1

A person who transfers an object from one domain into another1 or one who carries an object beyond four cubits in the public domain is not liable unless he lifts the object up from a place that is [at least] four handbreadths by four handbreadths, and places it down in a place that is [at least] four handbreadths by four handbreadths.2

א

אֵין הַמּוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת אוֹ הַמַּעֲבִיר בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּעֲקֹר חֵפֶץ מֵעַל גַּבֵּי מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים עַל אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים אוֹ יָתֵר וְיַנִּיחַ עַל גַּבֵּי מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעָה עַל אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים:

2

A person's hand is considered equivalent to a place four handbreadths by four handbreadths in size.3 Therefore, a person who removes an object from another person's hand in one domain and places it in the hand of a third person in a second domain is liable.4

Similarly, a person is liable if he was standing in one of these two domains and stretched his hand into the other, removed an article from there or from the hand of a person standing there, and then returned his hand. [This applies] even though he did not place down the article in the domain in which he is standing.5 Since it is in his hand, it is considered as if it were placed on the ground.

ב

יָדוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם חֲשׁוּבָה לוֹ כְּאַרְבָּעָה עַל אַרְבָּעָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם עָקַר הַחֵפֶץ מִיַּד אָדָם הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת זוֹ וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּיַד אָדָם אַחֵר הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה חַיָּב. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּאַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי רְשׁוּיוֹת אֵלּוּ וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לִרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה וְעָקַר הַחֵפֶץ מִמֶּנָּה אוֹ מִיַּד אָדָם הָעוֹמֵד בָּהּ וְהֶחֱזִיר יָדוֹ אֵלָיו חַיָּב. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ הַחֵפֶץ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בּוֹ הוֹאִיל וְהוּא בְּיָדוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמֻנָּח בָּאָרֶץ:

3

When a person was eating and passed from one domain to another, he is liable if he thought to carry the food in his mouth from one domain to the other. Although this is not the ordinary way in which articles are transferred,6 his intent causes his mouth to be considered as a place four handbreadths by four handbreadths in size.

Similarly, if a person who was standing in one domain urinated or spit into the other domain, he is liable, because he removed [a substance] from one domain and placed it down in another. His conscious [performance of this activity] causes it to be considered as if he removed [an object] from a space four [handbreadths by four handbreadths]. If a person is standing in one domain and the opening of his penis is in a second domain and he urinates into that domain, he is not liable.7

ג

הָיָה אוֹכֵל וְיוֹצֵא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת וְחִשֵּׁב לְהוֹצִיא הָאוֹכֵל שֶׁבְּפִיו מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת חַיָּב. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ מְשִׂימָה פִּיו מְקוֹם אַרְבָּעָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיא כְּדֶרֶךְ הַמּוֹצִיאִין. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּאַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי רְשׁוּיוֹת אֵלּוּ וְהִשְׁתִּין מַיִם אוֹ רָקַק בִּרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה חַיָּב שֶׁהֲרֵי עָקַר מֵרְשׁוּת זוֹ וְהִנִּיחַ בִּרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה וּמַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ עוֹשָׂה אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלּוּ עָקַר מֵעַל גַּבֵּי מְקוֹם אַרְבָּעָה. הָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת זוֹ וּפִי אַמָּה בִּרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה וְהִשְׁתִּין בָּהּ פָּטוּר:

4

If a person standing in one of two domains extended his hand into the other, removed water from a pit full of water,8 and transferred it [to another domain], he is liable.9 The entire [quantity of] water is considered as if it is placed on the ground.

In contrast, when a container of fruit is floating on the water, a person who extends his hand and takes some of the fruit and transfers it [to the domain in which he is standing] is not liable. Since the fruit was not resting on the ground, the person did not remove [an object] from a space four [handbreadths by four handbreadths].10

Needless to say, if the fruit itself was floating on the water and one transferred it [to another domain], he is not liable.11 Similarly, if oil was floating on water and one scooped up some of the oil and transferred it [to another domain], he is not liable.12

ד

הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּאַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי רְשׁוּיוֹת וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לִרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה וְנָטַל מִשָּׁם מַיִם מֵעַל גַּבֵּי גּוּמָא מְלֵאָה מַיִם וְהוֹצִיאָן חַיָּב. שֶׁהַמַּיִם כֻּלָּן כְּאִלּוּ הֵן מֻנָּחִין עַל הָאָרֶץ. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה כְּלִי צָף עַל גַּבֵּי מַיִם וּפֵרוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ וְלָקַח מִן הַפֵּרוֹת וְהוֹצִיא פָּטוּר. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נָחוּ הַפֵּרוֹת עַל גַּבֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְנִמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא עָקַר מֵעַל גַּבֵּי מְקוֹם אַרְבָּעָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם הָיוּ הַפֵּרוֹת צָפִין עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם וְהוֹצִיאָם שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה שֶׁמֶן צָף עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם וְקָלַט מִן הַשֶּׁמֶן וְהוֹצִיאוֹ פָּטוּר:

5

As mentioned above,13 a person who transfers [an object] from one domain to another is not liable unless he removes the object from its place and places it down [in a new place]. When, however, one removes [an object], but does not place it down or places it down without lifting it up, one is not liable.

Therefore, when a person standing in one of two domains extends his hand into another domain while holding an object, and another person takes it from him, or if another person places an article in his hand and he retracts his hand, neither is liable,14 neither the person who removed the article nor the one who placed it down.15

ה

כְּבָר אָמַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין הַמּוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּעֲקֹר וְיַנִּיחַ. אֲבָל אִם עָקַר וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ אוֹ הִנִּיחַ וְלֹא עָקַר פָּטוּר. לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁהָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּאַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי רְשׁוּיוֹת וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לִרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה וְחֵפֶץ בְּיָדוֹ וּנְטָלוֹ אַחֵר מִמֶּנּוּ אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן אַחֵר לְיָדוֹ חֵפֶץ וְהֶחֱזִיר יָדוֹ אֵלָיו שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּטוּרִים שֶׁזֶּה עָקַר וְזֶה הִנִּיחַ:

6

When does the above apply? When [the giver's] hand is held more than three [handbreadths above the ground]. If, however, [the giver's] hand is held less than three handbreadths16 above the ground, [holding the article at that height] is equivalent to placing it on the ground,17 and one is liable.

ו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה יָדוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה. אֲבָל הָיְתָה יָדוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁהִנִּיחַ בָּאָרֶץ וְחַיָּב:

7

When one person is standing in either of these two domains and a colleague extends his hand from the second domain, takes an object from the person standing in the first domain and brings it in, or [the colleague] takes an object from his [domain] and places it in the hand of the person who is standing, the person who is standing [is not liable at all].18 He did absolutely nothing; it was [his colleague who] placed the object in his hand or took it from his hand. The colleague is therefore liable, for he removed the object [from its original place] and put it down [in a new place].

ז

הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּאַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי רְשׁוּיוֹת אֵלּוּ וּפָשַׁט חֲבֵרוֹ יָד מֵרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה וְנָטַל חֵפֶץ מִיַּד זֶה הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת זוֹ וְהִכְנִיסוֹ אֶצְלוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהוֹצִיא חֵפֶץ מֵאֶצְלוֹ וְהִנִּיחַ בְּיַד זֶה הָעוֹמֵד. זֶה הָעוֹמֵד לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם שֶׁהֲרֵי חֲבֵרוֹ נָתַן בְּיָדוֹ אוֹ נָטַל מִיָּדוֹ וַחֲבֵרוֹ חַיָּב שֶׁהֲרֵי עָקַר וְהִנִּיחַ:

8

When a person is standing in either of these two domains and a colleague puts an object in his hand or [loads it] on his back, and the [first] person goes out to another domain [carrying] this object, he becomes liable [when] he stands [still]. Removing his body while bearing the object is considered as removing the object from that domain, and standing while carrying the object is considered as placing the object down on the ground where he is standing. Therefore, if he went out holding the object in his hand or [carrying] it on his back and did not stand [still] in the second domain, but rather returned to the first domain while he was still holding the object, he is not liable. [This applies] even if he goes in and out [carrying the object] for the entire day until its conclusion. Although he removed [the object from its original place], he did not put it down [in a new place].19 Even if he stands [still] to adjust his load, he is not liable.20 [To be held liable, he must] stand [still] to rest.

ח

הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּאַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי רְשׁוּיוֹת אֵלּוּ וְנָתַן חֲבֵרוֹ חֵפֶץ בְּיָדוֹ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּיו וְיָצָא בְּאוֹתוֹ הַחֵפֶץ לִרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה וְעָמַד שָׁם חַיָּב. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲקִירַת גּוּפוֹ בַּחֵפֶץ שֶׁעָלָיו כַּעֲקִירַת חֵפֶץ מֵאוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת וַעֲמִידָתוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַחֵפֶץ כְּהַנָּחַת הַחֵפֶץ בַּקַּרְקַע שֶׁעָמַד בָּהּ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם יָצָא בַּחֵפֶץ שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ אוֹ עַל גַּבָּיו וְלֹא עָמַד בִּרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה אֶלָּא חָזַר וְנִכְנַס וְהוּא בְּיָדוֹ אֲפִלּוּ יָצָא וְנִכְנַס כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּצָא הַיּוֹם פָּטוּר. לְפִי שֶׁעָקַר וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ. וַאֲפִלּוּ עָמַד לְתַקֵּן הַמַּשּׂאוֹי שֶׁעָלָיו עֲדַיִן הוּא פָּטוּר עַד שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד לָנוּחַ:

9

For this reason, a person who is carrying a burden on his shoulders and running is not liable until he stands, even if he runs the entire day. He must, however, be running. If he is walking slowly, it is tantamount to having removed the article and having placed it down. [Hence,] this is forbidden.21 For this reason, a person who was carrying an article on his shoulders when the Sabbath commences should run with it until he reaches his home and then throw it inside in an abnormal manner.22

ט

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה חֲבִילָתוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְרָץ בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ כָּל הַיּוֹם אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רָץ בָּהּ. אֲבָל אִם הָלַךְ מְעַט מְעַט הֲרֵי זֶה כְּעוֹקֵר וּמַנִּיחַ וְאָסוּר. לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁקָּדַשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם וַחֲבִילָתוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ רָץ בָּהּ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ וְזוֹרְקָהּ שָׁם כִּלְאַחַר יָד:

10

When a person removes an article from its place in the public domain and walks, [carrying] it less than four cubits and stands, [he is not liable].23 [Moreover, even if he continues this pattern[ the entire day, carrying the article less than four cubits, stopping, and then proceeding further, he is not liable.24 When does the above apply? When he stands in order to rest.25 If, however, he stands to adjust his load [within four cubits], it is considered as if he is still walking. Thus, when he stands after moving four cubits [from his original place], he is liable.26 The [latter ruling applies, however,] when he stops [a second time] after moving four cubits [from his original place] for the purpose of resting. If he stops for the purpose of adjusting his load [again], he is considered as if he is still walking. He is not liable until he stood to rest more than four cubits [from his original place].

י

עָקַר הַחֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהָלַךְ בּוֹ פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְעָמַד וְחָזַר וְהָלַךְ פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְעָמַד אֲפִלּוּ כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ פָּטוּר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁעָמַד לָנוּחַ. אֲבָל אִם עָמַד לְתַקֵּן מַשָּׂאוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְהַלֵּךְ וּכְשֶׁיַּעֲמֹד חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת חַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לָנוּחַ. אֲבָל אִם יַעֲמֹד לְתַקֵּן מַשָּׂאוֹ עֲדַיִן הוּא כִּמְהַלֵּךְ וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד לָנוּחַ חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת:

11

[The following rules apply when] a pole, spear, or the like is lying on the ground: If a person lifts up one end without lifting the other from the ground, and then thrusts the pole forward, [he is not liable]. [Moreover, even if he continues this pattern,] picking up the second end which had remained in contact with the earth [while leaving the other end in contact with the earth], and thrusting it forward, and continuing to do so until the object moved several millim, he is not liable. [The rationale is that] the person never lifted the object from the earth.27 If, however, he pulls the article and drags it on the ground from the beginning [of a square] four cubits long to the end [of that square], he is liable. [The rationale is that] rolling the article is comparable to picking it up from its place.28

יא

הָיָה קָנֶה אוֹ רֹמַח וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מֻנָּח עַל הָאָרֶץ וְהִגְבִּיהַּ הַקָּצֶה הָאֶחָד וְהָיָה הַקָּצֶה הַשֵּׁנִי מֻנָּח בָּאָרֶץ וְהִשְׁלִיכוֹ לְפָנָיו וְחָזַר וְהִגְבִּיהַּ הַקָּצֶה הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁהָיָה מֻנָּח בָּאָרֶץ וְהִשְׁלִיכוֹ לְפָנָיו עַל דֶּרֶךְ זוֹ עַד שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר הַחֵפֶץ כַּמָּה מִילִין פָּטוּר. לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא עָקַר הַחֵפֶץ כֻּלּוֹ מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הָאָרֶץ. וְאִם מָשַׁךְ הַחֵפֶץ וּגְרָרוֹ עַל הָאָרֶץ מִתְּחִלַּת אַרְבַּע לְסוֹף אַרְבַּע חַיָּב שֶׁהַמְגַלְגֵּל עוֹקֵר הוּא:

12

When a person removes an article from one corner [of a private domain] with the intent of placing it down in another corner [of the same domain], the removal of the article in such a manner is permitted. Should he then change his mind and take the article out to another domain, he is not liable.

[The rationale is that] the removal [of the article from its original place] was not [performed] with that intent.29 Thus, the placement of the article was [performed in a forbidden manner], but not its removal.

Similarly, a person is not liable if he removes an article [from its original position] and places it on the back of a colleague who is walking, but removes it from his colleague's back when30 the latter desires to stand.31 The removal of the article was [performed in a forbidden manner], but not its placement.

יב

עָקַר הַחֵפֶץ מִזָּוִית זוֹ לְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּזָוִית אַחֶרֶת שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת זוֹ הָעֲקִירָה עֲקִירָה הַמֻּתֶּרֶת וְנִמְלַךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ לִרְשׁוּת שְׁנִיָּה פָּטוּר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה עֲקִירָה רִאשׁוֹנָה לְכָךְ וְנִמְצֵאת כָּאן הַנָּחָה בְּלֹא עֲקִירָה. וְכֵן הָעוֹקֵר חֵפֶץ וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל חֲבֵרוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ וּבְעֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה חֲבֵרוֹ לַעֲמֹד נְטָלוֹ מֵעַל גַּבֵּי חֲבֵרוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ כָּאן עֲקִירָה בְּלֹא הַנָּחָה:

13

A person who throws an object from one domain to another, or from the beginning [of a square] four cubits long to the end [of that square] is not liable if another person caught it in his hands,32 a dog caught it, or it was consumed by flames before it came to rest. [The rationale is that] this was not the manner in which the thrower intended that the article come to rest. Accordingly, if this, in fact, was his intent, he is liable.33

יג

הַזּוֹרֵק חֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת אוֹ מִתְּחִלַּת אַרְבַּע לְסוֹף אַרְבַּע בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיָּנוּחַ קְלָטוֹ אַחֵר בְּיָדוֹ אוֹ קְלָטוֹ כֶּלֶב אוֹ נִשְׂרַף פָּטוּר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין זוֹ הַנָּחָה שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לָהּ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן בִּשְׁעַת זְרִיקָה לְכָךְ חַיָּב:

14

A person is not liable if he throws an article that is tied to a rope he is holding in his hand from one domain to another, if he can pull the article back to him. [The rationale is that] the article is not considered to have been placed down in a definitive manner.34 Thus, the person is considered to have removed the article [from its original place],35 but not to have placed it down [in a new place].

יד

הַזּוֹרֵק חֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת וְהָיָה קָשׁוּר בְּחֶבֶל וַאֲגָדוֹ בְּיָדוֹ. אִם יָכוֹל לִמְשֹׁךְ הַחֵפֶץ אֶצְלוֹ פָּטוּר. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן הֲנָחָה גְּמוּרָה וְנִמְצָא כְּמִי שֶׁעָקַר וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ:

15

[The following rules apply when] a person throws an object and it comes to rest in the hands of a colleague: If the colleague stood in his place and received the object, the person who threw it is liable, for he both removed [the object from its original place] and caused it to come to rest.36 If the colleague [was forced to] leave his place to receive it, the one who threw it is not liable. If a person threw an article and then ran after the article himself and caught it in his hands in another domain or beyond four cubits [in the public domain], he is not liable. It is as if [the intended recipient was forced to] leave his place to catch it.37 [The rationale for these rulings is: The person who throws an article is not considered to have] caused [the article] to come to rest in a definitive manner until it comes to rest in the place in which it was intended to come to rest when it was removed [from its original place].

טו

הַזּוֹרֵק וְנָחָה בְּתוֹךְ יָדוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ. אִם עָמַד חֲבֵרוֹ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְקִבְּלָהּ הַזּוֹרֵק חַיָּב שֶׁהֲרֵי עָקַר וְהִנִּיחַ. וְאִם נֶעֱקַר חֲבֵרוֹ מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וְקִבְּלָהּ פָּטוּר. זָרַק וְרָץ הַזּוֹרֵק עַצְמוֹ אַחַר הַחֵפֶץ וְקִבְּלוֹ בְּיָדוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת אוֹ חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת פָּטוּר כְּאִלּוּ נֶעֱקַר אַחֵר וְקִבְּלוֹ. שֶׁאֵין הַהַנָּחָה גְּמוּרָה עַד שֶׁיָּנוּחַ הַחֵפֶץ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לָנוּחַ בּוֹ בִּשְׁעַת עֲקִירָה:

16

A person who throws an article from one private domain to another private domain is not liable, even if the article passes through the space of a public domain that separates them from each other.38 [The above applies] provided the article passes more than three handbreadths above the ground.39 If, however, the article passes less than three handbreadths above the earth and comes to rest on another object,40 the person is liable even though [afterwards,] the object [continues to] move and rolls into the other private domain.41 [Nevertheless,] it is considered as if it had remained in the public domain. Therefore, the person is liable. Similarly, when a person throws an article from one public domain to another public domain that is separated from the first by a private domain, the person is not liable.42 If, however, the article passes less than three handbreadths above the earth and comes to rest on another object, the person is liable even though [afterwards,] the object rolls into the other public domain.43 [Nevertheless,] it is considered as if it had remained in the private domain. Therefore, the person is liable.

טז

הַזּוֹרֵק מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בָּאֶמְצַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר הַחֵפֶץ בַּאֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים פָּטוּר. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר לְמַעְלָה מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים אֲבָל אִם עָבַר בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ וְנָח עַל גַּבֵּי מַשֶּׁהוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּעֱקַר אוֹ נִתְגַּלְגֵּל וְיָצָא הַחֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אַחֶרֶת הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר עוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּלְפִיכָךְ חַיָּב. וְכֵן הַזּוֹרֵק מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד בָּאֶמְצַע פָּטוּר. וְאִם עָבַר הַחֵפֶץ בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ וְנָח עַל גַּבֵּי מַשֶּׁהוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָזַר וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל וְיָצָא לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הַשְּׁנִיָּה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר עוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּלְפִיכָךְ חַיָּב:

17

A person is, however, liable if he carries44 an object more than four cubits [in the public domain as he proceeds from] one public domain to another [although he passes through a private domain in the interim].45 The rationale is that the total of four cubits [can be reached by] combining [the area traversed in] both public domains, because the object did not come to rest in the domain between them.

יז

הַמַּעֲבִיר אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים זוֹ עִם רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הַשְּׁנִיָּה חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בִּשְׁתֵּי רְשׁוּיוֹת הָרַבִּים מִצְטָרְפִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נָח הַחֵפֶץ בָּרְשׁוּת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן:

18

A person is liable if he passes46 an article from one private domain to another private domain when they are separated by a public domain.47 [This law applies] even when he passed the article above the space of the public domain, for this was [part of] the service of the Levites in the Sanctuary.48 They would pass the boards from wagon to wagon.49 [This is analogous to the above situation, because] the public domain passed between each wagon and each wagon was considered as a private domain.50

יח

הַמּוֹשִׁיט מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בָּאֶמְצַע חַיָּב. וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹשִׁיט לְמַעְלָה מֵאֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. שֶׁכֵּן הָיְתָה עֲבוֹדַת הַלְוִיִּם בַּמִּשְׁכָּן מוֹשִׁיטִין אֶת הַקְּרָשִׁים מֵעֲגָלָה לַעֲגָלָה וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בֵּין שְׁתֵּי הָעֲגָלוֹת וְכָל עֲגָלָה וַעֲגָלָה רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הִיא:

19

When does the above apply? When the two private domains are positioned [parallel to each other] along the length of the public domain,51 as the wagons would proceed behind each other in the public domain. If, however, the two private domains are positioned opposite each other on either side of the public domain,52 one is not liable even if one passes53 an article from one domain to the other.

יט

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד בְּאֹרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָעֲגָלוֹת מְהַלְּכוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי הָרְשֻׁיּוֹת בִּשְׁנֵי צִדֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אַף הַמּוֹשִׁיט מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד זוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁכְּנֶגְדָּהּ פָּטוּר:

20

[The following rules apply when] a person forgot54 and reached his hand out from one courtyard with the intent of extending it into another courtyard to its side55

while he was holding fruit: If he remembered before his hand entered [the other courtyard], and his hand is thus extended above the space of the public domain,56 he is permitted to return it to the courtyard in which he [is located]. He is, however, forbidden to extend it into the second courtyard, so that he will not accomplish the intent he had in mind when he performed this act inadvertently. If he extended his hand with a conscious intent to violate [the Sabbath laws and then changed his mind], he is [even] forbidden to return it. [The Sages] punished him [and decreed] that his hand must remain extended until nightfall.57

כ

שָׁכַח וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ וְהִיא מְלֵאָה פֵּרוֹת וְהוֹצִיאָהּ מֵחָצֵר זוֹ לְהַכְנִיסָהּ לֶחָצֵר שֶׁבְּצִדָּהּ וְנִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּכְנִיס וַהֲרֵי יָדוֹ תְּלוּיָה בַּאֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ אֵלָיו לַחֲצֵרוֹ. אֲבָל לְהַכְנִיסָהּ לְאוֹתָהּ הֶחָצֵר הַשְּׁנִיָּה אָסוּר. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ שֶׁחָשַׁב בִּשְׁעַת שְׁגָגָה. וְאִם הוֹצִיא יָדוֹ בְּמֵזִיד הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ אֶצְלוֹ אֶלָּא קָנְסוּ אוֹתוֹ שֶׁתְּהֵא יָדוֹ תְּלוּיָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ:

21

When a person intended to throw an article eight cubits in the public domain, but the article came to rest [just] beyond four cubits, he is liable, because the minimum measure of the forbidden labor was performed and the person's intent was completed. [Why is this so?]58 Because it is known that an article cannot reach a range of eight cubits without first passing through every space within that distance.59 In contrast, if a person intended to throw an article [just beyond] four [cubits] and the article came to rest at a distance of eight cubits, he is not liable, because the article came to rest in a place where he did not expect it to pass and certainly not to come to rest. Accordingly, if a person threw an object with the intent that it come to rest wherever it [landed], he is liable.

כא

הַמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִזְרֹק שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְנָח הַחֵפֶץ בְּסוֹף אַרְבַּע חַיָּב שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה כְּשִׁעוּר הַמְּלָאכָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ. שֶׁהַדָּבָר יָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵין זֶה הַחֵפֶץ מַגִּיעַ לְסוֹף שְׁמוֹנֶה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר עַל כָּל מָקוֹם וּמָקוֹם מִכָּל הַשְּׁמוֹנֶה. אֲבָל אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לִזְרֹק אַרְבַּע וְנָח הַחֵפֶץ בְּסוֹף שְׁמוֹנֶה פָּטוּר. לְפִי שֶׁנָּח בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא חָשַׁב שֶׁתַּעֲבֹר בּוֹ וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁתָּנוּחַ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם חָשַׁב בְּעֵת זְרִיקָה שֶׁיָּנוּחַ הַחֵפֶץ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה חַיָּב:

22

When a person throws an article [within] four cubits and it rolls beyond that distance, he is not liable.60 [The following rules apply] if a person throws an article beyond four cubits and it rolls back within four cubits: If it came to rest on an object beyond four cubits and afterwards rolled back within four cubits, he is liable.61 If it did not come to rest at all [beyond four cubits], he is not liable.62

כב

זָרַק לְתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת פָּטוּר. זָרַק חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל לְתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אִם נָח עַל גַּבֵּי מַשֶּׁהוּ חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּלְגֵּל וְנִכְנַס לְתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת חַיָּב וְאִם לֹא נָח כְּלָל הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר: