A person who bakes [an amount of food] the size of a dried fig is liable. Just as a person is liable for baking bread, he is liable for cooking food or herbs, or for heating water. These are all one type [of activity].1

The minimum amount of water for which one is liable for heating2 is an amount sufficient to wash3 a small limb.4 The minimum amount of herbs for which one is liable is the amount required to serve the purpose for which they are being cooked.5


הָאוֹפֶה כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב. אֶחָד הָאוֹפֶה אֶת הַפַּת אוֹ הַמְבַשֵּׁל אֶת הַמַּאֲכָל אוֹ אֶת הַסַּמְמָנִין אוֹ הַמְחַמֵּם אֶת הַמַּיִם הַכּל עִנְיָן אֶחָד הוּא. שִׁעוּר הַמְחַמֵּם אֶת הַמַּיִם כְּדֵי לִרְחֹץ בָּהֶן אֵיבָר קָטָן. וְשִׁעוּר מְבַשֵּׁל סַמְמָנִין כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ רְאוּיִין לְדָבָר שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלִין אוֹתָן לוֹ:


A person who places an egg next to a kettle so that it will become slightly cooked6 is liable if the egg becomes cooked, for a person who cooks with a derivative of fire7 is considered as if he cooked with fire itself.

Similarly, a person who washes aged salted fish8 or sole9- a very thin, soft fish - with hot water is liable. Washing them with hot water completes the cooking process they require.10 The same principles apply in other similar situations.


הַנּוֹתֵן בֵּיצָה בְּצַד הַמֵּיחַם בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁתִּתְגַּלְגֵּל וְנִתְגַּלְגְּלָה חַיָּב. שֶׁהַמְבַשֵּׁל בְּתוֹלֶדֶת הָאוּר כִּמְבַשֵּׁל בָּאוּר עַצְמָהּ. וְכֵן הַמֵּדִיחַ בְּחַמִּין דָּג מָלִיחַ הַיָּשָׁן אוֹ קוּלְיָיס הָאִסְפָּנִין וְהוּא דָּג דַּק וְרַךְ בְּיוֹתֵר הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב. שֶׁהֲדָחָתָן בְּחַמִּין זֶה הוּא גְּמַר בִּשּׁוּלָן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:


A person who breaks open an egg over a warm cloth, over sand, or over the dust of the roads that are heated by the sun is not liable11 even though it becomes roasted, for the derivatives of the heat of the sun are [governed by] different [laws than those governing] the derivatives of fire. Nevertheless, the Sages instituted a decree forbidding cooking with [the derivatives of the heat of the sun], lest [one cook with] the derivatives of fire.12 Similarly, a person who cooks using the [hot] springs of Tiberias and the like is not held liable.13

A person who cooks food that has been completely cooked, on a fire,14 or who cooks food that does not need to be cooked15 at all is not liable.16


הַמַּפְקִיעַ אֶת הַבֵּיצָה בְּבֶגֶד חַם אוֹ בְּחוֹל וּבַאֲבַק דְּרָכִים שֶׁהֵן חַמִּים מִפְּנֵי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּצְלֵית פָּטוּר. שֶׁתּוֹלְדוֹת חַמָּה אֵינָם כְּתוֹלְדוֹת הָאֵשׁ. אֲבָל גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן מִפְּנֵי תּוֹלְדוֹת הָאוּר. וְכֵן הַמְבַשֵּׁל בְּחַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם פָּטוּר. הַמְבַשֵּׁל עַל הָאוּר דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה מְבֻשָּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ אוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ בִּשּׁוּל כְּלָל פָּטוּר:


When one person brought fire, another brought wood, another brought a pot, another added water, another put in meat, another put in spices, and another stirred it, all are liable for cooking. For anyone who performs an activity that is necessary for cooking is considered as [having performed that forbidden labor].

If, by contrast, one put down the pot, another came and added water, another came and added meat, another came and added spices, another came and brought fire, another came and placed wood on the fire, and another came and stirred, it is only the latter two who are liable for cooking.


אֶחָד נָתַן אֶת הָאוּר וְאֶחָד נָתַן אֶת הָעֵצִים וְאֶחָד נָתַן אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה וְאֶחָד נָתַן אֶת הַמַּיִם וְאֶחָד נָתַן אֶת הַבָּשָׂר וְאֶחָד נָתַן אֶת הַתַּבְלִין וּבָא אַחֵר וְהֵגִיס כֻּלָּם חַיָּבִים מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל. שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר מִצָּרְכֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל הֲרֵי זֶה מְבַשֵּׁל. אֲבָל אִם שָׁפַת אֶחָד אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה תְּחִלָּה וּבָא אַחֵר וְנָתַן אֶת הַמַּיִם וּבָא אַחֵר וְנָתַן אֶת הַבָּשָׂר וּבָא אַחֵר וְנָתַן אֶת הַתַּבְלִין וּבָא אַחֵר וְנָתַן אֶת הָאוּר וּבָא אַחֵר וְנָתַן עֵצִים עַל הָאוּר וּבָא אַחֵר וְהֵגִיס. שְׁנַיִם הָאַחֲרוֹנִים בִּלְבַד חַיָּבִין מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל:

When one person brought fire, another brought wood - The Rambam's ruling is based on Beitzah 34a and the Tosefta, Shabbat 12:4. There are, however, slight differences between the wording chosen by the Rambam and the wording of those sources. Furthermore, the Talmud implies that the person who brought the fire is liable, not for performing a derivative of the labor of cooking, but for the labor of kindling. (See Rashi, loc. cit.) This is definitely not the Rambam's intent.

In resolution of this difficulty, the Kessef Mishneh quotes his teacher, Rav Ya'akov bei Rav, who explains that the first clause describes a situation in which all the individuals performed their act virtually simultaneously, with a shared intent. Hence, since the end result of their activity is the performance of a forbidden labor, all are held liable as if they had performed the labor themselves.

another brought the pot - As the Ra'avad mentions, Beitzah (loc. cit.) interprets this as referring to a situation where a new pot is used. Thus, heating the pot hardens it as would heating in a kiln. This is is also a derivative of the labor of cooking. (See Halachah 6 and Hilchot Sh'vitat Yom Tov 3:11.)

According to the explanation of the Kessef Mishneh mentioned above, this is unnecessary. Since the pot was brought together with the other elements for the sake of cooking, the person bringing it is liable, even if it is an old pot.

another added water - Even those who do not accept the explanation of the Kessef Mishneh would hold such a person liable, since a person is liable for heating water, as explained in Halachah 1.

another put in meat - Here too, the obligation is clear, for the person is cooking food.

another put in spices - Since the spices contribute flavor to the food, adding them to the pot is sufficient to make one liable for cooking, even according to the opinions that do not accept the explanation of the Kessef Mishneh.

and another stirred it - for stirring hastens the cooking process. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 318:18) emphasizes that one is liable for stirring only when the food is not completely cooked. Once it is cooked, there is no prohibition against stirring.

The Ramah (loc. cit.) states that even after food is completely cooked, one should not stir it. The later authorities emphasize that although there is reason to follow this stringency with regard to stirring, there is no difficulty in removing food from the pot if it is already cooked and removed from the fire. (While the pot is cooking this is forbidden, for in the process of taking out the food, one will stir the remaining food.) See Chapter 3, Halachah 11.

all are liable for cooking, since anyone who performs an activity that is necessary for cooking is considered as [having performed that forbidden labor].

If, by contrast, one put down the pot, another came - According to the Kessef Mishneh, this is the key phrase in understanding the difference between the first clause and the second. "Another came" - i.e., he came after, and without any connection, to the first individual. Hence, the responsibility is not shared by the entire group. Accordingly, since the actions of the persons mentioned first could not bring about cooking in their own right, they are not held liable.

and added water, another came and added meat, another came and added spices, another came and brought fire - The person bringing the fire would probably be liable for kindling, but that is not the Rambam's concern in this halachah. He is not liable for cooking, for without the wood the flame would burn out in the near future.

another came and placed wood on the fire - Once the wood begins to burn, the fire will have the potential to cook the meat. Hence, the person who brings it is liable.

and another came and stirred - Since the person stirred the food after it began to cook, he is liable. Although he acted independently of the others, the act he performs in its own right is sufficient to incur liability.

it is only the latter two who are liable for cooking.


When a person places meat over coals, and a portion the size of a dried fig becomes [thoroughly] roasted, he is liable even when the portions that are roasted are [separate, and located] in two or three portions [of the piece of meat].17

When there is not a portion the size of a dried fig that has become [thoroughly] roasted, but the entire [piece of meat] becomes half-cooked,18 one is liable.19 If, however, it is half-cooked from one side only, one is not liable until one turns it so that it becomes half-cooked on both sides.

If a person forgot20 and attached a loaf to an oven on the Sabbath, but remembered [the prohibition involved afterwards], he21 may remove it22 before it bakes23 and causes [him to be liable for performing a forbidden] labor.


הִנִּיחַ בָּשָׂר עַל גַּבֵּי גֶּחָלִים אִם נִצְלָה בּוֹ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁנַיִם וּשְׁלֹשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת חַיָּב. לֹא נִצְלָה בּוֹ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת אֲבָל נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כֻּלּוֹ חֲצִי בִּשּׁוּל חַיָּב. נִתְבַּשֵּׁל חֲצִי בִּשּׁוּל מִצַּד אֶחָד פָּטוּר. עַד שֶׁיַּהֲפֹךְ בּוֹ וְיִתְבַּשֵּׁל חֲצִי בִּשּׁוּל מִשְּׁנֵי צְדָדִין. שָׁכַח וְהִדְבִּיק פַּת בַּתַּנּוּר בְּשַׁבָּת וְנִזְכַּר מֻתָּר לוֹ לִרְדוֹתָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתֵּאָפֶה וְיָבוֹא לִידֵי מְלָאכָה:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


A person who melts even the slightest amount of metal or who heats a piece of metal until [it glows like] a coal24 performs a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of cooking.25 Similarly, a person who melts wax, tallow, tar, brown tar, or pitch, and the like performs a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of cooking and is liable.

Similarly, a person who heats an earthenware utensil until it becomes hard clay is liable for cooking. The general principle is: Whether one softens a firm entity with fire or hardens a soft entity, one is liable for cooking.


הַמַּתִּיךְ אֶחָד מִמִּינֵי מַתָּכוֹת כָּל שֶׁהוּא אוֹ הַמְחַמֵּם אֶת הַמַּתָּכוֹת עַד שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה גַּחֶלֶת הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מְבַשֵּׁל. וְכֵן הַמְמַסֵּס אֶת הַדּוֹנַג אוֹ אֶת הַחֵלֶב אוֹ אֶת הַזֶּפֶת וְהַכֹּפֶר וְהַגָּפְרִית וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מְבַשֵּׁל וְחַיָּב. וְכֵן הַמְבַשֵּׁל כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ חֶרֶס חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר בֵּין שֶׁרִפָּה גּוּף קָשֶׁה בָּאֵשׁ אוֹ שֶׁהִקְשָׁה גּוּף רַךְ הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל:


One who shears wool26 or hair from an animal or a beast - whether alive or dead - is liable. [This applies even when he] removes [these substances] from skin.27

What is the minimum measure for which one is liable? Enough to spin a thread that is twice the length of a width of a sit from it.28 How long is the width of a sit? The distance from the thumb to the first finger when they are extended as far as possible.29 This is approximately two thirds of a zeret.30

A person who tears off the wing of a bird [is liable for performing] a derivative of shearing. One who spins wool from a living animal31 is not liable, for this is not the ordinary manner of shearing, nor is this the ordinary manner of beating, nor is this the ordinary manner of spinning.


הַגּוֹזֵז צֶמֶר אוֹ שֵׂעָר בֵּין מִן הַבְּהֵמָה בֵּין מִן הַחַיָּה בֵּין מִן הַחַי בֵּין מִן הַמֵּת אֲפִלּוּ מִן הַשֶּׁלַח שֶׁלָּהֶן חַיָּב. כַּמָּה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לִטְווֹת מִמֶּנּוּ חוּט שֶׁאָרְכּוֹ כְּרֹחַב הַסִּיט כָּפוּל. וְכַמָּה רֹחַב הַסִּיט כְּדֵי לִמְתֹּחַ מִן בֹּהֶן שֶׁל יָד עַד הָאֶצְבַּע הָרִאשׁוֹנָה כְּשֶׁיִּפְתַּח בֵּינֵיהֶן בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ וְהוּא קָרוֹב לִשְׁנֵי שְׁלִישֵׁי זֶרֶת. הַתּוֹלֵשׁ כָּנָף מִן הָעוֹף הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת גּוֹזֵז. הַטּוֹוֶה אֶת הַצֶּמֶר מִן הַחַי פָּטוּר שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ גְּזִיזָה בְּכָךְ וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ נִפּוּץ בְּכָךְ וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ טְוִיָּה בְּכָךְ:


A person who cuts his nails, his hair, his mustache, or his beard [performs a] derivative [of the forbidden labor] of shearing and is liable.32 [This applies] provided one cuts them using a utensil. If one removes them by hand, one is not liable.33 [The above applies regarding both] one's own [nails and the like] and those of a colleague.34

Similarly, a person who cuts a wart from his body, whether using a utensil35 or by hand is not liable. [The above applies regarding both] one's own [warts] and those of a colleague.

It is permitted to remove a wart in the Temple by hand,36 but not with a utensil. If it is dry, one may cut it off with a utensil,37 [in order to] take part in the Temple service.


הַנּוֹטֵל צִפָּרְנָיו אוֹ שְׂעָרוֹ אוֹ שְׂפָמוֹ אוֹ זְקָנוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת גּוֹזֵז וְחַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּטּל בִּכְלִי. אֲבָל אִם נְטָלָן בְּיָדוֹ בֵּין לוֹ בֵּין לְאַחֵר פָּטוּר. וְכֵן הַחוֹתֵךְ יַבֶּלֶת מִגּוּפוֹ בֵּין בְּיָד בֵּין בִּכְלִי פָּטוּר בֵּין לוֹ בֵּין לְאַחֵר. וּמֻתָּר לַחְתֹּךְ יַבֶּלֶת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּיָד אֲבָל לֹא בִּכְלִי. וְאִם הָיְתָה יְבֵשָׁה חוֹתְכָהּ אַף בִּכְלִי וְעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה:


How much hair is it necessary for a person to remove with a utensil to be liable? Two hairs.38 If one removes a grey hair from dark ones, one is liable for removing even one.39

[The following rules apply to] a nail when the majority of it has been split, or to strips of flesh that have begun to peel: If they have split upward40 and annoy the person, one may remove them by hand, but not with a utensil. If, however, one removes them with a utensil, one is not liable.41

If they do not annoy the person, it is forbidden to remove them even by hand. If the majority has not been split [nor has begun to peel], it is forbidden to remove them even by hand, and one who removes them with a utensil is liable.


הַנּוֹטֵל שְׂעָרוֹ בִּכְלִי כַּמָּה יִטּל וְיִהְיֶה חַיָּב. שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת. וְאִם לִקֵּט לְבָנוֹת מִתּוֹךְ שְׁחוֹרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ אַחַת חַיָּב. צִפֹּרֶן שֶׁפֵּרְשָׁה רֻבָּהּ וְצִיצִין שֶׁל עוֹר שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ רֻבָּן אִם פֵּרְשׁוּ כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה וּמְצַעֲרוֹת אוֹתוֹ מֻתָּר לִטּל אוֹתָן בְּיָדוֹ אֲבָל לֹא בִּכְלִי. וְאִם נְטָלָן בִּכְלִי פָּטוּר. וְאִם אֵינָן מְצַעֲרוֹת אוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בַּיָּד אָסוּר. וְאִם לֹא פֵּרְשׁוּ רֻבָּן אֲפִלּוּ מְצַעֲרוֹת אוֹתוֹ אָסוּר לְנָטְלָן בְּיָדוֹ וְאִם נְטָלָן בִּכְלִי חַיָּב:


A person who whitens wool, linen, wool to be dyed crimson,42 or any other fabrics that are ordinarily whitened is liable.

What is the minimum measure for which one is liable? [An amount of fibers large enough] to produce a thread as long as twice the width of a sit - i.e., four handbreadths.43


הַמְלַבֵּן אֶת הַצֶּמֶר אוֹ אֶת הַפִּשְׁתָּן אוֹ אֶת הַשָּׁנִי. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִמַּה שֶּׁדַּרְכָּן לְהִתְלַבֵּן חַיָּב. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לִטְווֹת מִמֶּנּוּ חוּט אֶחָד אָרְכּוֹ כִּמְלֹא רֹחַב הַסִּיט כָּפוּל שֶׁהוּא אֹרֶךְ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים:


Laundering clothes is a derivative of the [forbidden] labor of whitening and causes one to be liable.

A person who wrings out a garment until the water44 [absorbed] in it is discharged is considered as one who launders45and is held liable.46 Wringing out [a garment] is one of the activities necessary for laundering, as stirring is one of the activities necessary for cooking.

There is no concept of wringing out hair.47 Similarly, one is not liable for wringing out leather.48


הַמְכַבֵּס בְּגָדִים הֲרֵי הוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת מְלַבֵּן וְחַיָּב. והַסּוֹחֵט אֶת הַבֶּגֶד עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא הַמַּיִם שֶׁבּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְכַבֵּס וְחַיָּב. שֶׁהַסְּחִיטָה מִצָּרְכֵי כִּבּוּס הִיא כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַהֲגָסָה מִצָּרְכֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל. וְאֵין סְחִיטָה בְּשֵׂעָר וְהוּא הַדִּין לְעוֹר שֶׁאֵין חַיָּבִין עַל סְחִיטָתוֹ:


One who beats49 wool, linen, wool to be dyed crimson, or any other similar fabrics is liable. What is the minimum measure for which one is liable? [An amount of fibers large enough] to produce a thread four handbreadths long.

A person who beats animal sinews until they become like wool, so that [cord]50 can be spun from them, is liable for performing a derivative of beating.


הַמְנַפֵּץ אֶת הַצֶּמֶר אוֹ אֶת הַפִּשְׁתָּן אוֹ אֶת הַשָּׁנִי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן חַיָּב. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לִטְווֹת מִמֶּנּוּ חוּט אֶחָד אָרְכּוֹ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים. וְהַמְנַפֵּץ אֶת הַגִּידִים עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ כְּצֶמֶר כְּדֵי לִטְווֹת אוֹתָן הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מְנַפֵּץ וְחַיָּב:


A person who dyes a thread that is four handbreadths long or fabric from which a thread of this length can be spun is liable.

A person is not liable unless the dye he uses will make a permanent [change in the article's color]. When the application of color will not have a permanent effect - e.g., one who applies red clay or vermilion to iron or brass and colors it is not liable, for it can be removed immediately without dyeing it at all. Whenever a person performs a labor that does not have a permanent effect on the Sabbath,51 he is not liable.52


הַצּוֹבֵעַ חוּט שֶׁאָרְכּוֹ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים אוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לִטְווֹת מִמֶּנּוּ חוּט כָּזֶה חַיָּב. וְאֵין הַצּוֹבֵעַ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא צֶבַע הַמִּתְקַיֵּם. אֲבָל צֶבַע שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם כְּלָל כְּגוֹן שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר סָרָק אוֹ שָׁשַׁר עַל גַּבֵּי בַּרְזֶל אוֹ נְחשֶׁת וּצְבָעוֹ פָּטוּר. שֶׁהֲרֵי אַתָּה מַעֲבִירוֹ לִשְׁעָתוֹ וְאֵינוֹ צוֹבֵעַ כְּלוּם. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין מְלַאכְתּוֹ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת בְּשַׁבָּת פָּטוּר:


A person who creates a color is liable [for performing] a derivative of the labor of dyeing.53 What is implied? One mixed gallnut juice into vitriol54 until the entire mixture turned black, or mixed isatis55 into saffron water56 until the entire mixture turned green and the like.

What is the minimum measure for which one is liable? [An amount of dye large enough] to dye a thread four handbreadths long.


הָעוֹשֶׂה עֵין הַצֶּבַע הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת צוֹבֵעַ וְחַיָּב. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּתַן קַנְקַנְתּוֹם לְתוֹךְ מֵי עַפְּצָא שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַכּל שָׁחוֹר. אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן אִיסְטִיס לְתוֹךְ מֵי כַּרְכֹּם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַכּל יָרֹק. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לִצְבֹּעַ בּוֹ חוּט שֶׁאָרְכּוֹ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים:


A person who spins a thread four handbreadths long from any fibers [from] which [thread] is spun is liable. This includes spinning wool, linen, [camel] hair, goat's hair,57 animal sinews, and any other fibers of this nature.

A person who makes felt is liable for [performing] a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of spinning if he makes felt from fibers that could be used to spin a thread of ordinary thickness that is four handbreadths long.58


הַטּוֹוֶה אֹרֶךְ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים מִכָּל דָּבָר הַנִּטְוֶה חַיָּב. אֶחָד הַטּוֹוֶה אֶת הַצֶּמֶר אוֹ אֶת הַפִּשְׁתָּן אוֹ אֶת הַנּוֹצָה אוֹ אֶת הַשֵּׂעָר אוֹ אֶת הַגִּידִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. הָעוֹשֶׂה אֶת הַלֶּבֶד הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת טוֹוֶה וְחַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁיְּלַבֵּד דָּבָר שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לִטְווֹת מִמֶּנּוּ חוּט אֹרֶךְ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים בְּעֹבִי בֵּינוֹנִי:


A person who makes two heddles is liable.59

A person who makes a sifter, a strainer, a basket, a hairnet, or one who weaves a rope bed [performs] a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of making heddles;60 when he makes two frames of any one of the above, he is liable. Similarly, a person who makes two frames of any object that is made frame by frame like the above is liable.


הָעוֹשֶׂה שְׁנֵי בָּתֵּי נִירִין חַיָּב. הָעוֹשֶׂה נָפָה אוֹ כְּבָרָה אוֹ סַל אוֹ סְבָכָה אוֹ שֶׁסָּרַג מִטָּה בַּחֲבָלִים הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת עוֹשֶׂה נִירִין וּמִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁנֵי בָּתִּים בְּאֶחָד מִכָּל אֵלּוּ חַיָּב. וְכֵן כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה שְׁנֵי בָּתֵּי נִירִין בְּדָבָר שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ בָּתִּים בָּתִּים כְּגוֹן אֵלּוּ חַיָּב:


Weavers generally stretch out the threads [of the warp] to the desired length and width of the fabric. Two people hold [the beams to which the ends of the threads are connected], one from one side and one from the other side. A person beats the threads with a rod and aligns them so that they lie one next to the other, [all of the] warp threads without the woof.

Extending the threads as the weavers do is called mounting the warp. A person who [extends these threads] so they are taut is called one who sets the warp. Bending [the loom] and inserting the woof between the warp [threads] is called weaving.


דֶּרֶךְ הָאוֹרְגִין שֶׁמּוֹתְחִין הַחוּטִין תְּחִלָּה בְּאֹרֶךְ הַיְרִיעָה וּבְרָחְבָּהּ וּשְׁנַיִם אוֹחֲזִין זֶה מִכָּאן וְזֶה מִכָּאן וְאֶחָד שׁוֹבֵט בְּשֵׁבֶט עַל הַחוּטִין וּמְתַקֵּן אוֹתָן זֶה בְּצַד זֶה עַד שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה כֻּלָּהּ שְׁתִי בְּלֹא עֵרֶב. וּמְתִיחַת הַחוּטִין כְּדֶרֶךְ הָאוֹרְגִין הִיא הַנְסָכַת הַמַּסֶּכֶת וְזֶה הַמּוֹתֵחַ נִקְרָא מֵסֵךְ. וּכְשֶׁכּוֹפְלִין אוֹתָהּ וּמַתְחִיל לְהַכְנִיס הַשְּׁתִי בָּעֵרֶב נִקְרָא אוֹרֵג:


The person who mounts the warp is liable. This is one of the [39] primary categories of [forbidden] labor. The person who beats the threads until they separate and then aligns them performs a derivative of mounting the warp.61 What is the minimum measure for which one is liable? Preparing a fabric that is two fingerbreadths wide.62

Similarly, a person is liable for weaving two threads [of a fabric] two fingerbreadths wide. [The above applies] whether one began the weaving [of a garment] or whether one wove two additional threads on a garment that had already been begun by another weaver. If one wove only a single thread, but completed the garment by doing so, one is liable.63

If one weaves two threads a width of three frames at the end of a fabric, one is liable.64 To what can this be compared? To weaving a thin belt, three frames wide.


הַמֵּסֵךְ חַיָּב וְהִיא מְלָאכָה מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת. וְהַשּׁוֹבֵט עַל הַחוּטִין עַד שֶׁיִּפָּרְקוּ וִיתַקְּנֵם הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מֵסֵךְ. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרוֹ מִשֶּׁיְּתַקֵּן רֹחַב שְׁתֵּי אֶצְבָּעוֹת. וְכֵן הָאוֹרֵג שְׁנֵי חוּטִין בְּרֹחַב שְׁתֵּי אֶצְבָּעוֹת חַיָּב. בֵּין שֶׁאֲרָגָן בַּתְּחִלָּה בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִקְצָת הַבֶּגֶד אָרוּג וְאָרַג עַל הָאָרוּג שִׁעוּרוֹ שְׁנֵי חוּטִין. וְאִם אָרַג חוּט אֶחָד וְהִשְׁלִים בּוֹ הַבֶּגֶד חַיָּב. אָרַג בִּשְׂפַת הַיְרִיעָה שְׁנֵי חוּטִין בְּרֹחַב שְׁלֹשָׁה בָּתֵּי נִירִין חַיָּב. הָא לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְאוֹרֵג צִלְצוּל קָטָן בְּרֹחַב שְׁלֹשָׁה בָּתֵּי נִירִין:


A person who straightens the threads and separates them in the midst of the weaving process [performs] a derivative [of the labor] of weaving.65

Similarly, one who braids hair [performs] a derivative [of the labor] of weaving.66 The measure for which one is liable is making a braid two fingerbreadths long.


הַמְדַקְדֵּק אֶת הַחוּטִין וּמַפְרִידָן בְּעֵת הָאֲרִיגָה הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת אוֹרֵג. וְכֵן הַקּוֹלֵעַ אֶת הַנִּימִין הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת אוֹרֵג וְשִׁעוּרוֹ מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה קְלִיעָה בְּאֹרֶךְ שְׁתֵּי אֶצְבָּעוֹת:


One who is בוצע two threads is liable. בוצע refers to the separation of woven fabric.67 One is liable for [the labor of] בוצע whether one removes the woof from the warp or the warp from woof.

[The above applies provided that] one is not acting with a destructive [intent], but rather with the intent to improve [the garment]. For example, there are people who mend [tears in] very light garments. First, they undo the weave. Afterwards, they mend the garment, and then reweave the threads that they undid.68 [In this manner,] they join two garments or two tears together.

A person who undoes a braid for the sake of fixing it [performs] a derivative [of the labor] of בוצע.69 The minimum measure for which one is liable is the same as the minimum measure for בוצע.


הַבּוֹצֵעַ שְׁנֵי חוּטִין חַיָּב. וּבוֹצֵעַ הוּא הַמַּפְרִישׁ אֶת הָאָרוּג. בֵּין שֶׁהוֹצִיא הָעֵרֶב מִן הַשְּׁתִי אוֹ שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר הַשְּׁתִי מֵעַל הָעֵרֶב הֲרֵי זֶה בּוֹצֵעַ וְחַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מְקַלְקֵל אֶלָּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לְתַקֵּן כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אֵלּוּ שֶׁמְּאַחִין אֶת הַבְּגָדִים הַקַּלִּים בְּיוֹתֵר שֶׁבּוֹצְעִין וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְאַחִין וְחוֹזְרִין וְאוֹרְגִין חוּטִין שֶׁבָּצְעוּ עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ שְׁנֵי הַבְּגָדִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי הַקְּרָעִים אֶחָד. וְהַסּוֹתֵר אֶת הַקְּלִיעָה לְתַקֵּן הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹצֵעַ וְשִׁעוּרוֹ כְּשִׁעוּר הַבּוֹצֵעַ: