SECTION 512 Not to Cook for the Sake of a Non-Jew on a Festival (1-7)

סימן תקיב שֶׁלֹּא לְבַשֵּׁל לְצֹרֶךְ נָכְרִי בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּבוֹ ז' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The performance of] all the melachos ochel nefesh was permitted [on a festival] only for the sake of [preparing] food for a Jew, but not for the sake of [preparing] food for a non-Jew.1 [Similarly, the performance of these melachos was not permitted] for the sake of [preparing] food for an animal.1 [These restrictions are derived from the verse permitting the performance of meleches ochel nefesh,]2 “Such [tasks] alone may be performed for your sake.” [Our Sages commented,]1 “ ‘for your sake,’ and not for the sake of a non-Jew,” and [similarly,] “ ‘for your sake,’ and not for the sake of an animal.”

Therefore, one is forbidden to invite a non-Jew to come and eat in his home [on a festival], lest he cook more [food, adding] another pot [of food] for the non-Jew.3 By contrast, it is permitted to send food to [a non-Jew’s] home [for the non-Jew’s sake]. [The rationale is that] since [the Jew] is not inviting [the non-Jew] to his home, there is no concern that he will [cook] more for [the non-Jew].

[When sending food to a non-Jew], one must, however, take care not to send it to him via the public domain, even if when sending [the food] with a non-Jew. [The rationale is that] it is forbidden [on a festival] to transfer an article from one domain to another for the sake of a non-Jew,4 and whenever [a person] is forbidden to perform [an activity on a festival], he is also forbidden to instruct a non-Jew to perform it.5 It is, however, permitted to send [an article] to [a non-Jew] with a [second] non-Jew via a karmelis,6for [the Sages] did not institute a [restrictive] decree regarding a shvus d’shvus7with regard to the prohibition against transferring [an article from one domain to another] on a festival. [The rationale is that stringency is not imposed in such an instance,] since were [the transfer to be even] slightly necessary for the festival, it would be permitted for a Jew to perform it.8

א כָּל מְלָאכוֹת "אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ" לֹא הֻתְּרוּ אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲבָל לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילַת נָכְרִיא,1 וְלֹא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילַת בְּהֵמָה,ב,2 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרג,2 "הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם" –"לָכֶם" וְלֹא לְנָכְרִים,ד "לָכֶם" וְלֹא לִבְהֵמָה.ה,2

לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְזַמֵּן נָכְרִי שֶׁיָּבֹא אֶצְלוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל בְּבֵיתוֹ, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה לְבַשֵּׁלו עוֹד קְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶתז בִּשְׁבִיל הַנָּכְרִי.3 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִשְׁלוֹחַ לוֹ מַאֲכָל לְבֵיתוֹ,ח דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַזְמִינוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ.ט

רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁלַח לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹלֵחַ לוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,י דְּאָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת בִּשְׁבִיל נָכְרִי,יא,4 וְכֹל שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ – אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ.יב,5

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִשְׁלוֹחַ לוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית,יג,6 שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ עַל שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת7 שֶׁל אִסּוּר הוֹצָאָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ צֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב קְצָת – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל.יד,8

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (SIE)

The new layout – with the original text and the facing translation – provides a unique user-friendly approach to studying the Alter Rebbe’s work. An inclusive commentary provides insightful explanations and guidelines for actual practice.

2 Similarly, when a non-Jew comes to a Jew’s home totally uninvited or [a non-Jew] sends an agent to [the Jew], it is permitted to feed him [at one’s table].9 The concern that [the Jew will cook] additional [food] for [the non-Jew] applies only when [the Jew] invites [the non-Jew] to his home, [for then] he desires to show [the non-Jew] respect.

When does the above [leniency] apply? When the Jew gives [the non-Jew] food without any invitation, nor does he entreat [him to eat]. It is, however, forbidden to entreat [the non-Jew] to eat [at his table] even when [the Jew] already cooked and prepared everything necessary for the meal.10 Since [the Jew] is entreating [the non-Jew] to eat and desires to show him respect, there is concern that he might cook another pot of food for the sake [of the non-Jew].

ב וְכֵן נָכְרִי שֶׁבָּא מֵאֵלָיו לְבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא הִזְמִינוֹ כְּלָל,טו וְכֵן שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּלַּח אֵלָיוטז – מֻתָּר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ עִמּוֹ,9 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמַּזְמִינוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ, שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לְכַבְּדוֹ.יז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נוֹתֵן לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל בְּלִי שׁוּם הַזְמָנָה וְהַפְצָרָה, אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַפְצִיר בּוֹ שֶׁיֹּאכַל אֶצְלוֹ,יח אֲפִלּוּ כְּבָר בִּשֵּׁל (א) וְתִקֵּן כָּל צָרְכֵי סְעֻדָּתוֹ,יט,10 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מַפְצִיר בּוֹ וְרוֹצֶה לְכַבְּדוֹ – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְבַשֵּׁל עוֹד קְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ.

3 Although [a person] is permitted to add meat [that he will eat] in the [coming] weekdays to a pot [of food that he is cooking on a festival to eat that day] in the manner explained in sec. 503[:4-5],11 it is forbidden to add anything [to a pot of food intending to give the added food] to a non-Jew.12 [This restriction applies] even though [the Jew] did not invite [the non-Jew], in which instance, it is permitted to provide him with food, as explained [in the previous subsection]. Nevertheless, since [the Jewish host] desires to show [the non-Jew] respect and adds meat [to the pot] for him, there are grounds for concern that he will cook another pot [of food] for [the non-Jew], and, thus, perform a melachah solely for the sake of a non-Jew.

Nevertheless, [a Jew] is permitted to add meat for the sake of his servants or maidservants13 to a pot [of food] he is cooking for the festival. [Similarly, it is permitted to do so] for the sake of one’s dog.14 [The rationale is that the person] is not giving them food as a gesture of respect, but because he is responsible to provide them with food. [Hence,] there is no concern that he will cook another dish for their sake since he does not want to give them any more meat than he [already] added for their sake.

ג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹסִיף בָּשָׂר בִּקְדֵרָה לְצֹרֶךְ הַחֹל וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ג,כ,11 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְצֹרֶךְ הַנָּכְרִי אָסוּר לְהוֹסִיף כְּלוּם,כא,12 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַזְמִינוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ עִמּוֹ וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לְכַבְּדוֹ וּמוֹסִיף בָּשָׂר בִּשְׁבִילוֹ – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְבַשֵּׁל בִּשְׁבִילוֹ עוֹד קְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת,כב וְנִמְצָא עוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב בִּשְׁבִיל הַנָּכְרִי בִּלְבָד.

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהוֹסִיף בָּשָׂר בִּשְׁבִיל עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹכג,13 אוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל כַּלְבּוֹכד,14 בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁמְּבַשֵּׁל בָּהּ לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן לָהֶם לֶאֱכוֹל בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹדָםכה אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁמְּזוֹנוֹתָם עָלָיו כו – אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְבַשֵּׁל עוֹד קְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת בִּשְׁבִילָם, כז כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן לָהֶם בָּשָׂר יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁמּוֹסִיף בִּשְׁבִילָם.

4 When does the above15 apply? When [the person] adds meat to the pot before he puts the pot on the fire. [In such an instance, all the activity that constitutes] the melachah of cooking – i.e., placing the pot on the fire – is performed at one time, and no additional melachah is performed [specifically] for [the servants]. However, after [the person] places the pot on the fire, he is forbidden to add meat to [the pot] for his servants or his maidservants.16 [Similarly, it is forbidden to add meat to the pot] for the sake of one’s dog.

True, [a person] is permitted to add meat to a pot for the sake of the [coming] weekdays even after it was placed on the fire (in the manner explained in sec. 503[:5]), because [the flavor of] the food cooking is enhanced and improved when there is large amount of meat in the pot. Thus, all the meat in the pot [is considered as being cooked] for the sake of the festival. Nevertheless, this leniency is only granted when the person has the possibility of eating all the meat on the festival were he to desire to do so.17 In this instance, however, [the person] cannot eat all the meat on the festival if he would desire to, since he has to serve some of it to his servant, maidservant, or [feed some of it to] his dog, because he is responsible for [providing them with] their food.14 [Accordingly, in such an instance,] the license [mentioned above] is not at all effective due to the reason mentioned in sec. 506[:12].18

Therefore, if [the person] has other food that he could serve his servant or maidservant, or [feed] his dog, he is permitted to add meat for their sake to the pot that he is cooking for the festival.19 Similarly, he is permitted to bake bread for them in the [same] oven that he is baking [bread] for himself. Even though [the person] is performing a melachah for their sake – [his acts are placed in this category] since every loaf requires an effort undertaken in its own right – nevertheless, [there is a twofold rationale why this is permitted:]

[a)] every [loaf of] bread [the person bakes] is fit for him [to eat] because he has other food that he can give [the servants and the maidservants, or feed his dog];

[b) the flavor of] the loaf that he will eat on the festival is enhanced and improved because of [the loaf] he is baking for them, because [a loaf of] bread bakes better when there is a large amount of bread in the oven.20

Thus, the entire [act of] baking is [considered as having been performed] for the sake of the festival.21

ד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?15 כְּשֶׁמּוֹסִיף בָּשָׂר בִּקְדֵרָה קֹדֶם שֶׁנְּתָנָהּ אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ, דְּנִמְצָא שֶׁכָּל מְלֶאכֶת הַבִּשּׁוּל, דְּהַיְנוּ נְתִינַת הַבָּשָׂר אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ, נַעֲשָׂה בְּבַת אַחַת, וְאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף שׁוּם מְלָאכָה בִּשְׁבִילָן, כח אֲבָל (ב) לְאַחַר שֶׁנָּתַן הַקְּדֵרָה אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ – אָסוּר לְהוֹסִיף בָּהּ בָּשָׂר בִּשְׁבִיל עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ 16 אוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל כַּלְבּוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ הַחֹל מֻתָּר לְהוֹסִיף בָּשָׂר בִּקְדֵרָה אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁנְּתָנָהּ אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ (וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ג כט), לְפִי שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל הוּא יוֹתֵר מִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ וּמִתְתַּקֵּן כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ הַרְבֵּה בָּשָׂר בַּקְּדֵרָה, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁכָּל הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָה הוּא לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֶתֵּר זֶה אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל כָּל הַבָּשָׂר בְּיוֹם טוֹב אִם יִרְצֶה,17 אֲבָל כַּאן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל כָּל הַבָּשָׂר בְּיוֹם טוֹב אִם יִרְצֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן מִקְצָתוֹ לְעַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ וְכַלְבּוֹ שֶׁמְּזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלָיו ל, 14 – אֵין הֶתֵּר זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ו. לא, 18

לְפִיכָךְ אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מַאֲכָלִים אֲחֵרִים לב שֶׁיּוּכַל לִתֵּן לְעַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ אוֹ לִפְנֵי כַלְבּוֹ – מֻתָּר לְהוֹסִיף בִּשְׁבִילָם בָּשָׂר בַּקְּדֵרָה שֶׁמְּבַשֵּׁל לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב,19 וְכֵן מֻתָּר לֶאֱפוֹת בִּשְׁבִילָם פַּת בַּתַּנּוּר שֶׁאָפָה בּוֹ לְצָרְכּוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בִּשְׁבִילָם, שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל פַּת וּפַת צָרִיךְ טִרְחָא בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל הַפַּת רָאוּי לוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ מַאֲכָלִים אֲחֵרִים לִתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם, וְגַם הַפַּת שֶׁיֹּאכַל בְּיוֹם טוֹב הוּא מִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ וּמִתְתַּקֵּן עַל יְדֵי אֲפִיָּה זוֹ שֶׁאוֹפֶה בִּשְׁבִילָם, שֶׁהַפַּת נֶאֱפֶה יָפֶה בִּזְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ הַרְבֵּה פַּת בַּתַּנּוּר20 – נִמְצָא שֶׁכָּל הָאֲפִיָּה הִיא צֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב. לג, 21

5 When a Jew bakes in an oven belonging to a non-Jew and must give the non-Jew [a portion of the bread] as a fee for [using] the oven,22 he should not designate a [particular] loaf for the non-Jew before baking. [Were he to do so,] he would be baking a loaf [specifically] for the non-Jew. Instead, [the person] should bake all the loaves without designating [one of] them [to be used as payment], and then give [the non-Jew] one loaf as payment for [using] his oven.23

ה (ג) יִשְׂרָאֵל הָאוֹפֶה בְּתַנּוּרוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי וְצָרִיךְ לָתֵת לְהַנָּכְרִי בְּעַד שְׂכַר הַתַּנּוּר22 – לֹא יְיַחֵד לוֹ פַּת אֶחָד קֹדֶם הָאֲפִיָּה, דְּאָז נִמְצָא שֶׁהוּא אוֹפֶה פַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִי, אֶלָּא יֹאפֶה כָּל הַפַּת בִּסְתָם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן לוֹ פַּת אֶחָד בִּשְׂכַר תַּנּוּרוֹ. לד, 23

6 [The following law applies when] soldiers [billeting in the home of a Jew]24 give him flour to bake bread for them [on a festival]: If [the soldiers] do not object when one of the loaves baked for them is given to a child,25 it is permitted to bake for them on a festival26 by giving one of their loaves to a child.27 [The rationale is that] since all the flour belongs to [the soldiers], and if the person does not bake all the loaves for them, they will not allow [the Jew to bake one loaf] to be given to the child, it is considered as if all the baking was done for the sake of the child.

This ruling also applies [even] in an instance where the Jew is obligated to provide [his own] flour because of an edict of the [ruling] kingdom, and he is not permitted to bake a loaf for a child from this flour unless he bakes all the loaves for [the soldiers. In this instance, the person] is permitted to bake for them on the festival by giving one of the loaves to the child.

True, [giving a loaf to the child] is acting with guile since [the person] is giving the loaf to the child only so that he will be permitted to bake [the remainder of the loaves] on the festival, and it was already stated in sec. 507[:18] that it is forbidden to act with guile when baking bread [when one has no need of the bread]. Nevertheless, [the Sages] permitted [the person] to act with guile [in such an instance] because of the pressing situation, for it is difficult to extricate oneself from [the demands of] soldiers when there is an obligation based on the statutes of the ruling kingdom to bake on their behalf. Therefore, [the Sages] permitted [the person] to act with guile [and bake for them] even after the festive meal has already been eaten; (see sec. 503[:9]).28 This [ruling] should not be used as [a source] from which to derive [leniency] in other instances.

ו בְּנֵי הַחַיִל24 שֶׁנָּתְנוּ קֶמַח שֶׁלָּהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֶאֱפוֹת לָהֶם פַּת, אִם אֵינָן מַקְפִּידִין כְּשֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נוֹתֵן פַּת אֶחָד לַתִּינוֹק25 מֵהַפַּת שֶׁאָפָה לָהֶם – מֻתָּר לֶאֱפוֹת לָהֶם בְּיוֹם טוֹב לה, 26 (ד) עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּתֵּן פַּת אֶחָד מֵהֶם לַתִּינוֹק, לו, 27 שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם לֹא יֹאפֶה לָהֶם כָּל הַפַּת לֹא יַנִּיחוּ לִתֵּן לַתִּינוֹק, לז כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל הַקֶּמַח הוּא שֶׁלָּהֶם – נִמְצָא שֶׁכָּל הָאֲפִיָּה הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילַת הַתִּינוֹק. וְכֵן אִם אֲפִלּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נוֹתֵן לָהֶם הַקֶּמַח מֵחֹק הַמַּלְכוּת, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רַשַּׁאי לֶאֱפוֹת מִקֶּמַח פַּת אֶחָד לַתִּינוֹק אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֹאפֶה לָהֶם כָּל הַפַּת – מֻתָּר לֶאֱפוֹת לָהֶם בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּתֵּן פַּת אֶחָד מֵהֶם לַתִּינוֹק. לח

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזּוֹ הִיא הַעֲרָמָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן הַפַּת לַתִּינוֹק אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהַתִּיר לוֹ לֶאֱפוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ז לט שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַעֲרִים בַּאֲפִיַּת הַפַּת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֵחֲמַת הַדְּחָק הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לְהַעֲרִים, שֶׁקָּשֶׁה לְהִפָּטֵר מִבְּנֵי הַחַיִל שֶׁיֵּשׁ חִיּוּב מֵחֹק הַמַּלְכוּת לֶאֱפוֹת לָהֶם, וּלְפִיכָךְ הִתִּירוּ לְהַעֲרִים אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר אָכְלוּ סְעֻדַּת יוֹם טוֹב (עַיֵּן סִמָּן תק"ג מ),28 וְאֵין לִלְמוֹד מִכַּאן לִשְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת. מא

7 A person is permitted to move food that is only fit to be eaten by an animal even if he does not have an animal at home.29 If a person has [an animal at home], he is permitted to take the trouble of setting food before it [on a festival, as he is permitted on] Shabbos, as stated in sec. 324[:5]. However, [the person] must be careful not to perform any melachah for the sake of [the animal]. Even [an act forbidden] by Rabbinic Law as a shvus7– e.g., to transfer [food] from a private domain to a karmelis or the like – [is forbidden].30 For this reason, it is only permitted to mix bran with water by deviating [from one’s ordinary pattern,] as explained in sec. 324[:3] regarding Shabbos.

ז מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מְזוֹנוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין אֶלָּא לִבְהֵמָה מב אֲפִלּוּ אֵין לוֹ בְּהֵמָה בְּבֵיתוֹ. מג, 29

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ – מֻתָּר לִטְרוֹחַ וְלִתֵּן לְפָנֶיהָ מְזוֹנוֹת, מד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ד מה לְעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת. וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה שׁוּם מְלָאכָה בִּשְׁבִילָהּ, מו אֲפִלּוּ שְׁבוּת7 שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם, כְּגוֹן לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית מז וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.30 לְפִיכָךְ, אָסוּר לְגַבֵּל אֶת הַמֻּרְסָן מח כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי, מט עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ד נ לְעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת.