;1 "...with this dinar of silver," and it is discovered to be gold; "...[with this dinar] of gold," and it is discovered to be silver; "...on condition that I am a priest," and he was discovered to be a Levite; "[on condition that I am] a Levite," and he was discovered to be a priest; "...[on condition that I am] a Givonite,"2 and he was discovered to be a bastard; "...[on condition that I am] a bastard," and he was discovered to be a Givonite; "...[on condition that I am] an inhabitant of a town," and he was discovered to be an inhabitant of a metropolis; "...[on condition that I am] an inhabitant of a metropolis," and he was discovered to be an inhabitant of a town; "...on condition that I am poor," and he was discovered to be rich; "...[on condition that I am] rich," and he was discovered to be poor; "...on condition that my house is close to the bathhouse," and it is discovered to be distant from it; "...[on condition that my house is] distant from the bathhouse," and it is discovered to be close to it; "...on condition that I have a maid," "...a daughter who knows how to braid hair," or "...who bakes," and [it is discovered that] he does not have one; "...on condition that he does not have [one of the above,] and [it is discovered that] he does; "...on condition that he has a wife and children," and [it is discovered that] he does not; "...on condition that he does not have [the above,] and [it is discovered that] he does - in all these and in any similar instance, the woman is not consecrated. The same rule applies if she [makes a condition based on] false information.

א

האומר לאשה הרי את מקודשת לי בכוס זה של יין ונמצא של דבש. של דבש ונמצא של יין. בדינר זה של כסף ונמצא של זהב. של זהב ונמצא של כסף. על מנת שאני כהן ונמצא לוי. לוי ונמצא כהן. נתין ונמצא ממזר. ממזר ונמצא נתין. בן עיר ונמצא בן כרך. בן כרך ונמצא בן עיר. על מנת שאני עני ונמצא עשיר. עשיר ונמצא עני. על מנת שביתי קרוב למרחץ ונמצא רחוק. רחוק ונמצא קרוב. על מנת שיש לי שפחה או בת גודלת או אופה ואין לו. על מנת שאין לו ויש לו. על מנת שיש לי אשה ובנים ואין לו. על מנת שאין לי ויש לו. בכל אלו וכל הדומה להן אינה מקודשת. וכן היא שהטעתו:

2

In all the above instances, she is not consecrated even though she says: "In my heart, I was willing to be consecrated to him even though he deceived me and gave me wrong information." Similarly, [if she gave him false information,] she is not consecrated even though he says: "In my heart, I was willing to consecrate her even though she deceived me." [The rationale is that] feelings in one's heart are not [the same as explicit] statements.

ב

ובכולם אף ע"פ שאמרה בלבי היה להתקדש לו אע"פ שהטעני ואין הדבר כמו שאמר. וכן אם אמר הוא בלבי היה לקדשה אע"פ שהטעתני אינה מקודשת לפי שהדברים שבלב אינם דברים:

3

[When a man tells a woman:] "Behold, you are consecrated to me on condition that I am a perfumer," and it is discovered that he is both a perfumer and a leather craftsman;3 "...on condition that I am an inhabitant of a town," and he was discovered to be an inhabitant of both a town and a metropolis;4 or "...on condition that my name is Yosef," and it was discovered that his name was Yosef and Shimon; she is consecrated.

If, however, he told her: "[Behold, you are consecrated to me] on condition that my name is only Yosef," and it was discovered that his name was Yosef and Shimon; "...on condition that I am solely a perfumer," and it is discovered that he is both a perfumer and a leather craftsman; or "...on condition that I am solely an inhabitant of a town," and he was discovered to be an inhabitant of both a town and a metropolis; she is not consecrated.

ג

הרי את מקודשת לי על מנת שאני בסם ונמצא בסם ובורסי. על מנת שאני בן עיר ונמצא בן עיר ובן כרך. על מנת ששמי יוסף ונמצא שמו יוסף ושמעון הרי זו מקודשת. אבל אם אמר לה על מנת שאין שמי אלא יוסף ונמצא שמו יוסף ושמעון. שאיני אלא בסם ונמצא בסם ובורסי. שאיני אלא בן עיר ונמצא בן כרך ובן עיר אינה מקודשת:

4

When [a man] tells a woman: "Behold, you are consecrated to me on condition that I know how to read," [for the stipulation to be fulfilled] it is necessary that he know how to read from the Torah and translate what he reads according to the translation of Onkelos the convert.

If he tells her: "...on condition that I am a reader," he must know how to read the Torah, the works of the Prophets and the Holy Writings with proper grammatical precision. [If he tells her:] "...on condition that I know how to study the Mishnah," he must know how to read the Mishnah. "...On condition that I am a sage of the Mishnah," he must know how to read the Mishnah, the Sifra,5 the Sifre,6 and the Tosefta of Rabbi Chiyya.7

ד

האומר לאשה הרי את מקודשת לי על מנת שאני ידוע לקרות. צריך שיקרא התורה ויתרגם אותה תרגום אונקלוס הגר. ואם אמר לה על מנת שאני קורא צריך להיות יודע לקרות תורה נביאים וכתובים בדקדוק יפה. על מנת שאני יודע לשנות צריך להיות יודע לקרות המשנה. ואם אמר על מנת שאני תנאה צריך להיות יודע לקרות המשנה וספרא וסיפרי ותוספתא של ר' חייא:

5

[When a man tells a woman: "Behold, you are consecrated to me] on condition that I am a student [of the Torah]," we do not say that [he must be a student] of the caliber of ben Azzai and ben Zoma.8 Instead, it is sufficient that when one asks him a question regarding his studies, he is able to answer. [This includes] even the laws of the festivals that are studied in public; these are easy matters that are studied close to the festival, so that people at large will be familiar with them.

[When a man tells a woman: "Behold, you are consecrated to me] on condition that I am a wise man," we do not say that [he must be] like Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues. Instead, it is sufficient that when one asks him a point of logic with regard to any subject, he is able to answer. "...On condition that I am mighty," we do not say that [he must be] like Avner ben Ner9 or Yoav.10 Rather, it is sufficient that his colleagues fear him because of his might. "...On condition that I am rich," we do not say that [he must be as wealthy] as Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah.11 Rather, it is sufficient that the inhabitants of his city honor him because of his wealth.

[When a man tells a woman: "Behold, you are consecrated to me] on condition that I am righteous," even if the person is known to be thoroughly wicked, there is doubt [regarding the status of the kiddushin, and] the woman is considered as consecrated. For it is possible that he had thoughts of repentance in his heart at that time.12

"...On condition that I am wicked," even if the person is known to be thoroughly righteous, there is doubt [regarding the status of the kiddushin, and] the woman is considered as consecrated, since it is possible that he had thoughts of idol worship in his heart at that time. For the sin of idol worship is so great that even when a person thinks of serving [idols] in his heart,13 he is considered wicked, as [implied by Deuteronomy 11:16, which] states: "lest your hearts be tempted [and you go astray and serve other gods]," and [Ezekiel 14:5, which] states: "that I may detect the House of Israel in their hearts [for they are all estranged from Me because of their idols]."

ה

על מנת שאני תלמיד אין אומרין כבן עזאי ובן זומא אלא כל ששואלין אותו דבר אחד בתלמודו ואומרו ואפילו בהלכות החג שמלמדין אותן ברבים מדברים הקלים סמוך לחג כדי שיהיו כל העם בקיאין בהן. על מנת שאני חכם אין אומרין כר"ע וחביריו אלא כל ששואלין אותו בכל מקום דבר חכמה ואומר. על מנת שאני גבור אין אומרין כאבנר בן נר וכיואב אלא כל שחביריו מתייראים ממנו מפני גבורתו. על מנת שאני עשיר אין אומרין [כר' אלעזר בן חרסום] וכרבי אלעזר בן עזריה אלא כל שבני עירו מכבדין אותו מפני עושרו. על מנת שאני צדיק אפילו רשע גמור הרי זו מקודשת מספק שמא הרהר תשובה בלבו. על מנת שאני רשע אפילו צדיק גמור הרי זו מקודשת מספק שמא הרהר בעכו"ם בלבו שעון עכו"ם גדול הוא ומשיהרהר לעבוד בלבו נעשה רשע שנאמר פן יפתה לבבכם. וכתוב למען תפוש את בית ישראל בלבם:

6

[When a man] consecrates a woman and says, "I thought she was from a priestly family, and instead she is from a family of Levites," "...from a family of Levites, and instead she is from a priestly family," "...poor, and instead she is rich," or "...rich, and instead she is poor," she is consecrated, for she did not cause him to err.14

Similarly, if she says, "I thought he was a priest, and instead he is a Levite," "...a Levite, and instead he is a priest," "...poor, and instead he is rich," or "...rich, and instead he is poor," she is consecrated, for he did not cause her to err.

ו

המקדש את האשה ואמר הייתי סבור שהיא כהנת והרי היא לוייה. לוייה והרי היא כהנת. ענייה והרי היא עשירה. עשירה והרי היא ענייה. הרי זו מקודשת מפני שלא הטעתו. וכן היא שאמרה סבורה הייתי שהוא כהן והרי הוא לוי. לוי והרי הוא כהן. עשיר והרי הוא עני. עני והרי הוא עשיר. הרי זו מקודשת מפני שלא הטעה אותה: