There are utensils that are used for permitted purposes - i.e., a utensil that may be used on the Sabbath for the same purpose for which it is used during the week - e.g., a cup to drink from, a bowl to eat from, a knife to cut meat or bread, a hatchet to crack open nuts,1 and the like.


יֵשׁ כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר וְהוּא הַכְּלִי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת דָּבָר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לוֹ בְּחל. כְּגוֹן כּוֹס לִשְׁתּוֹת בּוֹ וּקְעָרָה לֶאֱכל בָּהּ וְסַכִּין לְחִתּוּךְ בּוֹ בָּשָׂר וּפַת וְקֻרְנָס לִפְצֹעַ בּוֹ אֱגוֹזִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:


There are utensils that are used for forbidden purposes - i.e., a utensil that is forbidden to be used on the Sabbath for the same purpose that it is [ordinarily] used - e.g., a grinder, a mill, and the like - for it is forbidden to crush or grind on the Sabbath.


וְיֵשׁ כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר וְהוּא הַכְּלִי שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת דָּבָר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בּוֹ. כְּגוֹן מַכְתֶּשֶׁת וְרֵיחַיִם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁאָסוּר לִכְתּשׁ וְלִטְחֹן בְּשַׁבָּת:


All utensils used for purposes that are permitted may be carried on the Sabbath, whether they are made of wood, earthenware, stone, or metal. [They may be moved] for the sake of the utensil, for the use of the place [it occupies], or to use it [for a purpose that is permitted].2

All utensils used for purposes that are forbidden, whether they are made of wood, earthenware, stone, or metal may be moved [with certain restrictions]. [Such a utensil may be moved] for the use of the place [it occupies], or to use it [for a purpose that is permitted]. It is, however, forbidden [to move it] for its own sake.3


כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר בֵּין הָיָה שֶׁל עֵץ אוֹ שֶׁל חֶרֶס אוֹ שֶׁל אֶבֶן אוֹ שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. בֵּין בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁל כְּלִי בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ. וְכָל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר בֵּין הָיָה שֶׁל עֵץ אוֹ שֶׁל חֶרֶס אוֹ שֶׁל אֲבָנִים אוֹ שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ אֲבָל בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁל כְּלִי אָסוּר:


What is implied? One may move a wooden bowl to eat from it, to sit in the place [where it is located], or so that it will not be stolen. The latter is [what is meant by the expression] "for the sake of [the utensil] itself."

Similarly, [a utensil] may be taken out of the sun so that it will not become parched and break. It may also be removed from the rain so that it will not become saturated with water and deteriorate. These are considered "for the sake of [the utensil] itself" and are permitted, since the tasks performed with this utensil are permitted.


כֵּיצַד. מְטַלְטֵל הוּא אֶת הַקְּעָרָה שֶׁל עֵץ לֶאֱכל בָּהּ אוֹ לֵישֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמָהּ. אוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּגָּנֵב. וְזֶה הוּא בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמָהּ. וְכֵן אִם טִלְטֵל אוֹתָהּ מִן הַחַמָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּתְיַבֵּשׁ וְתִשָּׁבֵר אוֹ מִן הַגְּשָׁמִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּתְפַּח וְתִפָּסֵד הֲרֵי זֶה מְטַלְטֵל בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמָהּ וּמֻתָּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתָּהּ לְהֶתֵּר:


Similarly, one may move a mill or a grinder4 in order to crack nuts open on it5 or to climb up to a couch on it. This is [what is meant by the expression] "to use it [for a purpose that is permitted]."

[Similarly, one may move it] to sit in the place where it is located. One may not, however, move it so that it will not break, so that it will not be stolen, or the like.


וְכֵן מְטַלְטֵל הוּא הָרֵחַיִם אוֹ הַמַּכְתֶּשֶׁת לְשַׁבֵּר עָלֶיהָ אֱגוֹזִים אוֹ לַעֲלוֹת עָלֶיהָ לַמִּטָּה וְזֶה הוּא לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ אוֹ לֵישֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ מְטַלְטְלָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּשָּׁבֵר וְלֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּגָּנֵב. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


Any entity that is not a utensil - e.g., stones, money, rods, beams, and the like - is forbidden to be carried.6 [Nevertheless,] even a large stone or a large beam that requires ten people to carry it, if it is deemed a utensil7 it may be carried.8

The doors of a house are considered to be utensils; they have not, however, been prepared for use.9 Therefore, if they are detached - even on the Sabbath10 - they may not be moved.

Earth, sand, and a corpse11 may not be moved from their place. Similarly, an infant born in the eighth month, [although] he is alive, is considered as a stone and it is forbidden to move him.12


וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּלִי כְּגוֹן אֲבָנִים וּמָעוֹת וְקָנִים וְקוֹרוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן. אֶבֶן גְּדוֹלָה אוֹ קוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא נִטֶּלֶת בַּעֲשָׂרָה בְּנֵי אָדָם אִם יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלֶיהָ מְטַלְטְלִים אוֹתָהּ. דַּלְתוֹת הַבַּיִת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן כֵּלִים לֹא הוּכְנוּ לְטַלְטֵל לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִתְפָּרְקוּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן. וְכֵן הֶעָפָר וְהַחוֹל וְהַמֵּת אֵין מְזִיזִין אוֹתָן מִמְּקוֹמָן. וּבֶן שְׁמוֹנָה חַי הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֶבֶן וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ:


It is permitted to carry a utensil to perform tasks other than those for which it is intended to be used. What is implied? One may take a hammer to crack nuts, a hatchet to cut a dried fig, a saw to cut cheese, a rake to collect dried figs, a winnowing shovel or a pitchfork to feed a child, a spindle or a weaver's shuttle to pierce with, a sack-maker's needle to pick a lock,13 or a mill-stone to sit on.14 The same principle applies in other similar situations.


מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַכְּלִי אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ מְלָאכָה שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה לְתַשְׁמִישָׁהּ. כֵּיצַד. נוֹטֵל אָדָם קֻרְנָס לִפְצֹעַ בּוֹ אֱגוֹזִים. קוֹרְדוֹם לַחְתֹּךְ בּוֹ דְּבֵלָה. מְגֵרָה לְגָרֵר בָּהּ אֶת הַגְּבִינָה. מַגְרֵפָה לִגְרֹף בָּהּ אֶת הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת. אֶת הָרַחַת וְאֶת הַמַּזְלֵג לָתֵת עָלָיו אֹכֶל לְקָטָן. אֶת הַכּוֹשׁ וְאֶת הַכַּרְכָּר לִתְחֹב בּוֹ. מַחַט שֶׁל סַקָּאִין לִפְתֹּחַ בּוֹ אֶת הַדֶּלֶת. אֶת הַמַּכְתֶּשֶׁת לֵישֵׁב עָלֶיהָ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


A person may carry a sewing needle that is whole to remove a splinter.15 If, however, its head or its point has been broken off, it may not be carried.16 If it is still in an incomplete state and its head has not been pierced, it may be carried.17


וּמְטַלְטֵל אָדָם מַחַט שֶׁל יָד הַשְּׁלֵמָה לִטּל בָּהּ אֶת הַקּוֹץ. אֲבָל אִם נִטַּל הַקָּצֶה הַנָּקוּב שֶׁלָּהּ אוֹ הַקָּצֶה הַחַד שֶׁלָּהּ אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָהּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה גּלֶם וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נִקְּבָה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ:


Whenever a person is careful [not to use] a utensil lest its value depreciate - e.g., utensils that are set aside as merchandise,18 or very expensive utensils of which one is extremely careful lest they spoil - carrying it is forbidden on the Sabbath.19 This [category] is referred to as muktzeh [lest] financial loss [be caused].

[Included in this category are] a large saw, the knife-like point of a plow, a butcher's knife, a leather-worker's knife, a carpenter's plane, a perfume-maker's mortar,20 and the like.


כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁמַּקְפִּיד עָלָיו שֶׁמָּא יִפְחֲתוּ דָּמָיו כְּגוֹן כֵּלִים הַמֻּקְצִים לִסְחוֹרָה וְכֵלִים הַיְקָרִים בְּיוֹתֵר שֶׁמַּקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁמָּא יִפָּסְדוּ אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן בְּשַׁבָּת וְזֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס. כְּגוֹן הַמַּסָּר הַגָּדוֹל וְיָתֵד שֶׁל מַחְרֵשָׁה וְסַכִּין שֶׁל טַבָּחִים וְחֶרֶב שֶׁל אוּשְׁכָּפִים וְחִצִּין הַחֲרָשִׁים וְקֻרְנָס שֶׁל בַּשָּׂמִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:


All utensils that were set aside because of [an association with] a prohibited [activity] are forbidden to be carried. For example, it is forbidden [to move] a lamp that was kindled for the Sabbath,21 a candelabra upon which a lamp was placed, or a table on which money was lying.22

[Moreover,] even if the candle is extinguished or if the money falls, [the prohibition remains intact]. Whenever an article is forbidden to be carried beyn hash'mashot [on Friday], it remains forbidden to be carried throughout the entire Sabbath23, even though the factor that caused it to become forbidden is no longer present.


כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁהֻקְצָה מֵחֲמַת הָאִסּוּר אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ. כְּגוֹן נֵר שֶׁהִדְלִיקוּ בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְהַמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁהָיָה הַנֵּר עָלֶיהָ וְשֻׁלְחָן שֶׁהָיוּ עָלָיו מָעוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּבָה הַנֵּר אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ הַמָּעוֹת אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן. שֶׁכָּל כְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת נֶאֱסַר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָלַךְ הַדָּבָר שֶׁגָּרַם לוֹ הָאִסּוּר:


In contrast, a utensil that is set aside because it is repulsive - e.g., a used kerosene lamp,24 a chamber pot, or the like - may be carried on25 the Sabbath26 if it is required.27


אֲבָל כְּלִי הַמֻּקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת מֵאוּסוֹ כְּגוֹן נֵר יָשָׁן שֶׁל נֵפְט וּכְלִי הַצּוֹאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן בְּשַׁבָּת אִם הֻצְרַךְ לָהֶן:


The doors of any utensil28 that may be carried on the Sabbath - e.g., the doors of a box, a chest, or a cabinet - may themselves be carried [on the Sabbath], regardless of whether they were removed on the Sabbath or before the Sabbath.29

Similarly, whenever a utensil that can be carried on the Sabbath breaks, whether before the Sabbath or on the Sabbath,30 its broken pieces may be carried on the Sabbath, provided these pieces can be used for a purpose that resembles the purpose for which they could be used [originally].31

What is implied? The broken pieces of a kneading trough can be used to cover the opening of a jug. Broken pieces of glass can be used to cover the opening of a flask. The same rules apply in other similar situations. If, by contrast, the broken pieces are unfit for any purposeful use, it is forbidden to carry them.32


כָּל הַכֵּלִים הַנִּטָּלִין בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ דַּלְתוֹתֵיהֶן כְּגוֹן דַּלְתוֹת שִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּל בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל אוֹתָן דְּלָתוֹת. וְכֵן כָּל הַכֵּלִים הַנִּטָּלִין בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ בֵּין קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת שִׁבְרֵיהֶן נִטָּלִין וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שִׁבְרֵיהֶן עוֹשִׂין מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתָּן. כֵּיצַד. שִׁבְרֵי עֲרֵבָה לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶן אֶת פִּי הֶחָבִית. שִׁבְרֵי זְכוּכִית לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶן אֶת פִּי הַפַּךְ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. אֲבָל אִם אֵין הַשְּׁבָרִים רְאוּיִין לִמְלָאכָה כְּלָל אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן:


All the covers of utensils may be carried on the Sabbath, provided they, themselves, are considered to be utensils.33

[The following rules apply regarding] utensils that are attached to the ground - e.g., a barrel imbedded in the earth:34 If its cover has a handle, it may be carried. If not, it may not be carried. Similarly, the coverings of cisterns and ditches should not be carried35 unless they have a handle.36 The covering of an oven [by contrast] may be carried, even though it does not have a handle.37


כָּל כִּסּוּיֵי הַכֵּלִים נִטָּלִים בְּשַׁבָּת וְהוּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן. הָיָה כְּלִי מְחֻבָּר בַּקַּרְקַע כְּגוֹן חָבִית הַטְּמוּנָה בָּאָרֶץ. אִם יֵשׁ בַּכִּסּוּי שֶׁלָּהּ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתוֹ וְאִם לָאו אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתוֹ. וְכֵן כִּסּוּיֵי הַקַּרְקָעוֹת כְּגוֹן בּוֹרוֹת וַחֲרִיצִין אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין כִּסּוּי שֶׁלָּהֶן אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה. כִּסּוּי הַתַּנּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ:


[The following rules apply when] there are two entities, one permitted to be carried and one forbidden to be carried - one adjacent to the other, one on top of the other, or one within the other - and when one is moved the other will also be moved:38 If a person requires the article that is permitted [to be carried], he may move it, even though the forbidden article is drawn after it. If he requires to move the forbidden article, he should not move it by moving the permitted article.


שְׁנֵי דְּבָרִים אֶחָד אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ וְאֶחָד מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ וְהֵן סְמוּכִים זֶה לָזֶה אוֹ זֶה עַל זֶה אוֹ זֶה בָּזֶה וּבִזְמַן שֶׁמְּטַלְטְלִין אֶחָד מֵהֶן יְטַלְטֵל הַשֵּׁנִי. אִם הָיָה צָרִיךְ לַדָּבָר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ מְטַלְטְלוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדָּבָר הָאָסוּר מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ. וְאִם צָרִיךְ לְטַלְטֵל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר לֹא יְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר:


What is implied? When a fig39 is buried in straw40 or a cake is lying upon coals, one may pierce them with a spindle or a weaver's shuttle and remove them, even though the straw or the coals41 will be moved on the Sabbath when one removes them.

Similarly, if a turnip or a radish42 is buried in [loose] earth and a portion of its leaves is protruding,43 one may pull out [the vegetables] on the Sabbath, even though the earth is dislodged. Conversely, however, if a loaf of bread or a child is [located] on a stone or beam, one may not carry the stone or beam because of the child or the loaf of bread.44 Similar rules apply in other analogous situations.


כֵּיצַד. פַּגָּה שֶׁהָיְתָה טְמוּנָה בְּתֶבֶן וַחֲרָרָה שֶׁהָיְתָה עַל גַּבֵּי גֶּחָלִים תּוֹחֲבָן בְּכוֹשׁ אוֹ בְּכַרְכָּר וְנוֹטְלָן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַתֶּבֶן וְהַגֶּחָלִים נִנְעָרִים בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָה. וְכֵן לֶפֶת אוֹ צְנוֹנוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ טְמוּנִים בְּעָפָר וּמִקְצָת הֶעָלִים מְגֻלִּים שׁוֹמְטָן בְּשַׁבָּת בֶּעָלֶה שֶׁלָּהֶן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶעָפָר נִנְעָר. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה כִּכָּר אוֹ תִּינוֹק עַל גַּבֵּי הָאֶבֶן אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַקּוֹרָה לֹא יְטַלְטֵל הָאֶבֶן אוֹ הַקּוֹרָה בַּכִּכָּר אוֹ בַּתִּינוֹק שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


A person may pick up his son if [the son] yearns for [his father],45 despite the fact that the son is holding a stone.46This, however, is not [permitted] if [the son] is holding a dinar,47 lest it fall and the father [pick it up and] carry it.48

When a basket has a hole and a stone has been used to plug the hole,49 [the basket] may be carried, because the stone is considered as its wall.

[The following rules apply when] a basket is filled with fruit and a stone [is discovered] among the fruit:50 If the fruit is soft - e.g., grapes or berries - the basket may be carried as it is.51 If one spills out the fruit, it would be spoiled by the earth, and [our Sages] did not [apply] their decree in an instance where a loss would be caused.52


נוֹטֵל אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ גַּעְגּוּעִין עָלָיו וְהָאֶבֶן בְּיָדוֹ אֲבָל לֹא דִּינָר שֶׁאִם יִפּל הַדִּינָר יִטְּלֶנּוּ הָאָב בְּיָדוֹ. כַּלְכָּלָה שֶׁהָיְתָה נְקוּבָה וְסָתַם נֶקֶב שֶׁלָּהּ בְּאֶבֶן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ שֶׁהֲרֵי הָאֶבֶן נַעֲשֵׂית כְּדֹפֶן. הָיְתָה הַכַּלְכָּלָה מְלֵאָה פֵּרוֹת וְהָאֶבֶן בְּתוֹךְ הַפֵּרוֹת אִם הָיוּ הַפֵּרוֹת רְטֻבִּים כְּגוֹן עֲנָבִים וְתוּתִים נוֹטֵל אוֹתָהּ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא שֶׁאִם יְנַעֵר הַפֵּרוֹת יִטָּנְפוּ בֶּעָפָר וּבִמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד לֹא גָּזְרוּ:


When a person forgets a stone on the opening of a jug, he may tilt the jug to the side [so that the stone] falls.53 If the jug with the stone upon it is standing among other jugs,54 it should be lifted to another place, and then tilted to the side [so that the stone] falls. Similarly, if one forgets money on a pillow that one needs, one may shake the pillow [so that the money] falls.55 If one needs [to use] the place where the pillow [is located], one may remove the pillow [although] the money is upon it.

When, by contrast, one56 [intentionally] places money on a pillow57 on Friday or places a stone on the opening of a jug, it is forbidden to carry them.58 [This applies even when later] the stone or the money is removed, for [the pillow or the jug] has become the base for a forbidden article.


חָבִית שֶׁשָּׁכַח אֶבֶן עַל פִּיהָ מַטָּהּ עַל צִדָּהּ וְהִיא נוֹפֶלֶת. הָיְתָה בֵּין הֶחָבִיּוֹת וְהָאֶבֶן עָלֶיהָ מַגְבִּיהָהּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר וּמַטֶּה עַל צִדָּהּ שָׁם וְהָאֶבֶן נוֹפֶלֶת. וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ מָעוֹת עַל הַכַּר וְצָרַךְ לַכַּר נוֹעֵר אֶת הַכַּר וְהֵן נוֹפְלוֹת. וְאִם צָרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הַכַּר נוֹטֵל אֶת הַכַּר וְהַמָּעוֹת עָלָיו. אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחַ הַמָּעוֹת מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עַל הַכַּר אוֹ הִנִּיחַ הָאֶבֶן עַל פִּי הֶחָבִית הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין לְטַלְטְלָן וַאֲפִלּוּ נִטְּלוּ הַמָּעוֹת וְהָאֶבֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשׂוּ בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר:


[The following rule applies to] a stone that is placed in an earthenware59 bucket [as a weight]:60 If it does not fall out when one draws water [with the bucket], it is considered part of the bucket and one is permitted to draw water with it. If not, one may not draw water with it.61 A garment that is [hanging] on a reed62 may be slipped off the reed.63


הָאֶבֶן שֶׁבַּקֵּרוּיָה אִם מְמַלְּאִין בָּהּ וְאֵינָהּ נוֹפֶלֶת הֲרֵי הִיא כְּמִקְצַת הַקֵּרוּיָה וּמֻתָּר לְמַלְּאוֹת בָּהּ וְאִם לָאו אֵין מְמַלְּאִין בָּהּ. בֶּגֶד שֶׁעַל הַקָּנֶה שׁוֹמְטוֹ מֵעַל הַקָּנֶה:


It is forbidden to carry produce that is forbidden to eat - e.g., produce that has not been tithed, even if the obligation to tithe is only Rabbinic,64 produce separated as the first tithe, from which terumat [ma'aser] has not been separated,65terumah that has contracted ritual impurity,66 produce separated as the second tithe67 or produce that has been consecrated68 and has not been redeemed.

It is, by contrast, permitted to carry d'mai,69 for it is fit to be eaten by the poor, and produce separated as the second tithe or produce that has been consecrated and has been redeemed, but for which an additional fifth of its value has not been given.70


פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאָסוּר לֶאֱכל כְּגוֹן פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָם מְעֵשָּׂרִין אֲפִלּוּ הֵן חַיָּבִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂר מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם אוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ אוֹ תְּרוּמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ כְּהִלְכָתָן אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן. אֲבָל הַדְּמַאי הוֹאִיל וְרָאוּי לָעֲנִיִּים וְכֵן מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁפְּדָאָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן הַחֹמֶשׁ מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן:


An Israelite is allowed to carry terumah, even though it is not appropriate for him. One may carry terumah that has contracted ritual impurity together with terumah that is pure, or together with ordinary produce, if both of them are contained in a single receptacle.71

When does the above apply? When the pure terumah is below [the impure],72 and the [terumah consists of] produce that would be soiled by the ground. Thus, if the container were overturned, it would be spoiled. If, by contrast, the produce is nuts, almonds, or the like, one must overturn the container, take the terumah and the ordinary produce, and leave the impure [terumah].

If one requires the place where the container is located, one may take all the produce at once, regardless of whether the pure [terumah] is located at the top or at the bottom.


מְטַלְטֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל הַתְּרוּמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לוֹ. וּמְטַלְטְלִין תְּרוּמָה טְמֵאָה עִם הַטְּהוֹרָה אוֹ עִם הַחֻלִּין אִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם בִּכְלִי אֶחָד. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהָיְתָה הַטְּהוֹרָה לְמַטָּה וְהָיוּ פֵּרוֹת הַמִּתְטַנְּפִין בַּקַּרְקַע שֶׁאִם יְנַעֵר אוֹתָן יִפָּסְדוּ. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ אֱגוֹזִים וּשְׁקֵדִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן נוֹעֵר הַכְּלִי וְנוֹטֵל הַטְּהוֹרָה אוֹ הַחֻלִּין וּמַנִּיחַ הַטֻּמְאָה. וְאִם הָיָה צָרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הַכְּלִי בֵּין שֶׁהַטְּהוֹרָה לְמַעְלָה בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה לְמַטָּה מְטַלְטֵל הַכּל כְּאֶחָד:


[The following rules apply when] a person has in mind [to sit on] a row of stones73 before the commencement of the Sabbath: If he prepares them,74 he is permitted to sit on them on the morrow; if not, that is forbidden.75

When a person gathers the branches of a date palm [to use as kindling] wood, but changes his mind on Friday and decides to use them to sit on [in place of mats], he is allowed to carry them.76 Similarly, if he actually sat upon them77 before the commencement of the Sabbath, it is permitted to carry them.


נִדְבָּךְ שֶׁל אֲבָנִים שֶׁחָשַׁב עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אִם לִמְדּוּם מֻתָּר לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶן לְמָחָר וְאִם לָאו אָסוּר. חֲרָיוֹת שֶׁל דֶּקֶל שֶׁגְּדָרָן לְעֵצִים וְנִמְלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לִישִׁיבָה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן. וְכֵן אִם יָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן:


One may not move straw that is on a bed with one's hands;78one may, however, move it with one's body.79 [Moreover,] if it is [useful as] animal fodder, one is permitted to carry it [by hand]. Similarly, if a pillow or a sheet is placed upon it, it is considered as if one had sat on it before the commencement of the Sabbath,80 and one may move it by hand.

[The following rules apply when] a person has brought a container [filled]81 with earth into his home: If he sets aside a corner for it on Friday,82 he may carry it on the Sabbath, and use it for all his needs.83


הַקַּשׁ שֶׁעַל הַמִּטָּה לֹא יְנַעְנְעֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ אֲבָל מְנַעְנְעוֹ בְּגוּפוֹ. וְאִם הוּא מַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה עָלָיו כַּר אוֹ סָדִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מְנַעְנְעוֹ בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה כְּמִי שֶׁיָּשַׁב עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. הַמַּכְנִיס קֻפָּה שֶׁל עָפָר בְּבֵיתוֹ אִם יִחֵד לָהּ קֶרֶן זָוִית מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְעוֹשֶׂה בּוֹ כָּל צְרָכָיו:


It is forbidden to negate the possibility of using a utensil, since this is comparable to destroying [it]. What is implied? A person should not place a receptacle below a lamp on the Sabbath to receive any oil that drips. For the oil in the lamp is forbidden to be carried, and when it falls into the receptacle it will cause the receptacle that had been permitted to become forbidden.84 The same applies in all analogous situations.

For this reason, a receptacle may not be placed below a chicken to receive the eggs it lays.85 One may, however, cover [the eggs] with an [overturned] utensil.86 Similarly, one may use an overturned utensil to cover any article that is forbidden to be carried, for by doing so one has not negated its use.87 Should one desire to take [the overturned article], one may.


אָסוּר לְבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּסוֹתֵר. כֵּיצַד. לֹא יִתֵּן כְּלִי תַּחַת הַנֵּר בְּשַׁבָּת לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן הַנּוֹטֵף. שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבַּנֵּר אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ וּכְשֶׁיִּפּוֹל לַכְּלִי יֵאָסֵר טִלְטוּל הַכְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה מֻתָּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין נוֹתְנִין כְּלִי תַּחַת הַתַּרְנְגלֶת לְקַבֵּל בֵּיצָתָהּ. אֲבָל כּוֹפֶה הוּא הַכְּלִי עָלֶיהָ. וְכֵן כּוֹפֶה הַכְּלִי עַל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא בִּטְּלוֹ שֶׁאִם יַחְפֹּץ יִטְּלֶנּוּ:


One may place a receptacle under dripping water88 to collect it.89 If the receptacle becomes full, one may pour out the water and return [the receptacle to its place] without hesitation.90

[The above applies] only when the dripping water is fit to use for bathing.91 If the water is not fit [for washing], one should not place a receptacle there.92 [Nevertheless, after the fact,] should one have placed a receptacle there, one may carry it together with the repulsive water it contains.93 [The reason for the restriction against placing the receptacle there is] that we do not create a repulsive situation94 at the outset.95


נוֹתְנִין כְּלִי תַּחַת הַדֶּלֶף וְאִם נִתְמַלֵּא הַכְּלִי שׁוֹפֵךְ וְשׁוֹנֶה וְאֵינוֹ נִמְנָע. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַדֶּלֶף רָאוּי לִרְחִיצָה אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ רָאוּי אֵין נוֹתְנִין וְאִם נָתַן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בַּמַּיִם הַמְּאוּסִין שֶׁבּוֹ. שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין גְּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי לְכַתְּחִלָּה:


Should a barrel containing [wine or oil] that is tevel,96 be broken [on the Sabbath], one may bring a receptacle and place it under [the barrel]. [By doing so, one is not considered to have nullified the possibility of using the receptacle,] since were one to transgress and separate [the terumah and tithes as required], the produce would be permitted for use.97.

A receptacle may be placed below a candle to collect the sparks that fall, for [the sparks] have no substance. In such an instance, it is permissible to move the receptacle.98

When a beam breaks, we should not support it with a bench or a bed post99 unless there is ample space [between the beams] and one can remove [the bench or the bed post] whenever one desires,100 so that one will not nullify a utensil from the possibility of being used.

One may spread a mat over stones or over a beehive on the Sabbath in the summer, [as protection] from the sun, and in the rainy season, [as protection] from the rain, provided that one has no intention of snaring [the bees].101 [By doing so, one is not considered to have nullified the possibility of using the receptacle] because one may remove [the mat] whenever one desires.

On the Sabbath one may overturn a basket onto which chicks102 may climb and descend, since103 one is permitted to carry [the basket] after they descend.104 Similar rules apply in all analogous situations.


חָבִית שֶׁל טֶבֶל שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה מֵבִיא כְּלִי וּמַנִּיחַ תַּחְתֶּיהָ הוֹאִיל וְאִם עָבַר וְתִקְּנוֹ מְתֻקָּן הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְתֻקָּן. וְנוֹתְנִין כְּלִי תַּחַת הַנֵּר לְקַבֵּל נִיצוֹצוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן מַמָּשׁ וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַכְּלִי. קוֹרָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה אֵין סוֹמְכִין אוֹתָהּ בְּסַפְסָל אוֹ בַּאֲרוּכּוֹת הַמִּטָּה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיוּ רְוָחִים וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁיַּחְפֹּץ יִטְלֵם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ. פּוֹרְסִין מַחְצֶלֶת עַל גַּבֵּי אֲבָנִים בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי כַּוֶּרֶת דְּבוֹרִים בַּחַמָּה מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה וּבַגְּשָׁמִים מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לָצוּד שֶׁהֲרֵי נוֹטְלָהּ בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וְכוֹפִין אֶת הַסַּל בְּשַׁבָּת לִפְנֵי הָאֶפְרוֹחִים בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ עָלָיו וְיֵרְדוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כְּשֶׁיֵּרְדוּ מֵעָלָיו. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


[The following rules apply when] an animal falls into a cistern or into a water conduit [from which it cannot ascend on its own]: If one can supply it with its needs while it is there, one should do so until Saturday night. If not, one may bring cushions and blankets and place them beneath it. If this [enables the animal] to ascend, there is no difficulty. Although one is nullifying the possibility of using a utensil - for one is throwing it into a cistern [filled with] water105 - [our Sages did] not institute a decree [in this instance], because of the suffering [the] animal endures.

[Regardless of the circumstances,] it is forbidden to lift the animal up by hand.106 Similarly, one may not lift up an animal, beast, or fowl in a courtyard.107 One may, however, push them until they enter.

One may support108 calves and ponies as they walk. One may not, however, hold a chicken that fled [as one directs] it [to return to its coop]. [This prohibition was instituted] because [the chicken tries] to free itself from [the person's] hand, and [in the process, causes] its wings to be torn off.109 One may, however, push it until it enters [its coop].


בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְבוֹר אוֹ לְאַמַּת הַמַּיִם אִם יָכוֹל לִתֵּן לָהּ פַּרְנָסָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ מְפַרְנְסִין אוֹתָהּ עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְאִם לָאו מֵבִיא כָּרִים וּכְסָתוֹת וּמַנִּיחַ תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְאִם עָלְתָה עָלְתָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי מַשְׁלִיכוֹ לַבּוֹר לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם מִפְּנֵי צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים לֹא גָּזְרוּ. וְאָסוּר לְהַעֲלוֹתָהּ בְּיָדוֹ. וְכֵן אֵין עוֹקְרִין בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה וְעוֹף בְּחָצֵר אֲבָל דּוֹחִין אוֹתָן עַד שֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ. וּמְדַדִּין עֲגָלִים וּסְיָחִים. תַּרְנְגלֶת שֶׁבָּרְחָה אֵין מְדַדִּין אוֹתָן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא נִשְׁמֶטֶת מִן הַיָּד וְנִמְצְאוּ אֲגַפֶּיהָ נִתְלָשִׁין אֲבָל דּוֹחִין אוֹתָהּ עַד שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס: