A person who transfers an article from a private domain into the public domain, or from the public domain into the private domain is not liable,1 unless he transfers an amount that will be beneficial [to accomplish a purpose].2 The following are the minimum amounts for which one is liable for transferring:3

Human food, the size of a dried fig.4 This quantity may include a combination of [different types of foods],5 provided the amount of food itself is the size of a dried fig. The shells, the seeds, the stems, the chaff, and the bran are not included [in this measure].6


הַמּוֹצִיא דָּבָר מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הרבִּים אוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁעוּר שֶׁמּוֹעִיל כְּלוּם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן שִׁעוּרֵי הַהוֹצָאָה. הַמּוֹצִיא אָכְלֵי אָדָם כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִן הָאֹכֶל עַצְמוֹ חוּץ מִן הַקְּלִפִּים וְהַגַּרְעִינִין וְהָעֵקְצִין וְהַסֻּבִּין וְהַמֻּרְסָן:


[The minimum measure for which one is liable for transferring] wine is a quarter of a revi'it;7 if it has congealed, a k'zayit. For the milk of a kosher animal, a gulp.8 For non-kosher milk, enough to apply to one eye. For a woman's milk and egg-white, enough to put in an ointment. For oil, enough to anoint the the small toe of a newborn infant.

Dew, enough to serve as a base for an eye ointment.9 An eye ointment, enough to be mixed with water [and be applied to an eye]. Water, enough for washing the surface of a mortar.10 Honey,11 enough to apply to a wound.12 Blood, all other liquids, and all sewage water,13 a revi'it.


יַיִן כְּדֵי רֹבַע רְבִיעִית וְאִם הָיָה קָרוּשׁ בִּכְזַיִת. חֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה כְּדֵי גְּמִיעָה וַחֲלֵב טְמֵאָה כְּדֵי לִכְחל עַיִן אַחַת. חֲלֵב אִשָּׁה וְלֹבֶן בֵּיצָה כְּדֵי לִתֵּן בִּמְשִׁיפָה. שֶׁמֶן כְּדֵי לָסוּךְ אֶצְבַּע קְטַנָּה שֶׁל רֶגֶל קָטָן בֶּן יוֹמוֹ. טַל כְּדֵי לָשׁוּף אֶת הַקִּילוֹרִין. וְקִילוֹר כְּדֵי לָשׁוּף בַּמַּיִם. וּמַיִם כְּדֵי לִרְחֹץ פְּנֵי מְדוּכָה. דְּבַשׁ כְּדֵי לִתֵּן עַל רֹאשׁ הַכָּתִית. דָּם וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין וְכָל הַשּׁוֹפְכִין כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית:


[The minimum measure for which one is liable for transferring] straw from grain is a cow's mouthful.14 Straw from beans, a camel's mouthful.15 If, however, one transfers bean straw with the expressed purpose of feeding it to a cow, one is liable for transferring a cow's mouthful.16 Eating that involves difficulty is still considered to be eating. Straws from the ears of grain,17 a lamb's mouthful.18 Grass, a kid's mouthful.19

Leaves of garlic and leaves of onion20 when fresh are considered to be human food. Hence, their measure is the size of a dried fig. When they are dry, their measure is a kid's mouthful.

[Should one take out a combination of these substances,] their amounts should not be combined to hold one liable according to the more stringent measure. They should, however, be combined to hold one liable according to the more lenient measure. What is implied? When a person takes out both straw from grain and straw from beans, if the amount he takes out is enough to fill a cow's mouth, he is not liable.21 If it is enough to fill a camel's mouth, he is liable.22 The same applies regarding all similar dimensions of the Sabbath laws.


תֶּבֶן תְּבוּאָה כִּמְלֹא פִּי פָּרָה. תֶּבֶן קִטְנִיּוֹת כִּמְלֹא פִּי גָּמָל. וְאִם הוֹצִיא תֶּבֶן קִטְנִיּוֹת לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לְפָרָה כִּמְלֹא פִּי פָּרָה. שֶׁהָאֲכִילָה עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק שְׁמָהּ אֲכִילָה. עָמִיר כִּמְלֹא פִּי טָלֶה. עֲשָׂבִים כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. עֲלֵי שׁוּם וַעֲלֵי בְּצָלִים אִם הָיוּ לַחִים כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן אָכְלֵי אָדָם. וִיבֵשִׁים כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. וְאֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לֶחָמוּר שֶׁבָּהֶן אֲבָל מִצְטָרְפִין לַקַּל שֶׁבָּהֶן. כֵּיצַד. הוֹצִיא תֶּבֶן תְּבוּאָה וְקִטְנִית. אִם יֵשׁ בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם כִּמְלֹא פִּי פָּרָה פָּטוּר. כִּמְלֹא פִּי גָּמָל חַיָּב. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה לְעִנְיַן הַשַּׁבָּת:


[The minimum measure for which one is liable for transferring] wood is the amount necessary to cook a portion of a chicken's egg23 the size of a dried fig, when the egg is beaten and mixed with oil24 and placed in a pot.25

A person who transfers a reed is liable when it is large enough to make a pen26 that reaches to the top of his fingers. If, however, the reed is thick or crushed, [and thus is unfit for use as a pen,] the measure [for which one is liable] is the same as for wood.27


הַמּוֹצִיא עֵצִים כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִבֵּיצַת הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים טְרוּפָה בְּשֶׁמֶן וּנְתוּנָה בְּאִלְפָּס. הַמּוֹצִיא קָנֶה כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת קֻלְמוֹס הַמַּגִּיעַ לְרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו. וְאִם הָיָה עָבֶה אוֹ מְרֻצָּץ שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּעֵצִים:


[The minimum measure for which one is liable for transferring] spices is the amount necessary to spice an egg. [Different] spices can be combined [to make up this measure].28

Pepper,29 even the slightest amount. Pine sap,30 even the slightest amount.31 A substance with a pleasant fragrance, even the slightest amount.32 A substance with an unpleasant fragrance, even the slightest amount.33 Perfumes, even the slightest amount. Fine purpled dye,34 even the slightest amount. Rosebuds, one.

Pieces from utensils made from hard metal35 - e.g., bronze or iron - even the slightest amount. [Chips] from the stones of the altar, or from the earth of the altar,36 [pieces] of decayed scrolls or their wrapping cloths,37 even the slightest amount, for [these articles] are [required to be] entombed.38

A coal, even the slightest amount.39 A person who transfers a flame is not liable.40


הַמּוֹצִיא תַּבְלִין כְּדֵי לְתַבֵּל בֵּיצָה וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. פִּלְפֵּל כָּל שֶׁהוּא. עִטְרָן כָּל שֶׁהוּא. רֵיחַ טוֹב כָּל שֶׁהוּא. רֵיחַ רַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא. מִינֵי בְּשָׂמִים כָּל שֶׁהֵן. אַרְגָּמָן טוֹב כָּל שֶׁהוּא. בְּתוּלַת הַוֶּרֶד אַחַת. מִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת הַקָּשִׁים כְּגוֹן נְחשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל כָּל שֶׁהֵן. מֵעֲפַר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמֵאַבְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמִמֶּקֶק סְפָרִים וּמִמֶּקֶק מִטְפָּחוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן כָּל שֶׁהֵן. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּצְנִיעִין אוֹתָם לִגְנִיזָה. גַּחֶלֶת כָּל שֶׁהוּא. וְהַמּוֹצִיא שַׁלְהֶבֶת פָּטוּר:


A person who transfers seeds of garden plants41 that are not fit for human consumption42 is liable for [transferring] a measure that is almost the size of a dried fig.43 [A person is liable for transferring] two cucumber seeds, two gourd seeds, and five Egyptian bean seeds.44

[A person who] transfers coarse bran [is liable for transferring a quantity] fit to place on the opening of the crucible of a gold refiner.45 [The measure for which a person is liable for transferring] fine bran [depends on his intent]: If [he intends to use the bran as] food [for humans], the measure is the size of a dried fig. As food for animals, a kid's mouthful. For paint, enough to paint a small cloth.

The buds of shrubs46 and carobs that have not yet become sweet, the size of a dried fig. After they become sweet, a mouthful of a kid. In contrast, luf,47 mustard, turmos,48and all other foods that are pickled, whether they have become sweet or not, [the measure for which one is liable is] the size of a dried fig.49


הַמּוֹצִיא זֵרְעוֹנֵי גִּנָּה שֶׁאֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִין לְאָדָם שִׁעוּרָן פָּחוֹת מִכִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. מִזֶּרַע קִשּׁוּאִין שְׁנַיִם. וּמִזֶּרַע הַדְּלוּעִין שְׁנַיִם. מִזֶּרַע פּוֹל הַמִּצְרִי שְׁנַיִם. הַמּוֹצִיא סֻבִּין כְּדֵי לִתֵּן עַל פִּי כּוּר שֶׁל צוֹרְפֵי זָהָב. הַמּוֹצִיא מֻרְסָן אִם לַאֲכִילָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. לִבְהֵמָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. לִצְבִיעָה כְּדֵי לִצְבֹּעַ בֶּגֶד קָטָן. לוּלְבֵי זְרָדִין וְהַחֲרוּבִין עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַמְתִּיקוּ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וּמִשֶּׁיַּמְתִּיקוּ כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. אֲבָל הַלּוּף וְהַחַרְדָּל וְהַתֻּרְמוֹסִין וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַנִּכְבָּשִׁין בֵּין שֶׁיַּמְתִּיקוּ בֵּין עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַמְתִּיקוּ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת:


[When a person] transfers seeds50 to eat, [he is liable for transferring] five. [If his intent] is to use them as fuel, they are considered to be wood.51 For counting,52 two, for sowing, two.

[Similarly, the measure for which a person is liable for transferring] hyssop [depends on his intent]. If [his intent] is for human consumption, he is liable for [an amount equal to] the size of a dried fig. For animal consumption, a kid's mouthful. For fuel, the measure of wood; for sprinkling,53 the measure acceptable for sprinkling.


הַמּוֹצִיא גַּרְעִינִין. אִם לַאֲכִילָה חָמֵשׁ. וְאִם לְהַסָּקָה הֲרֵי הֵן כְּעֵצִים. וְאִם לְחֶשְׁבּוֹן שְׁתַּיִם. וְאִם לִזְרִיעָה שְׁתַּיִם. הַמּוֹצִיא אֵזוֹב לְאֳכָלִים כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. לִבְהֵמָה כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. לְעֵצִים כְּשִׁעוּר הָעֵצִים. לַהֲזָיָה כְּשִׁעוּר הֲזָיָה:


[A person who] transfers nut shells, pomegranate shells, isatis,54 pu'ah,55 and other dyes [is liable for transferring a quantity] that is sufficient to dye a small garment - e.g.,56 the hairnet young girls place on their heads.

Similarly, one who transfers urine that is forty days old,57 Alexandrian niter, soap, cimonia, ashlag,58 and all other cleansing agents [is liable for transferring] the amount necessary to wash a small garment - e.g., the hairnet young girls place on their heads.

A person who transfers herbs that are soaking [is liable for transferring] an amount sufficient to dye a sample for a weaver.


הַמּוֹצִיא קְלִפֵּי אֱגוֹזִין וּקְלִפֵּי רִמּוֹנִים אִסְטִיס וּפוּאָה וּשְׁאָר הַצְּבָעִין כְּדֵי לִצְבֹּעַ בָּהֶן בֶּגֶד קָטָן כִּסְבָכָה שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין הַבָּנוֹת עַל רָאשֵׁיהֶן. וְכֵן הַמּוֹצִיא מֵי רַגְלַיִם בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם אוֹ נֶתֶר אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָּא אוֹ בֹּרִית קִימוֹנְיָא וְאַשְׁלָג וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמְנַקִּין כְּדֵי לְכַבֵּס בָּהֶן בֶּגֶד קָטָן כִּסְבָכָה. הוֹצִיא סַמָּנִין שְׁרוּיִין כְּדֵי לִצְבֹּעַ בָּהֶן דֻּגְמָא לְאִירָא:


A person who transfers ink on a quill [is liable for transferring] a measure sufficient to write two letters.59 If, however, a person removes [the dried concentrate used to make] ink or ink in an inkwell, a larger amount is necessary [for him to be liable], i.e., the amount necessary for a person to dip a pen in and write two letters.

If [a person transfers] enough [ink] to write one letter in an inkwell and enough [ink] to write one letter on a quill or enough dry ink to write one letter and enough ink to write one letter on a quill, there is a doubt whether he is liable or not.60

[When a person takes out enough ink to write] two letters and writes them as he is walking, he is liable. Writing them is considered to be placing them down.61 [When a person takes out enough ink to write] one letter and writes and then takes out [enough ink to write] a second letter and writes it, he is not liable.62 For [the ink for] the first letter is lacking.63


הַמּוֹצִיא דְּיוֹ עַל הַקֻּלְמוֹס שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת. אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא הַדְּיוֹ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אוֹ בְּקֶסֶת צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בּוֹ יֶתֶר עַל זֶה כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה מִמֶּנּוּ עַל הַקֻּלְמוֹס כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת. הָיָה בַּקֶּסֶת כְּדֵי אוֹת אַחַת וּבַקֻּלְמוֹס כְּדֵי אוֹת אַחַת אוֹ בַּדְּיוֹ לְבַדּוֹ כְּדֵי אוֹת אַחַת וּבַקֻּלְמוֹס כְּדֵי אוֹת אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק. הוֹצִיא שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת וּכְתָבָן כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ חַיָּב. כְּתִיבָתָן זוֹ הִיא הַנָּחָתָן. הוֹצִיא אוֹת אַחַת וּכְתָבָהּ וְחָזַר וְהוֹצִיא אוֹת שְׁנִיָּה וּכְתָבָהּ פָּטוּר. שֶׁכְּבָר חָסְרָה הָאוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:


[A person who transfers] eye paint, whether for medicinal64 or cosmetic purposes, [is liable for transferring an amount sufficient] to paint one eye.65 In places where [a woman] would not apply eye paint to less than two eyes as a cosmetic practice,66 a person who takes out eye paint for cosmetic purposes is not liable unless he takes out a quantity sufficient to paint two eyes.

Tar or sulfur, enough to make a hole.67 Wax, enough to place on a small hole.68 Paste, enough to place on a board to catch birds.69 Fat, enough to grease [a space] the size of a sela70 under a cake [in an oven].


הַמּוֹצִיא כְּחל בֵּין לִרְפוּאָה בֵּין לְתַכְשִׁיט כְּדֵי לִכְחל עַיִן אַחַת. וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּן לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט אֶלָּא בִּכְחִילַת שְׁתֵּי עֵינַיִם וְהוֹצִיאוֹ לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא כְּדֵי לִכְחל שְׁתֵּי עֵינַיִם. זֶפֶת וְגָפְרִית כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת נֶקֶב. שַׁעֲוָה כְּדֵי לִתֵּן עַל פִּי נֶקֶב קָטָן. דֶּבֶק כְּדֵי לִתֵּן בְּרֹאשׁ הַשַּׁפְשָׁף. רְבָב כְּדֵי לִמְשֹׁחַ תַּחַת רָקִיק כְּסֶלַע:


[A person who transfers] red clay71 [is liable for transferring an amount] sufficient to make a seal for a letter.72Clay, enough to make the opening of a crucible.73

Manure or fine sand, enough to fertilize a leek. Coarse sand, enough to mix with a full trowel of lime.74 Firm clay,75 enough to make the opening of a goldsmith's crucible. Hair, enough to mix with clay to make the opening of a goldsmith's crucible.76 Lime, enough to apply to a girl's smallest finger.77 Dust or ash, enough to cover the blood of a small bird.78 A pebble, enough for an animal to feel if it was thrown at it79 - i.e., the weight of ten zuzim. A shard, enough to contain a revi'it.


הַמּוֹצִיא אֲדָמָה כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת חוֹתַם הָאִגֶּרֶת. טִיט כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת פִּי כּוּר. זֶבֶל אוֹ חוֹל דַּק כְּדֵי לְזַבֵּל כְּרִישָׁה. חוֹל גַּס כְּדֵי לְעָרֵב עִם מְלֹא כַּף שֶׁל סַיָּדִין. חַרְסִית כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת פִּי כּוּר שֶׁל צוֹרְפֵי זָהָב. שֵׂעַר כְּדֵי לְגַבֵּל טִיט לַעֲשׂוֹת פִּי כּוּר שֶׁל צוֹרְפֵי זָהָב. סִיד כְּדֵי לָסוּד אֶצְבַּע קְטַנָּה שֶׁבַּבָּנוֹת. עָפָר וָאֵפֶר כְּדֵי לְכַסּוֹת דַּם צִפּוֹר קְטַנָּה. צְרוֹר אֶבֶן כְּדֵי לִזְרֹק בִּבְהֵמָה וְתַרְגִּישׁ. וְהוּא מִשְׁקַל עֲשָׂרָה זוּזִים. חֶרֶס כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל בּוֹ רְבִיעִית:


[A person who transfers] rope [is liable for transferring an amount] sufficient to make a handle for a container. Reeds,80 enough to make a hook to hang a sifter or a sieve.81 Palm leaves, enough to make a handle for an Egyptian basket. Palm bast, enough to use as a stopper for a small pitcher of wine.82 Unprocessed wool, enough to make a ball the size of a nut.

Bone, enough to make a spoon. Glass, to sharpen the point of a weaver's needle or to cut two threads at once.83


הַמּוֹצִיא חֶבֶל כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹזֶן לְקֻפָּה. גֶּמִי כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת תְּלַאי לְנָפָה וְלִכְבָרָה. הוּצִין כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹזֶן לִכְפִיפָה מִצְרִית. סִיב כְּדֵי לִתֵּן עַל פִּי מַשְׁפֵּךְ קָטָן שֶׁל יַיִן. מוֹכִין כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ כַּדּוּר כֶּאֱגוֹז. עֶצֶם כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת תַּרְוָד. זְכוּכִית כְּדֵי לִגְרֹד בָּהּ רֹאשׁ הַכַּרְכָּר אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּפְצַע שְׁתֵּי נִימִין כְּאַחַת:


[A person] is liable for transferring two hairs from the tail of a horse or of a cow.84 If he transfers one bristle from a pig's [back],85 he is liable. Fibers from a date palm, two. The bark of the date branches, one.86

From cotton, from silk, camel's wool, rabbit's wool, wool from an animal of the sea, or any other fibers that can be spun, enough to spin a thread four handbreadths long.87

When a person transfers cloth, sack, or leather, the same minimum measurements that apply with regard to the laws of ritual purity also apply with regard to transferring [on the Sabbath]: [The size of] a cloth for which one is liable for transferring] is three [fingerbreadths] by three [fingerbreadths];88 sackcloth,89 four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths]; leather, five [handbreadths] by five [handbreadths].90


הַמּוֹצִיא שְׁתֵּי נִימִין מִזְּנַב הַסּוּס וּמִזְּנַב הַפָּרָה חַיָּב. הוֹצִיא אַחַת מִן הַקָּשֶׁה שֶׁבַּחֲזִיר חַיָּב. נִצְרֵי דֶּקֶל וְהֵן חוּטֵי הָעֵץ שְׁתַּיִם. חוֹרֵי דֶּקֶל וְהֵן קְלִפֵּי הַחֲרָיוֹת אַחַת. מִצֶּמֶר גֶּפֶן וּמִצֶּמֶר כָּלָךְ וְצֶמֶר גְּמַלִּים וְאַרְנָבִים וְחַיָּה שֶׁבַּיָּם וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַנִּטְוִין כְּדֵי לִטְווֹת חוּט אֹרֶךְ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים. הַמּוֹצִיא מִן הַבֶּגֶד אוֹ מִן הַשַּׂק אוֹ מִן הָעוֹר כְּשִׁעוּרָן לְטֻמְאָה כָּךְ שִׁעוּרָן לְהוֹצָאָה. הַבֶּגֶד שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה. הַשַּׂק אַרְבָּעָה עַל אַרְבָּעָה. הָעוֹר חֲמִשָּׁה עַל חֲמִשָּׁה:


When a person transfers an animal hide that was not processed at all and is thus soft, the measure [for which he is liable] is enough to wrap a small weight the size of a shekel. When [it is in the first stages of being processed - i.e.,] salt has been applied to it, but not flour and gall-nut juice, the measure [for which one is liable] is enough to make an amulet.91 If flour has been applied to it, but not gall-nut juice, the measure is enough to write a bill of divorce upon it. If it has been processed entirely, its measure is five [handbreadths] by five [handbreadths].


הַמּוֹצִיא עוֹר שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעַבֵּד כְּלָל אֶלָּא עֲדַיִן הוּא רַךְ שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לָצוּר מִשְׁקלֶת קְטַנָּה שֶׁמִּשְׁקָלָהּ שֶׁקֶל. הָיָה מָלוּחַ וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בְּקֶמַח וְלֹא בְּעַפְּצָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת קָמֵעַ. הָיָה עָשׂוּי בְּקֶמַח וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְעַבֵּד בְּעַפְּצָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו אֶת הַגֵּט. נִגְמַר עִבּוּדוֹ שִׁעוּרוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה עַל חֲמִשָּׁה:


[A person who transfers] processed parchment92 [is liable for transferring a piece] sufficient for the passage from Shema to uvish'arecha.93 Duchsustos, enough to write a mezuzah on it.

Paper, enough to write on it two letters for a customs officer's receipt. These two letters are larger than the letters we [usually write]. A person who transfers a customs officer's receipt is liable even though he has already shown it to the customs officer and has been exempted because of it,94 for it will serve forever as proof [of his having paid].

A person who transfers a promissory note that has been paid95 or a paper that has been erased [is liable for transferring] enough to wrap around a small flask of perfume.96 If it has a portion of clean paper large enough to write two letters for a custom officer's receipt, he is liable.


הַמּוֹצִיא קְלָף מְעֻבָּד כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו פָּרָשַׁת שְׁמַע עַד וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ. דּוּכְסוּסְטוּס כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו מְזוּזָה. נְיָר כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁל קֶשֶׁר מוֹכְסִין שֶׁהֵן גְּדוֹלוֹת מֵאוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ. הַמּוֹצִיא קֶשֶׁר מוֹכְסִין חַיָּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר הֶרְאָהוּ לַמּוֹכֵס וְנִפְטַר בּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי רְאָיָה הִיא לְעוֹלָם. הַמּוֹצִיא שְׁטָר פָּרוּעַ וּנְיָר מָחוּק כְּדֵי לִכְרֹךְ עַל פִּי צְלוֹחִית קְטַנָּה שֶׁל פְּלַיָּיטוֹן. וְאִם יֵשׁ בַּלֹּבֶן שֶׁלּוֹ כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁל קֶשֶׁר מוֹכְסִין חַיָּב:


A person who transfers an animal, a wild beast, or a fowl is liable even if it is alive. A living person, by contrast, is not considered to be a burden.97 Nevertheless, if he is bound or sick, a person who transfers him is liable.98

A woman may walk her son if he can pick up one foot and place down the other.99


הַמּוֹצִיא בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן חַיִּים חַיָּב. אֲבָל אָדָם חַי אֵינוֹ מַשּׂאוֹי. וְאִם הָיָה כָּפוּת אוֹ חוֹלֶה הַמּוֹצִיא אוֹתוֹ חַיָּב. וְהָאִשָּׁה מְדַדָּה אֶת בְּנָהּ בִּזְמַן שֶׁנּוֹטֵל אַחַת וּמַנִּיחַ אַחַת:


A person who transfers a living child with a purse hanging around his neck is liable, because of the purse, for the purse is not considered to be subsidiary to the child.100 If, however, one transfers an adult who is wearing clothes and rings on his hands, one is not liable, for everything is considered to be subsidiary to him. If, by contrast, his garments were folded [and held] on his shoulder,101 a person who carries him is liable.


הַמּוֹצִיא תִּינוֹק חַי וְכִיס תָּלוּי בְּצַוָּארוֹ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם הַכִּיס שֶׁאֵין הַכִּיס טְפֵלָה לַתִּינוֹק. אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא אֶת הַגָּדוֹל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְלֻבָּשׁ בְּכֵלָיו וְטַבְּעוֹתָיו בְּיָדוֹ פָּטוּר שֶׁהַכּל טְפֵלָה לוֹ. הָיוּ כֵּלָיו מְקֻפָּלִין עַל כְּתֵפוֹ הַנּוֹשֵׂא אוֹתוֹ חַיָּב:


[A person who transfers] a live locust of the smallest size [is liable].102 If it is dead, [he is liable for transferring an amount] the size of a dried fig.103 [For transferring] "a bird of the vineyards,"104 [one is liable for transferring] even the smallest amount, regardless of whether it is alive or dead, since it is preserved for medicinal105 purposes.106 The same applies in all similar cases.

The minimum measure for which one is liable for transferring [flesh from] a human corpse, [flesh from] the carcass of an animal, or [flesh from] a dead crawling animal107 is the same as the minimum amount of these substances capable of imparting ritual impurity: From a human corpse108 and from an animal carcass,109 the size of an olive. From a crawling animal,110 the size of a lentil.


הַמּוֹצִיא חָגָב חַי כָּל שֶׁהוּא. וּמֵת כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. צִפֹּרֶת כְּרָמִים בֵּין חַיָּה בֵּין מֵתָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּצְנִיעִין אוֹתָהּ לִרְפוּאָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ. הַמֵּת וְהַנְּבֵלָה וְהַשֶּׁרֶץ כְּשִׁעוּר טֻמְאָתָן כָּךְ שִׁעוּר הוֹצָאָתָן. מֵת וּנְבֵלָה כְּזַיִת וְשֶׁרֶץ כַּעֲדָשָׁה:


If there is exactly an olive-sized portion [of an animal carcass in one place] and a person removes a portion half the size of an olive111 from it, he is liable. [This decision is rendered,] because his actions are effective in reducing [the amount of impure substance to the extent] that the minimum amount that can convey impurity is no longer present.

If, however, he removes a quantity aproximately half the size of an olive from a quantity that is one and a half times the size of an olive, he is not liable.112 The same principles apply with regard to other sources of impurity.


הָיָה שָׁם כְּזַיִת מְצֻמְצָם וְהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ כַּחֲצִי זַיִת חַיָּב שֶׁהֲרֵי הוֹעִיל בְּמַעֲשָׂיו שֶׁנִּתְמַעֵט הַשִּׁעוּר מִלְּטַמֵּא. אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא כַּחֲצִי זַיִת מִכְּזַיִת וּמֶחֱצָה פָּטוּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בִּשְׁאָר הַטֻּמְאוֹת:


When does [the abovementioned rule,] that a person is liable only when he transfers the minimum of a standard measure of a substance, apply? When the person transfers the substance without any specific intent.113 If, however, a person transfers a [seed] to sow,114 or a substance for medicinal purposes, to show as an example, or the like,115 he is liable for the slightest amount.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא עַל הַהוֹצָאָה כַּשִּׁעוּר, כְּשֶׁהוֹצִיא סְּתָם. אֲבָל הַמּוֹצִיא לְזֶרַע אוֹ לִרְפוּאָה אוֹ לְהַרְאוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ דֻּגְמָא וּלְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה חַיָּב בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:


Should a person who stores a substance to use as seed, or to use for medicinal purposes, or a substance to be shown as a sample, [afterwards,] forget the reason for which he stored the substance,116 and remove it117 without any specific intent,118 he is liable regardless of its size.119 Another person, by contrast, is not liable [if he transfers this article] unless it is of the prescribed measure.120

If after transferring the article [for the intent he originally had], the person throws it into a storeroom, even if it is [set aside] in a distinct place,121 his original intent is considered to have been nullified. Therefore, if he brings in the article afterwards, he is not liable unless it is of the prescribed measure.


הַמַּצְנִיעַ דָּבָר לִזְרִיעָה אוֹ לִרְפוּאָה אוֹ לְדֻגְמָא וְשָׁכַח לָמָּה הִצְנִיעוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ סְתָם חַיָּב עָלָיו בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא שֶׁעַל דַּעַת מַחֲשָׁבָה רִאשׁוֹנָה הוֹצִיא. וּשְׁאָר הָאָדָם אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו אֶלָּא כְּשִׁעוּרוֹ. זָרַק זֶה שֶׁהוֹצִיא כְּבָר לְתוֹךְ הָאוֹצָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקוֹמוֹ נִכָּר כְּבָר בָּטְלָה מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם חָזַר וְהִכְנִיסוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיס כַּשִּׁעוּר:


When an entity is not usually stored away,122 nor is it fit to be stored away123 - e.g., a woman's menstrual discharge - a person who stores it and then transfers it is liable.124 Other people, by contrast, are exempt for [transferring] such an article, for [in general] one is not liable unless one transfers an article that is fit to be stored and that people generally store.


דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לְהַצְנִיעוֹ וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְהַצְנִיעַ כְּגוֹן דַּם הַנִּדָּה אִם הִצְנִיעוֹ אֶחָד וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חַיָּב. וּשְׁאָר הָאָדָם פְּטוּרִין עָלָיו. שֶׁאֵין חַיָּבִין אֶלָּא עַל הוֹצָאַת דָּבָר הַכָּשֵׁר לְהַצְנִיעַ וּמַצְנִיעִין כָּמוֹהוּ:


A person who transfers half125 of the prescribed measure [of a substance] is not liable.126 Similarly, a person who performs half the measure of any of the other [forbidden] labors is not liable.

If a person transfers half of the prescribed measure [of a substance], places it down, and then returns and transfers the second half, he is liable.127 If, however, he picks up the first half before he places down the second half, it is as if [the first half] were burned,128 and he is not liable.

When a person transfers half of the prescribed measure [of a substance], places it down, and then returns and transfers the second half, passing it over the first [half without placing it on the ground], he is liable [if the second half] is [held] within three handbreadths of the first half.129 [The rationale is] that transferring is considered equivalent to placing the object down on a substance.

If, by contrast, he throws the second half,130 he is not liable unless it comes to rest on a substance [within the domain where the first half was placed].131


הַמּוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר פָּטוּר. וְכֵן כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה מִן הַמְּלָאכוֹת חֲצִי שִׁעוּר פָּטוּר. הוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר וְהִנִּיחוֹ וְחָזַר וְהוֹצִיא הַחֵצִי הָאַחֵר חַיָּב. וְאִם קָדַם וְהִגְבִּיהַּ הַחֵצִי הָרִאשׁוֹן קֹדֶם הַנָּחַת הַחֵצִי הַשֵּׁנִי נַעֲשָׂה כְּמִי שֶׁנִּשְׂרַף וּפָטוּר. הוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר וְהִנִּיחוֹ וְחָזַר וְהוֹצִיא חֵצִי אַחֵר וְהֶעֱבִירוֹ עַל הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשָׁה חַיָּב. שֶׁהַמַּעֲבִיר כְּמִי שֶׁהִנִּיחַ עַל גַּבֵּי מַשֶּׁהוּ. אֲבָל אִם זְרָקוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיָּנוּחַ שָׁם עַל גַּבֵּי מַשֶּׁהוּ:


[When a person] transfers half the prescribed measure [of a substance], and afterwards transfers another half of the prescribed measure [of that substance] to the same domain in a single period of unawareness, he is liable.132

[Different rules apply if] he transfers [the two half-measures] to two different domains. If there is a domain into which one would be liable [for transferring an article interposed] between [the two domains], one is not liable [for transferring these two halves].133 If there is a carmelit between them, they are considered to be a single domain,134 and [the person who transfers the two half-measures] is liable to bring a sin offering.135


הוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר וְחָזַר וְהוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר בְּהֵעָלֵם אַחַת לִרְשׁוּת אַחַת חַיָּב. לִשְׁתֵּי רְשׁוּיוֹת אִם יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶן רְשׁוּת שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ פָּטוּר. הָיְתָה בֵּינֵיהֶן כַּרְמְלִית הֲרֵי הֵן כִּרְשׁוּת אַחַת וְחַיָּב חַטָּאת:


When a person transfers less than the prescribed measure [of a substance], but before he places it down, [the substance] swells in size and reaches the prescribed measure [he is not liable].136 Similarly, one is not liable if one transfers more than the prescribed measure [of a substance], but before he places it down [the substance] diminishes in size and becomes less than the prescribed measure.


הַמּוֹצִיא פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיַּנִּיחוֹ נִתְפַּח וְחָזַר כַּשִּׁעוּר. וְכֵן הַמּוֹצִיא כַּשִּׁעוּר וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ צָמַק וְחָזַר פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר פָּטוּר:


[The following rule applies when] a person transfers a portion [of a food] the size of a dried fig with the intent of eating it,137 but before he places it down it diminishes in size: If he [reconsiders and] decides to use it to sow, or for medicinal purposes,138 he is liable, because of the intent he had at the time he placed it down.139

If a person transfers [a quantity of seeds] smaller than the size of a dried fig with the intent of sowing them, but before he places them down, changes his mind and decides to eat them, he is not liable.140 If [the seeds] swell in size before they are placed down and reach the size of a dried fig before141 he changes his mind [and decides to] eat them, he is liable.142 Even if he had not change his mind, he would still have been liable because of his original intent.


הַמּוֹצִיא כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת לַאֲכִילָה וְצָמְקָה קֹדֶם הַנָּחָה וְחָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ לִזְרִיעָה אוֹ לִרְפוּאָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שִׁעוּר הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב כְּמַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ שֶׁל עֵת הַנָּחָה. הוֹצִיא פָּחוֹת מִכִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת לִזְרִיעָה וְקֹדֶם הַנָּחָה חָזַר וְחָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ לַאֲכִילָה פָּטוּר. וְאִם תָּפְחָה קֹדֶם הַנָּחָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּמָּלֵךְ עָלֶיהָ לַאֲכִילָה חַיָּב. שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לֹא חִשֵּׁב הָיָה מִתְחַיֵּב עַל מַחְשֶׁבֶת הַהוֹצָאָה:


When a person transfers a portion [of a food] the size of a dried fig with the intent of eating it, it diminishes in size, and then it swells [to the size of a dried fig] again before it is placed down, there is a question [whether he is liable or not]: [Does the fact that in the interim, it was not of sufficient size for its transfer to incur liability cause that liability] to be deferred [forever] or not?143

When a person throws a portion of the food the size of an olive into a house that is impure144 and by doing so, complements the quantity of food145 that was already in the house, causing there to be an amount [of food] the size of an egg [in the impure house], there is a question [whether he is liable or not]: Is he liable for transferring [the portion of] food that is equivalent to the size of an olive, because he completed the measure of food that is significant with regard to the laws of ritual impurity, or is he not liable?146


הוֹצִיא כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת לַאֲכִילָה וְצָמְקָה וְחָזְרָה וְתָפְחָה קֹדֶם הַנָּחָה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם נִדְחָה אוֹ לֹא נִדְחָה. זָרַק כְּזַיִת אֳכָלִין לְבַיִת טָמֵא וְהִשְׁלִים כְּזַיִת זֶה לָאֳכָלִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם וְנַעֲשָׂה הַכּל כְּבֵיצָה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם נִתְחַיֵּב עַל כְּזַיִת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִשְׁלִים הַשִּׁעוּר לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה אוֹ לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב:


A person who transfers less than the standard measure [of a substance] is not liable even though he transfers it in a container. [The rationale is that] the container is subsidiary [to its contents]; [when the person transfers it,] he is concerned not with the container, but with its contents.147

Accordingly, if a person transfers a man who is alive and who is not bound on a bed, he is not liable,148 for the bed is considered to be subsidiary to the man. These principles apply in all similar situations.

A person who transfers a perfumer's box is liable for only a single [sin offering], although it contains many different types [of scents].149 [Similarly,] even if he transfers [several items] in his hand,150 he is liable for only a single sin offering, for [he has performed] a single act of transfer.


הַמּוֹצִיא פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ בִּכְלִי פָּטוּר. שֶׁהַכְּלִי טְפֵלָה לוֹ וְאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ לְהוֹצָאַת הַכְּלִי אֶלָּא לְהוֹצָאַת מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ וַהֲרֵי אֵין בּוֹ כַּשִּׁעוּר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הוֹצִיא אָדָם חַי שֶׁאֵינוֹ כָּפוּת בְּמִטָּה פָּטוּר אַף עַל הַמִּטָּה שֶׁהַמִּטָּה טְפֵלָה לוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. הַמּוֹצִיא קֻפַּת הָרוֹכְלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מִינִין הַרְבֵּה וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹצִיאָן בְּתוֹךְ כַּפּוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת. שֵׁם הוֹצָאָה אַחַת הִיא: