1

What is meant by the term mu'ad?1 [An animal regarding which] testimony2 was given on three [different] days. If, however, an animal gored [other animals] on one day, or it bit, lay upon, kicked or butted [other animals many] - even one hundred - times in one day, it should not be considered to be mu'ad.3 If three pairs of witnesses gave testimony [concerning an animal]4 on one day, there is an [unresolved] doubt whether it is classified as mu'ad or not.

א

אֵיזֶהוּ מוּעָד כָּל שֶׁהֵעִידוּ בּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים. אֲבָל אִם נָגַח בְּיוֹם אֶחָד אוֹ נָשַׁךְ אוֹ רָבַץ אוֹ בָּעַט אוֹ נָגַף אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה פְּעָמִים אֵין זֶה מוּעָד. הֵעִידוּ בּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה כִּתֵּי עֵדִים בְּיוֹם אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם הוּעַד אוֹ לֹא הוּעַד:

2

The warning administered to an owner [for an animal] must be administered in the owner's presence, as [implied by Exodus 21:29]: "And the owners shall be warned." The warning must be administered in a court.5

ב

אֵין הֶעָדָה אֶלָּא בִּפְנֵי הַבְּעָלִים וּבִפְנֵי בֵּית דִּין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא כט) "וְהוּעַד בִּבְעָלָיו". וְאֵין הֶעָדָה אֶלָּא בְּבֵית דִּין:

3

When an ox belonging to a deaf mute, a mentally incompetent individual, a minor6 or a person who is overseas gores, [the owner] is not liable. The court should, however, appoint a guardian for the ox and administer the warning to the guardian.

ג

שׁוֹר שֶׁל חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן וּמִי שֶׁהוּא בִּמְדִינַת הַיָּם שֶׁנָּגְחוּ פְּטוּרִין. אֲבָל בֵּית דִּין מַעֲמִידִין לָהֶם אַפּוֹטְרוֹפְּסִין וּמְעִידִין בָּהֶן בִּפְנֵי הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפְּסִין:

4

[The following rules apply when this ox] causes damage after the warning was administered to the guardian:7 If the ox is still classified as a tam, an ordinary animal, half the damages must be paid from the body [of the ox].8 If a warning was administered on three [different] days, and afterwards [the ox] causes damage, the guardian must pay for the damage from the choicest properties he owns.9 When the orphans attain majority, they must enter into litigation with the guardian and repay him.

ד

הִזִּיקוּ אַחַר שֶׁהוּעֲדוּ בִּפְנֵי אַפּוֹטְרוֹפְּסִין אִם עֲדַיִן הוּא תָּם מְשַׁלֵּם חֲצִי נֵזֶק מִגּוּפוֹ וְאִם הוּעַד בּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִזִּיק מְשַׁלֵּם נֵזֶק שָׁלֵם מִן הַיָּפֶה שֶׁבְּנִכְסֵי אַפּוֹטְרוֹפְּסִין. וְלִכְשֶׁיִּגְדְּלוּ הַיְתוֹמִים יַעֲשׂוּ דִּין עִם הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפְּסִין וִישַׁלְּמוּ לָהֶן:

5

When oxen are used for sport,10 and they are trained to gore each other, they are not considered to be mu'adim [to gore] each other. [Moreover,] even if they kill a human, they should not be executed, for [Exodus 21:28] states: "When an ox gores...," [implying that it does so on its own initiative,] not that it was prompted to gore.

ה

שְׁוָרִים שֶׁמְּשַׂחֲקִין בָּהֶן וּמְלַמְּדִין אוֹתָן לִגַּח זֶה אֶת זֶה אֵינָם מוּעָדִים זֶה לָזֶה. וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵמִיתוּ אֶת הָאָדָם אֵינָן חַיָּבִין מִיתָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא כח) "כִי יִגַּח" לֹא שֶׁיַּגִּיחוּהוּ:

6

When an ox was sold or given away as a present after its owners had been warned, its status reverts back to that of a tam. With the change in ownership, its status changes. If, however, an ox was borrowed or entrusted to a watchman, its status remains unchanged. Similarly, if a warning regarding an ox was given to a guardian, and then the owner who was a deaf mute regained his faculties, or the owner who was mentally incompetent regained competence, or the owner who was a minor attains majority, the status of the ox remains unchanged,11 for it remains in the domain of the [same] owner.

ו

שׁוֹר שֶׁהוּעַד וְנִמְכַּר אוֹ נִתַּן בְּמַתָּנָה חָזַר לְתַמּוּתוֹ שֶׁהָרְשׁוּת שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנֵּית מְשַׁנָּה דִּינוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הִשְׁאִילוֹ אוֹ מְסָרוֹ לְשׁוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הוּא בְּחֶזְקָתוֹ. וְכֵן שׁוֹר שֶׁהוּעַד בִּפְנֵי אַפּוֹטְרוֹפְּסִין וְנִתְפַּקֵּחַ הַחֵרֵשׁ וְנִשְׁתַּפָּה הַשּׁוֹטָה וְהִגְדִּיל הַקָּטָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּטְלוּ הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפְּסִין הֲרֵי הֵן מוּעָדִין בְּחֶזְקָתָן שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּרְשׁוּת בְּעָלִים הֵן:

7

When an animal was classified as mu'ad, and then it changes its conduct, its status changes and it is considered to be a tam. What is implied? If an ox was classified as mu'ad with regard to goring and it ceased goring, it is considered to be a tam with regard to goring, even though it still butts. When is it considered to have ceased [goring]? When children play12 with it and it does not gore them. Similarly with regard to other tendencies regarding which warnings were given, [the status of the animal remains unchanged] until [children] play with it, and it does not do [what it was wont to do previously].

ז

בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהוּעֲדָה וְחָזְרָה בָּהּ מִדָּבָר שֶׁהוּעֲדָה לוֹ חָזְרָה לְתַמּוּתָהּ. כֵּיצַד. שׁוֹר שֶׁהוּעַד לִגַּח וְחָזַר שֶׁלֹּא לִגַּח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נוֹגֵף הֲרֵי זֶה תָּם לִנְגִיחָה. וּמֵאֵימָתַי הוּא חֲזָרָתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת מְמַשְׁמְשִׁין בּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ נוֹגֵחַ. וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁהוּעַד לָהֶן עַד שֶׁיְּמַשְׁמְשׁוּ בּוֹ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן:

8

When an ox has been classified as mu'ad with regard to [other oxen], it is not considered to be mu'ad with regard to other types of animals. An ox that has been classified as mu'ad with regard to humans is not considered to be mu'ad with regard to animals.13 If it has been classified as mu'ad with regard to young animals, it is not considered to be mu'ad with regard to older animals. Therefore, if it caused damage of the type regarding which the warning was given, the owner is liable for the full amount of the damages. If it caused damages of another type, regarding which a warning was not given, [the owners] must pay [only] half the damages. If it has been classified as mu'ad with regard to Sabbaths, it is not considered to be mu'ad with regard to weekdays.14 If it causes damage on the Sabbath, the owner is liable for the full amount of the damages. During the week, [the owners] must pay [only] half the damages. When is the warning rescinded? When children will play with it on the day concerning which the warning was given, and it does not harm them in the way it is known to cause harm.

ח

שׁוֹר שֶׁהוּא מוּעָד לְמִינוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ מוּעָד לְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ. הוּעַד לְאָדָם אֵינוֹ מוֹעֵד לִבְהֵמָה. הוּעַד לִקְטַנִּים אֵינוֹ מוּעָד לִגְדוֹלִים. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִזִּיק אֶת מִין שֶׁהוּא מוּעָד לוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם נֵזֶק שָׁלֵם וְאִם הִזִּיק לִשְׁאָר הַמִּינִין מְשַׁלֵּם חֲצִי נֵזֶק. הָיָה מוּעָד לְשַׁבָּתוֹת אֵינוֹ מוּעָד לִימוֹת הַחל וְאִם הִזִּיק בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת מְשַׁלֵּם נֵזֶק שָׁלֵם וּבִימוֹת הַחל מְשַׁלֵּם חֲצִי נֵזֶק. וּמֵאֵימָתַי הִיא חֲזָרָתוֹ מִשֶּׁיְּמַשְׁמְשׁוּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהוּא מוּעָד לוֹ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה מַזִּיק נֵזֶק שֶׁהוּעַד לוֹ:

9

If [an ox] gored another ox on one day, a donkey on the following day, and a camel on the day afterwards, it is classified as mu'ad for all [these three] types [of animals].15 [A warning should also be administered to an owner in the following situation. His ox] saw another ox on one day and gored it. On the next day, it saw another ox but did not gore it. On the third day, it saw another ox and gored it. On the fourth day, it saw another ox but did not gore it. On the fifth day, it saw another ox and gored it, and on the sixth day, it saw another ox but did not gore it. [In these circumstances, the ox] becomes classified as mu'ad to gore oxen on alternate days.16 Similar laws apply in other analogous situations.

ט

נָגַח שׁוֹר הַיּוֹם וַחֲמוֹר לְמָחָר וְגָמָל בְּיוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי נַעֲשָׂה מוּעָד לַכּל. רָאָה שׁוֹר הַיּוֹם וּנְגָחוֹ. וּלְמָחָר רָאָה שׁוֹר וְלֹא נְגָחוֹ. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי רָאָה שׁוֹר וּנְגָחוֹ. וּבָרְבִיעִי רָאָה שׁוֹר וְלֹא נְגָחוֹ. וּבַחֲמִישִׁי רָאָה שׁוֹר וּנְגָחוֹ. וּבַשִּׁשִּׁי רָאָה שׁוֹר וְלֹא נְגָחוֹ. נַעֲשָׂה מוּעָד לְסֵרוּגִין לִשְׁוָרִים. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

10

[Similarly, a warning should also be administered to an owner in the following situation. His ox] saw another ox on one day and gored it. On the next day, it saw a donkey, but did not gore it. On the third day, it saw a horse and gored it. On the fourth day, it saw a camel but did not gore it. On the fifth day, it saw a mule and gored it, and on the sixth day, it saw a wild ass but did not gore it. [In these circumstances, the ox] becomes classified as mu'ad to gore all [these three] types [of animals] on alternate days. If it gores one of these types of animals that it had gored on alternate days on a day on which it is mu'ad, [the owner must pay the full damages, as is required for an ox that is] mu'ad.

י

רָאָה שׁוֹר הַיּוֹם וּנְגָחוֹ. וּלְמָחָר רָאָה חֲמוֹר וְלֹא נְגָחוֹ. וּבַשְּׁלִישִׁי רָאָה סוּס וּנְגָחוֹ. וּבָרְבִיעִי רָאָה גָּמָל וְלֹא נְגָחוֹ. וּבַחֲמִישִׁי רָאָה פֶּרֶד וּנְגָחוֹ. וּבַשִּׁשִּׁי רָאָה עָרוֹד וְלֹא נְגָחוֹ. נַעֲשָׂה מוּעָד לְסֵרוּגִין לַכּל וְאִם נָגַח בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהוּא מוּעָד לוֹ אֶחָד מִשְּׁלֹשֶׁת הַמִּינִין שֶׁנָּגַח בְּסֵרוּגִין הֲרֵי זֶה מוּעָד:

11

[When an ox] gores [an animal] on the fifteenth of one month, on the sixteenth of the following month, and on the seventeenth of the third month, it is not classified as mu'ad until it adds a day a third time, in the fourth month.17 If an ox hears a shofar blast and gores on three [successive] occasions, it is considered mu'ad [to gore after hearing] shofar blasts.18 Similar laws apply in other analogous situations.

יא

נָגַח בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ זֶה. וּבְשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שֵׁנִי. וּבְשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁלִישִׁי. אֵינוֹ מוּעָד עַד שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּשׁ בַּדִּלּוּג. שָׁמַע קוֹל שׁוֹפָר וְנָגַח קוֹל שׁוֹפָר וְנָגַח קוֹל שׁוֹפָר וְנָגַח נַעֲשָׂה מוּעָד לְשׁוֹפָרוֹת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

12

[There is an unresolved doubt in the following situations.] An ox gored three other oxen on three successive days. On the fourth day it gored a donkey, and on the fifth day it gored a camel. Or at first it gored a donkey and a camel, and then it gored three oxen one after another. There is a doubt if it is classified as mu'ad only for oxen or for all three types of animals. Similarly, if an ox gores on three successive Sabbaths and then on the Sunday and the Monday [following the third Sabbath], or it gored on Thursday, on Friday and then on three successive Sabbaths, there is a doubt whether it is classified as mu'ad only for Sabbaths or for a block of three days, two of which are ordinary weekdays.19

יב

נָגַח שְׁלֹשָׁה שְׁוָרִים בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה וּבָרְבִיעִי נָגַח חֲמוֹר וּבַחֲמִישִׁי נָגַח גָּמָל אוֹ שֶׁנָּגַח חֲמוֹר וְגָמָל בַּתְּחִלָּה בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָגַח שְׁלֹשָׁה שְׁוָרִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם הוּא מוּעָד לִשְׁוָרִים בִּלְבַד אוֹ לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת הַמִּינִין הוּא מוּעָד. וְכֵן אִם נָגַח בְּשָׁלֹשׁ שַׁבָּתוֹת זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ וּבְאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וּבְשֵׁנִי בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ שֶׁנָּגַח בַּחֲמִישִׁי בְּשַׁבָּת וּבְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וּבִשְׁתֵּי שַׁבָּתוֹת הַבָּאוֹת אַחֲרֶיהָ הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם הוּא מוּעָד לְשַׁבָּתוֹת בִּלְבַד אוֹ לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת הַיָּמִים שֶׁשְּׁנַיִם מֵהֶן חל:

13

With regard to these unresolved questions and the like, [the owner of the ox] that caused the damage is required to pay for only half the damages. If the person whose property was damaged seizes property belonging to the other person equivalent to the full amount of the damages, it is not expropriated from him.20

יג

וְכָל אֵלּוּ הַסְּפֵקוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֵין מְחַיְּבִין בָּהֶן אֶת הַמַּזִּיק אֶלָּא חֲצִי נֵזֶק. וְאִם תָּפַשׂ הַנִּזָּק נֵזֶק שָׁלֵם אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדוֹ: