SECTION 505 The Laws [Governing] Milking an Animal on a Festival (1-8)

סימן תקה דִּין הַחוֹלֵב בְּהֵמָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּבוֹ ח' סְעִיפִים:

1 In sec. 495[:9], it was already explained that it is forbidden to milk an animal on a festival even if one desires to partake of the milk that day.1

When does this [prohibition] apply? When [the person] milks into an empty container or into a container containing liquids.2 It is, however, permitted to express milk into a container containing food.3 [The rationale is that any] liquid that [is added to] food is [halachically]considered as food. Thus, the milk will never have been placed into the category of a liquid, but rather would [always] be considered as food. [The person] would thus be considered as separating food, [i.e., the milk that is mixed with the food into which it was expressed,] from food, [i.e., the animal,] when milking it. This is not considered as mefareik, “expressing,” since [the person] is not expressing [the milk] in an ordinary manner, i.e., expressing milk, a liquid, from the body of the animal, which is food.

א כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תצ"הא שֶׁאָסוּר לַחֲלוֹב בְּהֵמָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב, אֲפִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכוֹל הֶחָלָב בּוֹ בַיּוֹם.1

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁחוֹלֵב לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רֵיקָן אוֹ לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַשְׁקִין,2 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לַחֲלוֹב לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַאֲכָל,ב,3 לְפִי שֶׁמַּשְׁקֶה הַבָּא לָאֹכֶל – הֲרֵי הוּא כָּאֹכֶל,ג וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין עַל הֶחָלָב תּוֹרַת מַשְׁקֶה אֶלָּא תּוֹרַת אֹכֶל, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל בַּחֲלִיבָתוֹ, וְאֵין זֶה מְפָרֵק, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ פְּרִיקָתוֹ,ד שֶׁהוּא הַפְרָדַת הֶחָלָב שֶׁהוּא מַשְׁקֶה מִגּוּף הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁהוּא אֹכֶל.

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2 When does the above [license] apply? When one expresses milk into food to prepare it [for consumption together] with the milk4 or [into] a container containing crumbs, into which the milk is absorbed and becomes blended in thoroughly. In these circumstances, [the milk] is batel, nullified, within the food and considered as food.

When, by contrast, one expresses a large amount of milk into a container containing a small amount of bread, even though some of the milk is absorbed into the bread, since much of the milk remains as a separate entity in the container without being mixed into the food, [the milk] remains categorized as a liquid. [Therefore, expressing it] is forbidden as mefareik.2

ב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁחוֹלֵב לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל כְּדֵי לְתַקְּנוֹ עַל יְדֵי חָלָב זֶה,ה,4 אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּכְּלִי פֵּרוּרִיןו וְהֶחָלָב נִבְלָע בָּהֶםז וּמִתְעָרֵב עִמָּהֶם יָפֶה, שֶׁאָז הוּא בָּטֵל לְגַבֵּי הָאֹכֶל וְתוֹרַת אֹכֶל עָלָיו, אֲבָל הַחוֹלֵב חָלָב הַרְבֵּה לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מְעַט לֶחֶם,ח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּעַט חָלָב נִבְלָע בַּלֶּחֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַרְבֵּה חָלָב נִשְׁאָר לְבַדּוֹ בַּכְּלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְעֹרָב עִם הָאֹכֶלט – הֲרֵי תּוֹרַת מַשְׁקֶה עָלָיו, וְאָסוּר מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק.י,2

3 Even when one expresses milk into food to prepare [the food for consumption], license is granted only when the animal [that was milked] was intended to be [slaughtered and its meat] eaten,5 i.e., it was not set aside to be used for milk, but rather [the owner] had in mind to slaughter it. If [the owner] desired, he could slaughter [the animal] and eat [its meat] on the festival and [also] the milk it contains. Accordingly, the milk is not considered as nolad,6 since even when [the milk] was [contained] in the body of the animal, it could be eaten on the festival. Thus, [the person] is doing no more than separating food from [other] food to which it is connected, in which case neither of [the foods] are categorized as nolad.7

[Different laws apply,] however, when an animal was set aside [to produce] milk. Since [its owner] does not intend to slaughter it, [the animal] is not considered as food at all. Even [the authorities] who permit [handling] muktzeh on a festival [would accept this ruling] since [the animal's owner] has no intent to partake of it. Thus, the milk expressed from it is categorized as nolad, because one would not have partaken of it on the festival when it was in the animal’s body. Therefore, even when [the milk] was expressed into food and thus, is categorized as food, partaking of it is nevertheless forbidden on the festival because it is nolad,8according to our custom to rule stringently regarding nolad on a festival.9 [Since this milk is prohibited on the festival, a Jew is forbidden to milk the animal, for] it is forbidden [for a Jew] to milk [an animal10 on a festival] when doing so is not necessary for the festival.11

ג וַאֲפִלּוּ חוֹלֵב לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל לְתַקְּנוֹ – אֵין הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא בִּבְהֵמָה הָעוֹמֶדֶת לַאֲכִילָה,יא,5 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא הִקְצוּהָ לַחֲלָבָהּ, אֶלָּא דַּעְתּוֹ לְשָׁחֳטָהּ, וְאִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה הָיָה שׁוֹחֲטָהּיב וְאוֹכְלָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב עִם הֶחָלָב שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ,יג וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין עַל הֶחָלָב תּוֹרַת נוֹלָד,6 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף כְּשֶׁהָיָה בְּגוּף הַבְּהֵמָה הָיָה יָכוֹל לְאָכְלוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וְאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל הַמְּחֻבָּר לוֹ, שֶׁאֵין עַל שׁוּם אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת נוֹלָד.יד,7

אֲבָל בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהִקְצוּהָ לַחֲלָבָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְשָׁחֳטָהּ – אֵין עָלֶיהָ תּוֹרַת אֹכֶל כְּלָלטו אֲפִלּוּ לְהַמַּתִּירִין מֻקְצֶה בְּיוֹם טוֹב,טז שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְאָכְלָהּ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהֶחָלָב הַמֻּפְרָד מִמֶּנָּה יֵשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת נוֹלָד, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁהָיָה בְּגוּף הַבְּהֵמָה לֹא הָיָה אוֹכְלוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחוֹלְבוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל וְיֵשׁ תּוֹרַת אֹכֶל עָלָיו, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר (א) לְאָכְלוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב מִשּׁוּם נוֹלָד8 לְמִנְהָגֵנוּ שֶׁאָנוּ מַחְמִירִים בְּנוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹב,יז,9 וְאָסוּר לַחֲלוֹב10 שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב.יח,11

4 With regard to what does the above apply? To an animal that belongs to a Jew. However, it is permitted to milk an animal belonging to a non-Jew into food,12 even though [the animal] is set aside to be used for its milk. [The rationale is that] the concept of muktzeh, setting aside an object, does not apply with regard to a non-Jew’s [property], as stated in sec. 498[:6].13 Therefore, it is as if [the animal] was intended to be [slaughtered and its meat] eaten, in which instance, it is permitted to express its milk into food.

ד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּבֶהֱמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לַחֲלוֹב בֶּהֱמַת הַנָּכְרִי לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָליט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא מֻקְצֵית לַחֲלָבָהּ,12 דְּאֵין מֻקְצֶה שַׁיָּךְ בְּשֶׁל נָכְרִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תצ"ח,כ,13 וַהֲרֵי זוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת לַאֲכִילָה,כא שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַחֲלוֹב מִמֶּנָּה לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל.כב

5 All the above14 applies as an initial and preferred option. However, after the fact, if milk was expressed into an empty container and [the animal] was intended to be [slaughtered and its meat] eaten, it is permitted to partake of the milk that day. Even the person who milked [the animal is permitted to partake of the milk].15 Needless to say, [the milk] is permitted if a non-Jew expressed the milk, even if he did so with the knowledge of a Jew. [The rationale is that] this milk is not deemed as nolad since the animal is intended to be [slaughtered and its meat] eaten. Had the Jewish [owner] desired, he could have milked [the animal] himself in a permitted manner, i.e., [by expressing the milk] into food.16 Thus, this milk was prepared [for use] from the day before the festival, because [the owner] had the option of milking the animal any time he desired.

There are authorities who differ with the above17 and maintain that even if the animal belonged to a non-Jew and even if the non-Jew milked it for his own purposes while the Jew observed him, the milk is forbidden on the day [of the festival]. (If [the Jew did not observe the milking], [the milk] is forbidden regardless because a non-Jew milked it, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 115.)18 [The rationale for the prohibition, even when the Jew observed the milking, is that] when the milk was contained in the body of the animal, it was considered as food because it was of secondary importance with regard to the animal and, therefore, categorized as food, just as [the animal] is. [By contrast,] at present, when [the milk] is expressed into an empty container, it is categorized as a liquid. Thus, [the milk] resembles liquids that oozed out of food [on Shabbos or a festival] that are forbidden on that day. [This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard] lest one squeeze [liquids from fruit], as stated in sec. 320[:1]; consult that source.19

With regard to the halachah, it has already become customary to follow the latter opinion, and one should not deviate [from that practice].

ה וְכָל זֶה14 לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁכְּבָר נֶחְלַב לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רֵיקָן וְהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת לַאֲכִילָהכג – הֲרֵי חָלָב זֶה מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה בּוֹ בַיּוֹםכד אֲפִלּוּ לְהַחוֹלֵב עַצְמוֹ.כה,15

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם חֲלָבָהּ הַנָּכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת נוֹלָד עַל חָלָב זֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה עוֹמֶדֶת לַאֲכִילָה, וְאִלּוּ הָיָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רוֹצֶה הָיָה חוֹלְבָהּ בְּעַצְמוֹ בְּהֶתֵּר, דְּהַיְנוּ לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל,כו,16 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁחָלָב זֶה הוּא מוּכָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּיָדוֹ הוּא לַחֲלוֹב אֶת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהכז,17 וְאוֹמְרִים דַּאֲפִלּוּ הִיא בֶּהֱמַת הַנָּכְרִי, וַאֲפִלּוּ חֲלָבָהּ הַנָּכְרִי לְצָרְכּוֹ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל רָאָהוּ (דְּאִם לֹא כֵן בְּלָאו הָכִי אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם חֲלֵב הַנָּכְרִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן קט"ו כח, 18) – הֲרֵי חָלָב זֶה אָסוּר בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהָיָה חָלָב זֶה בְּגוּף הַבְּהֵמָה הָיָה עָלָיו תּוֹרַת אֹכֶל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא טָפֵל לְגַבֵּי הַבְּהֵמָה וְנֶחְשָׁב אֹכֶל כְּמוֹתָהּ, וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁנֶּחְלַב לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רֵיקָן – הֲרֵי תּוֹרַת מַשְׁקֶה עָלָיו, וַהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְמַשְׁקִין שֶׁזָּבוּ מֵהָאֹכָלִין כט שֶׁאֲסוּרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"כ ל עַיֵּן שָׁם.19

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, כְּבָר נָהֲגוּ כִּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת.לא

6 All the above20 applies regarding an animal that was intended to be [slaughtered and its meat] eaten, or one belonging to a non-Jew. If, however, [an animal] was set aside for milking and belonged to a Jew, even the first authorities [mentioned in the previous subsection would agree that its milk] is forbidden as nolad. [This prohibition applies] even if a non-Jew expressed the milk into food for his own purposes without the Jewish [owner’s] knowledge while another Jew observed21 him.22 [The rationale is that] even if the Jew desired [to milk the animal on the festival], it would not have been permitted for him to milk it, even into food, because [the animal] was set aside for milking.

ו וְכָל זֶה20 בִּבְהֵמָה הָעוֹמֶדֶת לַאֲכִילָה, אוֹ שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל נָכְרִי, אֲבָל אִם הִיא עוֹמֶדֶת לַחֲלָבָהּ וְהִיא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲפִלּוּ חֲלָבָהּ נָכְרִי לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל לב לְצָרְכּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל22 וְרָאָהוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר21 – הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם נוֹלָד אַף לִסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,לג שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הָיָה רוֹצֶה לֹא הָיָה מֻתָּר לוֹ לְחָלְבָהּ לד אֲפִלּוּ לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת לְחָלָב.

7 All the above23 applies regarding milk that was expressed on the festival itself. If, however, [an animal] was milked on a Shabbos that directly preceded [a festival], even if the animal was intended to be [slaughtered and its meat] eaten, it is as if the animal was set aside for its milk, since [the person] may not slaughter it on that day. Therefore, even if a non-Jew expressed the milk for his own purposes without the Jewish [owner’s] knowledge while another Jew observed him, this milk is forbidden on Shabbos (as nolad, even if it was expressed into food), as stated in sec. 305[:32]; consult that source.24 [Moreover,] even on the festival that follows [Shabbos, the milk] remains forbidden because [it is as if Shabbos] prepared [for the festival] and Shabbos may not prepare for a festival, as will be explained in sec. 513[:9]; see the reason [explained in] that source.25 Nevertheless, it is permitted to partake of this milk on the second day of the festival [celebrated] in the Diaspora that would be observed on the Monday.26

Even when [the animal] was milked on the first day of the festival, it is permitted to partake of the milk on the second day of the festival immediately at nightfall. [After nightfall,] it is not necessary to wait bichdei sheyaasu, [i.e.,]until the time it takes to [milk the animal has passed].27

[This ruling applies] even if a non-Jew expressed the milk of [an animal] set aside for its milk into an empty container with the knowledge of the Jewish [owner. The rationale for the leniency is as follows:]28 If the first day [of the festival] is [essentially] holy, then the second day [of the festival] is [essentially] a weekday and the prohibition of nolad does not apply to it. In this instance, there are no grounds [to impose the restriction of bichdei sheyaasu in order to prevent the Jew] from instructing the non-Jew to milk the animal for him on the festival so that – where he to be permitted – he would be able to partake of it as soon as possible after the festival. [The rationale is that regardless, the Jewish owner] is permitted to instruct the non-Jew to milk his cows29 even on Shabbos and even as an initial and preferred option in consideration of the pain the animals [would suffer were they not to be milked], as explained in sec. 305[:29].30

ז וְכָל זֶה23 בְּחָלָב שֶׁנֶּחְלַב בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל אִם נֶחְלַב בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁלְּפָנָיו, אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה הַבְּהֵמָה עוֹמֶדֶת לַאֲכִילָה לה – הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת לַחֲלָבָהּ, לו כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְשָׁחֳטָהּ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֲפִלּוּ חֲלָבָהּ נָכְרִי לְצָרְכּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְרָאָהוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר – הֲרֵי חָלָב זֶה אָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת (מִשּׁוּם נוֹלָד אֲפִלּוּ חֲלָבָהּ לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל), כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ה לז עַיֵּן שָׁם.24

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו אָסוּר, מִשּׁוּם הֲכָנָה, לח שֶׁאֵין שַׁבָּת מְכִינָה לְיוֹם טוֹב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקי"ג, לט עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם.25 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לֶאֱכוֹל חָלָב זֶה בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשֵׁנִי בְּשַׁבָּת. מ, 26

וַאֲפִלּוּ נֶחְלַב בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּלֵיל יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי מא מִיָּד, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ מב, 27 אֲפִלּוּ אִם חֲלָבוֹ נָכְרִי מִדַּעַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רֵיקָן וְהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת לְחָלָב, שֶׁהֲרֵי מִמָּה נַפְשָׁךְ:28 אִם יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן הוּא קֹדֶשׁ – יוֹם שֵׁנִי הוּא חֹל, וְאֵין אִסּוּר נוֹלָד נוֹהֵג בּוֹ, וְאֵין שַׁיָּךְ לִגְזוֹר כַּאן: שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לְהַנָּכְרִי לַחֲלוֹב בְּיוֹם טוֹב לְצֹרֶךְ הַלַּיְלָה כְּדֵי לְמַהֵר אֲכִילָתוֹ בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי אִם נַתִּיר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל הֶחָלָב בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי מִיָּד, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי: "חֲלֹב פָּרָתִי",29 אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים,מג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ה.מד, 30

8 A person who is suffering hunger pains may suck milk from an animal on a festival, even though [doing so] is forbidden on Shabbos.31[The reason for this license is that the person] is being mefareik32in an abnormal manner33 and in a case of [the person’s] suffering, [the Sages] did not impose a [restrictive] decree on a festival34 since the prohibition of mefareik on a festival is merely Rabbinic in origin.35

[Nevertheless,] if [the person] has food, he is forbidden to suck [the milk from the animal] with his mouth. Instead, he must express it into the food. Similarly, if a non-Jew is present, the non-Jew should milk [the animal] for [the Jew].36


ח מִי שֶׁהוּא מִצְטַעֵר מֵחֲמַת רְעָבוֹן מה – מֻתָּר לִינַק מֵהַבְּהֵמָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת,31 לְפִי שֶׁמְּפָרֵק32 כִּלְאַחַר יָד הוּא,33 וּבִמְקוֹם צַעַר לֹא גָזְרוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב,מו, 34 שֶׁאִסּוּר מְפָרֵק בּוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.מז, 35

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מַאֲכָל – אָסוּר לִינַק בְּפִיו, אֶלָּא יַחֲלוֹב לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל.מח וְכֵן אִם יֵשׁ נָכְרִי – יַחֲלוֹב לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי. מט, 36