All the utensils used for weaving, including the cords and the reeds, may be carried [according to the rules governing] other utensils that are used for forbidden tasks.1 An exception is made regarding the upper weaver's beam and the lower weaver's beam. They may not be carried, because they are [usually] fixed [within the loom].2

Similarly, the pillars [of the loam] may not be moved, lest one fill the hole [in the earth created when they are removed]. It is permitted to move the other utensils of a weaver.3


כָּל כְּלֵי הָאוֹרֵג וַחֲבָלָיו וְקָנִים שֶׁלּוֹ מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר חוּץ מִכֹּבֶד הָעֶלְיוֹן וְכֹבֶד הַתַּחְתּוֹן לְפִי שֶׁאֵין נִטָּלִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן תְּקוּעִין. וְכֵן הָעַמּוּדִים שֶׁל אוֹרֵג אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן שֶׁמָּא יְתַקֵּן הַגֻּמּוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן. וּשְׁאָר כְּלֵי הָאוֹרֵג מֻתָּרִין:


Brooms made of date branches and the like, which are used to sweep the ground, are considered utensils that are used for a permitted purpose, since sweeping is permitted on the Sabbath.4

Bricks that remain after a building [was completed] are considered utensils that are used for a permitted purpose, for they are fit to recline upon,5, as is obvious from the fact that they are filed and adjusted for this purpose.6 If, however, one collects them, [it is evident] that they have been set aside [for building], and it is forbidden to carry them.7


מִכְבָּדוֹת שֶׁל תְּמָרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁמְּכַבְּדִין בָּהֶן אֶת הַקַּרְקַע הֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לְכַבֵּד בְּשַׁבָּת. לְבֵנִים שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ מִן הַבִּנְיָן הֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרְאוּיִין לְהָסֵב עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי שָׁפִין אוֹתָן וּמְתַקְּנִין אוֹתָן. וְאִם צָבַר אוֹתָן הֲרֵי הִקְצָם וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם:


A small shard may be carried, even in the public domain.8[This leniency is granted] because it is fit to be used in a courtyard to cover the opening of a small utensil.9 [When] the stopper of a barrel has been cut off, both it and its broken pieces are permitted to be carried. If one threw it into a garbage dump10 before the commencement of the Sabbath,11 carrying it is forbidden.

When a utensil has been broken [but not shattered into pieces], one should not remove a shard from it to use to cover [another utensil] or to use as a support.


חֶרֶס קְטַנָּה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הוֹאִיל וּרְאוּיָה הִיא בְּחָצֵר לְכַסּוֹת בָּהּ פִּי כְּלִי קָטָן. מְגוּפַת חָבִית שֶׁנִּתְכַּתְתָּה הִיא וּשְׁבָרֶיהָ מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ וְאִם זְרָקָהּ לָאַשְׁפָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ. כְּלִי שֶׁנִּתְרוֹעֵעַ לֹא יִתְלֹשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ חֶרֶס לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ אוֹ לִסְמֹךְ בּוֹ:


It is permitted to bring three rounded12 stones into a lavatory to clean oneself.13 Of what size may they be? A fistful.14A clod of earth, by contrast, which is likely to crumble, is forbidden to be taken to clean oneself.15

It is permitted to take these stones up to a roof [so that one will be able] to clean oneself with them.16 When rain descends upon them and they sink in the mud, they may be taken if there is a distinct mark [showing their location].17

[When] a stone has filth on it, one can be certain that it is used to clean oneself. Therefore, carrying it is permitted it even though it is large.18


מֻתָּר לְהַכְנִיס לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא שָׁלֹשׁ אֲבָנִים מְקֻרְזָלוֹת לְקַנֵּחַ בָּהֶן וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרָן כִּמְלֹא הַיָּד. אֲבָל אֲדָמָה שֶׁהִיא קְרוֹבָה לְהִתְפָּרֵךְ אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ לְקַנֵּחַ בָּהּ. וּמֻתָּר לְהַעֲלוֹת אֲבָנִים לַגַּג לְקַנֵּחַ בָּהֶן. יָרְדוּ עֲלֵיהֶן גְּשָׁמִים וְנִשְׁתַּקְעוּ בְּטִיט אִם רִשּׁוּמָן נִכָּר מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל. אֶבֶן שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ טִנּוּף שֶׁוַּדַּאי לְקַנֵּחַ הִיא מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא גְּדוֹלָה:


Should a person have a choice of [using] a stone or an earthenware shard [to clean himself], one should use the stone.19If, however, the shard comes from the handle of a utensil, one should use the shard.20

[The following rules apply when] a person has a choice of [using] a stone or grass: If the grass is soft, one should use it.21 If not, one should use the stone.22


הָיָה לְפָנָיו צְרוֹר וְחֶרֶשׂ מְקַנֵּחַ בַּצְּרוֹר וְאִם הָיָה הַחֶרֶשׂ מֵאוֹגְנֵי כֵּלִים מְקַנֵּחַ בַּחֶרֶשׂ. הָיוּ לְפָנָיו צְרוֹר וַעֲשָׂבִים אִם הָיוּ עֲשָׂבִים רַכִּים מְקַנֵּחַ בָּהֶן וְאִם לָאו מְקַנֵּחַ בַּצְּרוֹר:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


The remnants of mats that have become tattered are considered utensils that may be used for a permitted purpose, for they are fit to be used to cover filth.23 In contrast, the remnants of clothes24 that are less than three [thumbbreadths] by three [thumbbreadths],25 and have become tattered may not be carried, for they are not fit - neither for the poor nor for the rich.26

The broken pieces of an oven are permitted to be carried; they are considered to be like all other utensils that are permitted to be carried.27 When, however, one leg of a range has slipped from its place, it may not be carried, lest one affix [it in its place].28


שְׁיָרֵי מַחְצְלָאוֹת שֶׁבָּלוּ הֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרְאוּיִין לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶן הַטִּנּוּף. אֲבָל שְׁיָרֵי בְּגָדִים שֶׁבָּלוּ שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לֹא לַעֲנִיִּים וְלֹא לַעֲשִׁירִים. שִׁבְרֵי הַתַּנּוּר מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן וַהֲרֵי הֵן כְּכָל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁמְּלַאכְתָּן לְהֶתֵּר. כִּירָה שֶׁנִּשְׁמְטָה אַחַת מִיַּרְכוֹתֶיהָ אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע:


A ladder leading to a loft is forbidden to be carried [on the Sabbath], since it is not considered to be a utensil.29 [A ladder leading] to a dovecote [by contrast, is not considered muktzeh30 and] is permitted to be tilted. One should not, however, carry it from one dovecote to another, lest one follow one's ordinary course of conduct and come to snare [the doves].

[The following rule governs the use of] a rod that is used to harvest olives:31 When it is categorized as a utensil,32 it is considered to be a utensil that is used for a forbidden purpose. [The following rule governs the use of] a reed that is adjusted by a homeowner to open and lock [his door]:33 When it is categorized as a utensil,34 it is considered to be a utensil that is used for a permitted purpose.


סֻלָּם שֶׁל עֲלִיָּה אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי. וְשֶׁל שׁוֹבָךְ מֻתָּר לְהַטּוֹתוֹ. אֲבָל לֹא יוֹלִיכוֹ מִשּׁוֹבָךְ לְשׁוֹבָךְ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל וְיָבוֹא לָצוּד. קָנֶה שֶׁמּוֹסְקִין בּוֹ הַזֵּיתִים אִם יֵשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי הֲרֵי הוּא כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר. קָנֶה שֶׁהִתְקִינוֹ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לִהְיוֹת פּוֹתֵחַ וְנוֹעֵל בּוֹ אִם יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו הֲרֵי הוּא כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר:


[The following rules apply to] a door35 that once had a hinge - though at present it does not have a hinge36 - which is prepared to close a yard,37 but which drags on the ground when it is opened and closed: If the door is attached to and hanging on the wall, it may be used to close the space and may be locked.38 If not, it may not be used to close the space. If the door is [suspended] above the ground, it may be used to close the space.39 The same rules apply to a [partition made from] brambles or a mat that drags on the floor.


דֶּלֶת שֶׁהָיָה לָהּ צִיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ עַתָּה צִיר שֶׁהֱכִינָהּ לִסְתֹּם בָּהּ מָקוֹם מֻקְצֶה וְהִיא נִגְרֶרֶת שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין אוֹתָהּ וְסוֹתְמִין בָּהּ. וְכֵן חֲדָקִים שֶׁסּוֹתְמִין בָּהֶן הַפִּרְצָה. וְכֵן מַחְצֶלֶת הַנִּגְרֶרֶת. בִּזְמַן שֶׁקְּשׁוּרִין וּתְלוּיִין בַּכֹּתֶל סוֹתְמִין בָּהֶן וְנוֹעֲלִים בָּהֶם וְאִם לָאו אֵין נוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. וְאִם הָיוּ גְּבוֹהִים מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ נוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן:


[The following rules apply to] a door that is made from a single piece of wood and which is placed in [a doorway] to close it and removed [to open it]. If [the doorway] does not have a base at the bottom that resembles a doorstep that would indicate that [the door] is a utensil that is used for [opening and] closing, [the door] may not be used to close [the doorway].40 If [the doorway] has a doorstep, one may use [the door].41

Similarly, a bolt that has a bulb at its end that indicates that it is a utensil used to bolt a door, and is not merely an ordinary beam, may be used to bolt a door on the Sabbath.42


דֶּלֶת שֶׁהָיָה לָהּ לוּחַ אֶחָד שֶׁשּׁוֹמְטִין אוֹתָהּ וְנוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ אִם לֹא הָיָה לָהּ לְמַטָּה כֵּן כְּמוֹ אַסְקֻפָּה שֶׁמּוֹכִיחַ עָלֶיהָ שֶׁהִיא כְּלִי מוּכָן לִנְעִילָה אֵין נוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ. וְאִם יֵשׁ לְמַטָּה אַסְקֻפָּה נוֹעֲלִים בָּהּ. וְכֵן נֶגֶר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ קְלֻסְטְרָא שֶׁמּוֹכַחַת עָלָיו שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי מוּכָן לִנְעִילָה וְאֵינוֹ קוֹרָה כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַקּוֹרוֹת נוֹעֲלִין בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת:


[The following rules apply to] a bolt that does not have a bulb at its end: If it is tied to the door and suspended from it, we may use it to bolt the door on the Sabbath.43 [This ruling] also applies when it is carried together with the rope attaching it to the door.44

If, by contrast, the rope attaching it is fixed permanently to the door and the bolt is removed like a beam, placed in a corner, and then reattached when one desires, its use as a bolt is forbidden [on the Sabbath].45 This is forbidden because [the bolt] is not considered to be a utensil, nor is there any indication [that it is being used as a utensil], for it is not attached to the door, nor is it connected to a rope.46


נֶגֶר שֶׁאֵין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ קְלֻסְטְרָא אִם הָיָה קָשׁוּר וְתָלוּי בַּדֶּלֶת נוֹעֲלִין בּוֹ. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה נִטָּל וְאֶגְדּוֹ עִמּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה אֶגְדּוֹ קָבוּעַ בַּדֶּלֶת וְהָיָה הַנֶּגֶר נִשְׁמָט כְּמוֹ קוֹרָה וּמַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ בַּזָּוִית וְחוֹזְרִין וְנוֹעֲלִין בּוֹ בְּעֵת שֶׁרוֹצִין הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לִנְעל בּוֹ שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי וְאֵינוֹ אָגוּד וְאֵין בּוֹ אֶגֶד לְהוֹכִיחַ עָלָיו:


A candelabrum that is made of several separate parts may not be moved on the Sabbath.47 [This restriction applies] regardless of whether it is large or small. [Why was this prohibition instituted? As a safeguard] lest [it fall apart and] one reconstruct it on the Sabbath.48

[The following rules apply when] a candelabrum has grooves and thus appears to resemble one that is made from several parts: If it is large and can be carried only with two hands, carrying it is forbidden because of its weight.49 If it is smaller than that, carrying it is permitted.50


מְנוֹרָה שֶׁל חֻלְיוֹת בֵּין גְּדוֹלָה בֵּין קְטַנָּה אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָהּ שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזִירֶנָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת. הָיוּ בָּהּ חֲדָקִים וְהִיא נִרְאֵית כְּבַעֲלַת חֻלְיוֹת. אִם הָיְתָה גְּדוֹלָה הַנִּטֶּלֶת בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדַיִם אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ מִפְּנֵי כָּבְדָהּ. הָיְתָה קְטַנָּה מִזּוֹ מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ:


We may remove a shoe from a shoemaker's block on the Sabbath.51 We may release a clothes press belonging to an ordinary person on the Sabbath. We may not, however, set the press in place.52 A press belonging to a launderer should not be touched at all; it is set aside not to be used, because of the financial loss [that might be incurred through its improper use].53

Similarly, unprocessed rolls of wool may not be carried,54 because [their owner] objects [to their use for purposes other than spinning fabric].55 Therefore, if they have been set aside for a particular purpose,56 it is permitted to use them. Unprocessed hides - regardless of whether they belong to a private person or to a [leather] craftsman - may be carried,57 because [their owner] does not object to their [use].58


מִנְעָל שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הָאִמּוּם שׁוֹמְטִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. מַכְבֵּשׁ שֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים מַתִּירִין אֲבָל לֹא כּוֹבְשִׁין. וְשֶׁל כּוֹבְסִין לֹא יִגַּע בּוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס. וְכֵן גִּזֵּי צֶמֶר אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶן. לְפִיכָךְ אִם יִחֲדָן לְתַשְׁמִישׁ מֻתָּרִין. וְהַשְּׁלָחִין מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁל אֻמָּן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶם:


All filth - e.g., feces, vomit, excrement, and the like - that is located in a courtyard where [people] are dwelling may be removed to a dung heap or to a latrine.59 Such entities are referred to as a chamber pot.60 If it is located in another courtyard, it should be covered by a utensil so that a child will not become soiled by it.

One may step on spittle that is lying on the ground without taking any notice of it.61 One may carry a warming-pan because of its ash. [This leniency is granted] despite the fact that it contains chips of wood,62 because it is equivalent to a chamber pot.

At the outset, we may not bring about the creation of a repulsive entity63 on the Sabbath. If, however, [such an entity] comes about as a natural process, or one transgresses and creates it, it may be removed.


כָּל דָּבָר מְטֻנָּף כְּגוֹן רְעִי וְקִיא וְצוֹאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אִם הָיוּ בְּחָצֵר שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין בָּהּ מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָן לְאַשְׁפָּה אוֹ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא וְזֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא גְּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי. וְאִם הָיוּ בְּחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת כּוֹפִין עֲלֵיהֶן כְּלִי כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא הַקָּטָן וְיִתְלַכְלֵךְ בָּהֶן. רֹק שֶׁעַל הַקַּרְקַע דּוֹרְסוֹ לְפִי תֻּמּוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ. מְטַלְטְלִין כְּנוּנָא מִפְּנֵי אֶפְרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו שִׁבְרֵי עֵצִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּגְרָף שֶׁל רְעִי. וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין גְּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת. אֲבָל אִם נַעֲשָׂה מֵאֵלָיו אוֹ שֶׁעָבַר וְעָשָׂהוּ מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ:


It is permitted to partake of oil that flows from beneath the beam of an olive press on the Sabbath64 and from dates and almonds that are prepared to be sold.65 One may even begin to take grain from a storehouse66 or from a grain pile on the Sabbath, for food never becomes muktzeh on the Sabbath at all. On the contrary, all [types of food] are [always] prepared for use.67

[There is, however, one] exception: figs and raisins that have been set aside to dry. Since they pass through an intermediate stage when they become repulsive and are unfit to eat,68 they are considered muktzeh and are forbidden [to be carried] on the Sabbath.69

A barrel [of wine] or a watermelon that was opened may be carried and stored away, even though it is no longer fit to eat.70 Similarly, an amulet that has not proven its efficacy may be moved, although one is forbidden to go out [into the public domain] wearing it.71

The oil that remains in a lamp or in a bowl that was kindled on a particular Sabbath may not be used on that Sabbath. It is muktzeh because of the forbidden [labor with which it was associated beyn hash'mashot].72


שֶׁמֶן שֶׁיּוֹצֵא מִתַּחַת הַקּוֹרָה שֶׁל בֵּית הַבַּד בְּשַׁבָּת וְכֵן תְּמָרִים וּשְׁקֵדִים הַמּוּכָנִים לִסְחוֹרָה מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָם בְּשַׁבָּת. וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹצָר שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה אוֹ תְּבוּאָה צְבוּרָה מַתְחִיל לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאֵין שׁוּם אֹכֶל שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה בְּשַׁבָּת כְּלָל אֶלָּא הַכּל מוּכָן הוּא. חוּץ מִגְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִין שֶׁבַּמֻּקְצֶה בִּזְמַן שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁים אוֹתָם הוֹאִיל וּמַסְרִיחוֹת בֵּינְתַיִם וְאֵינָם רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה הֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרִין בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה. חָבִית שֶׁנִּתְגַּלְּתָה וַאֲבַטִּיחַ שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה נוֹטְלָן וּמַנִּיחָן בְּמָקוֹם הַמֻּצְנָע. כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ קָמֵעַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין יוֹצְאִין בּוֹ מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתוֹ. מוֹתַר הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבַּנֵּר וְשֶׁבַּקְּעָרָה שֶׁהִדְלִיקוּ בָּהֶן בְּאוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ בְּאוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר:


Although taking [produce] from a storehouse of grain or of barrels of wine is permitted, it is forbidden to begin73 to empty [the storehouse]74 unless this is being done for a purpose associated with a mitzvah - e.g., emptying it to host guests or to establish a hall of study.

[In the latter situations,] how should the storehouse be emptied? Every person should take [out] four or five75 containers until it has been completely [cleared].76 We may not sweep the floor of the storehouse, as has been explained.77

[Even when one is forbidden to empty the storehouse,] one may enter and leave and create a path with one's feet by entering and leaving.


אוֹצָר שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה אוֹ שֶׁל כַּדֵּי יַיִן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ אָסוּר לְהַתְחִיל בּוֹ לְפַנּוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא לִדְבַר מִצְוָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁפִּנָּהוּ לְהַכְנָסַת אוֹרְחִין אוֹ לִקְבֹּעַ בּוֹ בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וְכֵיצַד מְפַנִּין אוֹתוֹ. כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מְמַלֵּא אַרְבַּע אוֹ חָמֵשׁ קֻפּוֹת עַד שֶׁגּוֹמְרִין. וְלֹא יְכַבְּדוּ קַרְקָעִיתוֹ שֶׁל אוֹצָר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ אֶלָּא נִכְנָס וְיוֹצֵא בּוֹ וְעוֹשֶׂה שְׁבִיל בְּרַגְלָיו בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ וּבִיצִיאָתוֹ:


Any substance that is fit to be used as food for an animal, beast, or fowl that is commonly found may be carried on the Sabbath. What is implied? One may carry dry turmos beans78 because they are food for goats. Fresh [turmos beans,] by contrast, may not [be carried].79 [One may carry] chatzav80 because it is food for deer, mustard seed because it is food for doves,81and bones because they are food for dogs.

Similarly, we may carry all the shells and seeds [of produce] that are fit to serve as animal fodder. Concerning those that are not fit to be eaten: One should eat the food and throw [the shells or seeds] behind one's back;82 carrying them is forbidden.

One may carry meat that has spoiled, for it is fit to be eaten by beasts.83 One may carry raw meat - whether salted or unsalted84- because it is fit to be eaten by humans. This ruling applies to [raw] fish that has been salted. By contrast, carrying unsalted [raw] fish is forbidden.85


כָּל שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה וְעוֹף הַמְּצוּיִין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. כֵּיצַד. מְטַלְטְלִין אֶת הַתֻּרְמוֹס הַיָּבֵשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לְעִזִּים אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הַלַּח. אֶת הֶחָצָב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לִצְבָאִים. אֶת הַחַרְדָּל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לְיוֹנִים. אֶת הָעֲצָמוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מַאֲכָל לִכְלָבִים. וְכֵן כָּל הַקְּלִפִּין וְהַגַּרְעִינִין הָרְאוּיִין לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן. וְשֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין אוֹכֵל אֶת הָאֹכֶל וְזוֹרְקָן לְאַחֲרָיו וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן. מְטַלְטְלִין בָּשָׂר תָּפוּחַ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לְחַיָּה. וּמְטַלְטְלִין בָּשָׂר חַי בֵּין תָּפֵל בֵּין מָלִיחַ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרָאוּי לְאָדָם. וְכֵן דָּג מָלִיחַ. אֲבָל הַתָּפֵל אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ:


We may not carry broken pieces of glass even though they are edible by ostriches,86 nor bundles of twigs from a vine even though they are edible by elephants, nor luf,87 even though it is edible by ravens. [These restrictions were instituted] because these and similar [species] are not commonly found among most people.88


אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין שִׁבְרֵי זְכוּכִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מַאֲכָל לְנַעֲמִיּוֹת. וְלֹא חֲבִילֵי זְמוֹרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מַאֲכָל לְפִילִים. וְלֹא אֶת הַלּוּף אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מַאֲכָל לְעוֹרְבִים. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מְצוּיִין אֵצֶל רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם:


[The following rules apply to] bundles of straw, bundles of wood, and bundles of twigs: If they were prepared89 to be used as animal fodder, one may carry them. If not, one may not carry them.

If one brought in bundles of wild hyssop, madder, hyssop, or thyme90 to be used as kindling wood, one may not use them on the Sabbath.91 If one brought them in for use as animal fodder, one may use them. Similar rules apply to mint, rue, and other herbs.


חֲבִילֵי קַשׁ וַחֲבִילֵי זְרָדִין אִם הִתְקִינָן לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן וְאִם לָאו אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן. חֲבִילֵי סֵיאָה פּוּאָה וְאֵזוֹב וְקוֹרָנִית. הִכְנִיסָן לְעֵצִים אֵין מִסְתַּפֵּק מֵהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת. לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה מִסְתַּפֵּק מֵהֶן. וְכֵן בַּאֲמִינְתָּא וְכֵן בְּפֵיגָם וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר מִינֵי תַּבְלִין:


We may not rake food that was placed before an ox that is being fattened for slaughter. [This applies regardless of whether the food has been placed] in a feeding trough that is a [separate] utensil92 or in an earthen feeding trough. [Similarly,] one may not shift [the food] to the side so that [it does not become mixed with] feces. [These restrictions are] decrees, [instituted] lest one level grooves [in the floor].93

One may take food that had been placed before a donkey and place it before an ox.94 One may not, by contrast, take food that had been placed before an ox and place it before a donkey. [This restriction was instituted] because the food that is before an ox becomes soiled by its spittle95 and is not fit to be eaten by another animal.96

Leaves that produce a foul and repulsive odor and are not eaten by animals may not be carried. For similar reasons, carrying the hook on which fish are hung is forbidden.97 By contrast, the hook on which meat is hung is permitted to be carried. The same applies in all similar situations.


אֵין גּוֹרְפִין מַאֲכָל מִלִּפְנֵי הַפְּטָם בֵּין בְּאֵבוּס שֶׁל כְּלִי בֵּין בְּאֵבוּס שֶׁל קַרְקַע. וְאֵין מְסַלְּקִין לַצְּדָדִין מִפְּנֵי הָרְעִי גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַשְׁוֶה גֻּמּוֹת. נוֹטְלִין מִלִּפְנֵי הַחֲמוֹר וְנוֹתְנִין לִפְנֵי הַשּׁוֹר. אֲבָל אֵין נוֹטְלִין מִלִּפְנֵי הַשּׁוֹר וְנוֹתְנִין לִפְנֵי הַחֲמוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּאֲכָל שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַשּׁוֹר מְטֻנָּף בְּרִירוֹ וְאֵין רָאוּי לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה אַחֶרֶת. וְכֵן עָלִים שֶׁרֵיחָם רַע וּמְאוּסִין וְאֵין הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹכַלְתָּן אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן. לְפִיכָךְ תְּלַאי שֶׁל דָּגִים אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ וְשֶׁל בָּשָׂר מֻתָּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


Although carrying a corpse on the Sabbath is forbidden, one may anoint it and wash it, provided one does not move any of its limbs.98 We may slip out a pillow from underneath it99 so that it will be lying on the ground100 to enable it to remain without decomposing.

We may bring a utensil that will cool [a corpse] or a metal utensil and place it on the belly [of the corpse] so that [the corpse] will not swell. We may stop up [the corpse's] orifices so that air will not enter them. We may tie its jaw - not so that it will close101 - but so that it will not [open] further. We may not close [a corpse's] eyes on the Sabbath.102


אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל אֶת הַמֵּת בְּשַׁבָּת סָכִין אוֹתוֹ וּמְדִיחִין אוֹתוֹ וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יָזִיזוּ בּוֹ אֵיבָר. וְשׁוֹמְטִין אֶת הַכַּר מִתַּחְתָּיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻטָּל עַל הַחוֹל בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיַּמְתִּין וְלֹא יַסְרִיחַ. וּמְבִיאִין כְּלֵי מֵיקֵר וּכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת וּמַנִּיחִין לוֹ עַל כְּרֵסוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפַּח. וּפוֹקְקִין אֶת נְקָבָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס בָּהֶן הָרוּחַ. וְקוֹשְׁרִין אֶת הַלֶּחִי לֹא שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יוֹסִיף. וְאֵין מְעַמְּצִין אֶת עֵינָיו בְּשַׁבָּת:


When a corpse is lying in the sun, we may place a loaf of bread103 or a baby on it and carry it [into the shade]. Similarly, if a fire breaks out in a courtyard where a corpse is lying, we may place a loaf of bread or a baby on it104 and carry it [out from the fire].105

Indeed, even if a loaf of bread or a baby are not available, one may save a corpse from a fire. [This leniency is granted] lest one extinguish the fire out of apprehension that the corpse not be consumed [by the flames].

[The leniency of carrying an entity with] a loaf of bread or a baby upon it is granted only in the case of a corpse, because a person is distraught over the corpse [of his loved ones].106


מֵת הַמֻּטָּל בַּחַמָּה מַנִּיחַ עָלָיו כִּכָּר אוֹ תִּינוֹק וּמְטַלְטְלוֹ. וְכֵן אִם נָפְלָה דְּלֵקָה בְּחָצֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מֵת מַנִּיחַ עָלָיו כִּכָּר אוֹ תִּינוֹק וּמְטַלְטְלוֹ. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם כִּכָּר וְלֹא תִּינוֹק מַצִּילִין אוֹתוֹ מִן הַדְּלֵקָה מִכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְכַבּוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בָּהוּל עַל מֵתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׂרֵף. וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ לְטַלְטֵל בְּכִכָּר אוֹ תִּינוֹק אֶלָּא לְמֵת בִּלְבַד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָדָם בָּהוּל עַל מֵתוֹ:


[The following procedure should be adhered to when] a corpse is lying in the sun and there is no place to carry it, or [the people] do not desire to move it from its place: Two people should come and sit, one on either side [of the corpse]. If it is [too] warm for them [to sit on the ground], they may both bring couches and sit on them. If it is [too] warm for them [to sit in the sun], they may both bring mats and spread them over the couches.107

[Afterwards,] they both may [depart], overturn their couches, and remove them [leaving the mats suspended over the corpse]. In this manner, the covering is created on its own accord, [as it were], for the two mats are next to each other and their two ends are located on the ground on either side of the corpse.


הָיָה מֻטָּל בַּחַמָּה וְאֵין לָהֶם מָקוֹם לְטַלְטְלוֹ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא רָצוּ לַהֲזִיזוֹ מִמְּקוֹמוֹ בָּאִין שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם וְיוֹשְׁבִים מִשְּׁנֵי צְדָדָיו. חַם לָהֶם מִלְּמַטָּה זֶה מֵבִיא מִטָּתוֹ וְיוֹשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ וְזֶה מֵבִיא מִטָּתוֹ וְיוֹשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ. חַם לָהֶם מִלְּמַעְלָה זֶה מֵבִיא מַחְצֶלֶת וּפוֹרֵשׁ עַל גַּבָּיו. וְזֶה מֵבִיא מַחְצֶלֶת וּפוֹרֵשׁ עַל גַּבָּיו. זֶה זוֹקֵף מִטָּתוֹ וְנִשְׁמָט וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ וְזֶה זוֹקֵף מִטָּתוֹ וְנִשְׁמָט וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ וְנִמְצָא מְחִצָּה עֲשׂוּיָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ. שֶׁהֲרֵי מַחְצֶלֶת זֶה וּמַחְצֶלֶת זֶה גַּגֵּיהֶן סְמוּכוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ וּשְׁנֵי קְצוֹתֵיהֶם עַל הַקַּרְקַע מִשְׁנִי צִדֵּי הַמֵּת:


When a corpse has decomposed108 in a house [to the extent that it produces a foul odor] and thus is being disgraced in the eyes of the living, and their honor is being compromised because of it, carrying it109 into a carmelit is permitted.110

[This leniency was granted because] the honor of the creatures is great enough to supersede [the observance of] a negative commandment of the Torah, namely: "Do not swerve right or left from the words they tell you" [Deuteronomy 17:11].111

If [the people in the home] have an alternative place to go, they may not remove the corpse. Instead, the corpse should be left in its place and they should depart.112


מֵת שֶׁהִסְרִיחַ בְּבַיִת וְנִמְצָא מִתְבַּזֶּה בֵּין הַחַיִּים וְהֵם מִתְבַּזִּים מִמֶּנּוּ מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ לְכַרְמְלִית. גָּדוֹל כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת שֶׁדּוֹחֶה אֶת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁהוּא (דברים יז יא) "לֹא תָסוּר מִן הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יַגִּידוּ לְךָ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל". וְאִם הָיָה לָהֶן מָקוֹם אַחֵר לָצֵאת בּוֹ אֵין מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא מְנִיחִין אוֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְיוֹצְאִין הֵם: