SECTION 501  [When] it is Forbidden and When it is Permitted [to Move] Wood on Festivals (1-18)

סימן תקא עֵצִים הָאֲסוּרִים וְהַמֻּתָּרִים בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּבוֹ י"ח סְעִיפִים:

1 [On a festival,] firewood may not be chopped from beams1 that were designated to be used for construction.2 [The rationale is that the beams] are deemed muktzeh machmas chisaron kis, muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss.”3 [The rationale is that by and large,] a person would object to using [the beams] for kindling, [and thus,] at bein hashmashos,4 the person did not think of using [these beams] for kindling (see sec. 308:26).5

[The same laws apply to] a beam that broke on a festival1 Since on the previous day, [the person] did not know that [the beam] would break and [thus] did not have in mind to [use it] for kindling on the preceding day, [he is forbidden to do so].6 Even those authorities who permit [the use of objects that are] muktzeh and nolad on a festival7 agree that in such an extreme case of muktzeh [as this, it is forbidden], for a beam that is sound and strong is not likely to break at all.8

[Leniency is granted,] however, if a beam was unstable on the day before the festival and was likely to break.9 Since [the owner] knew that it would [likely] break and [could have] had in mind to use it for kindling, [after the beam breaks,] he is permitted to chop [firewood] from it10 according to the authorities who permit [using] nolad on a festival. Nevertheless, according to the authorities who forbid [using] nolad on a festival, it is forbidden to chop [firewood] from [the broken beam. The rationale is that] on the preceding day, [the beam] was a whole article fit to be used for the task associated with it, i.e., construction. [Only] on this day [did it become] a broken article. Thus, it is considered as nolad, an object that first came into existence, on the festival. It was already explained7 that one should be stringent [and forbid the use of articles that are] nolad on a festival.

א אֵין מְבַקְּעִין עֵצִים מִן הַקּוֹרוֹתא,1 הָעוֹמְדוֹת לְבִנְיָן,ב,2 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מֻקְצֶהג מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס,ד,3 שֶׁאָדָם מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶן מִלְּהַסִּיקָן, וּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת4 לֹא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶן לְהֶסֵּק (עַיֵּן סִמָּן ש"[ח] סְעִיף כ"וה,5).

וְלֹא מִקּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב,ו,1 מִשּׁוּם דְּאֶתְמוֹל לֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁתִּשָּׁבֵר וְלֹא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ עָלֶיהָ לְהֶסֵּק,ז,6 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַמַּתִּירִין מֻקְצֶה וְנוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹבח,7 – מוֹדִיםט בְּמֻקְצֶה גָדוֹל כָּזֶה, דְּקוֹרָה בְּרִיאָה וַחֲזָקָה אֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה כְּלָל לְהִשָּׁבֵר.י,8

אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה רְעוּעָה מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וּקְרוֹבָה לְהִשָּׁבֵר,יא,9 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁתִּשָּׁבֵר וְדַעְתּוֹ עָלֶיהָיב לְהַסָּקָה, לָכֵן מֻתָּר לְבַקְּעוֹת מִמֶּנָּה10 לְהַמַּתִּירִים נוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹב. אֲבָל לְהָאוֹסְרִים נוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹב – אָסוּר לְבַקְּעוֹת מִמֶּנָּה,יג דְּאֶתְמוֹל הָיָה כְּלִי שָׁלֵם רָאוּי לִמְלַאכְתּוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ בִּנְיָן, וְהַיּוֹם הִיא שֶׁבֶר כְּלִי, וַהֲרֵי זֶה נוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵריד,7 דְּיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בְּנוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹב.

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2 [The following laws apply] if [the beam] broke on the day before the festival.11 If it is impossible to use [the beam] for kindling unless it is first chopped [into smaller pieces] because of its size and/or thickness, it is permitted to chop large pieces [of wood] from [the beam on the festival] even though [the person] could have chopped them [off from it] on the day before the festival. [The rationale for this leniency is that] chopping wood into large pieces is not considered as a melachah in a complete sense. Even on Shabbos, [doing so] is only forbidden by Rabbinic Law because it [is a] mundane activity, and [the Sages] permitted it entirely [on a festival] to enable festive rejoicing.

However, [it] is forbidden to chop [a beam] into very small pieces12 as is done to [produce] very thin pieces of wood that can be used to ignite a fire. [The rationale is that] someone who [chops wood in this manner] on Shabbos is liable since this is a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of grinding, as stated in sec. 321[:10].13 Therefore, [the Sages] did not permit this activity [on a festival] to enable festive rejoicing. [The rationale is that this activity] is [categorized as] machshirei [ochel nefesh], preliminary activities [that make it possible to prepare food], that could have [– and therefore, should have –] been performed before the festival.14

ב אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁבְּרָה מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב,טו,11 אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַסִּיקָהּ בְּלֹא בִקּוּעַטז מֵחֲמַת גָּדְלָהּיז וְעָבְיָהּיח – מֻתָּר לְבַקְּעוֹת מִמֶּנָּה חֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹתיט וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְבַקְּעוֹת מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בִּבְקִיעַת עֵצִים לַחֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה, וְאַף בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִשּׁוּם עוֹבָדִין דְּחֹל,כ וּמִשּׁוּם שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב הִתִּירוּ לְגַמְרֵי.כא

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְבַקְּעוֹת מִמֶּנָּה חֲתִיכוֹת קְטַנּוֹת מְאֹדכב כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּבַקְּעִים עֵצִים (א) דַּקִּים מְאֹד כְּדֵי לְהַצִּית בָּהֶן הָאוּר,12 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹשֶׂה כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת הַטּוֹחֵן,כג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"א,כד,13 לְפִיכָךְ לֹא הִתִּירוּ דָּבָר זֶה מִשּׁוּם שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב, לְפִי שֶׁזֶּהוּ כְּמַכְשִׁירִיןכה שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָם מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב.כו,14

3 When a person chops wood [on a festival], he should not chop it with a hatchet, a scythe, or a saw as he would during the week.15 [The rationale is that] since [the person] could have chopped [the wood] on the day before the festival, the Sages required him to deviate [from his ordinary pattern]16 and chop it only with a cleaver,15 (i.e., a butcher’s knife. Some make [such knives] with two cutting blades, [so the knife] resembles a hatchet somewhat). [The person should use only the cleaver’s] narrow side, not its wide side17 to deviate [from his ordinary practice].

In the present era, when we are not able to differentiate between [the tools] to which the Sages referred with the above terms, one should only chop wood with a knife, or [break it] by hand.

ג וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְבַקֵּעַ – לֹא יְבַקַּע בְּקַרְדֹּם, וְלֹא בְּמַגָּל, וְלֹא בִּמְגֵרָה,כז כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּבַקֵּעַ בְּחֹל,כח,15 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לְבַקְּעוֹת מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב – הִצְרִיכוּהוּ חֲכָמִים לְשַׁנּוֹתכט,16 שֶׁלֹּא יְבַקַּע אֶלָּא בְּקוֹפִיץל,15 (פֵּרוּשׁ:לא סַכִּין שֶׁל קַצָּבִים וְיֵשׁ עוֹשִׂים בּוֹ שְׁנֵי רָאשִׁים וְדוֹמֶה קְצָת לְקַרְדֹּם), וּבַצַּד הַקָּצָר שֶׁלּוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא בַּצַּד הָרָחָב,לב,17 כְּדֵי לְשַׁנּוֹת.לג

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִים מַהוּ קַרְדֹּם וּמַהוּ קוֹפִיץ – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לְבַקְּעוֹת אֶלָּא בְּסַכִּיןלד אוֹ בְּיָד.

4 Regarding what [forms of wood] does [the license] granted above apply? [Only to] very large pieces of wood that would not burn at all without having been chopped, e.g., a beam or the like. By contrast, large pieces of wood that are fit [to be used] for firewood without being chopped [into smaller pieces] should not be chopped at all, not even with a knife. [The rationale is that] since it is possible to use [these pieces of wood] as kindling without chopping them further, [chopping them] involves unnecessary effort. For this reason, one should take care not even to break them by hand.

[One should not break them] even into large pieces, [although] in that instance there is no reason to prohibit doing so as a derivative [of the melachah] of grinding. Similarly, one should not insert [such] a piece of wood into a hole in order to break it [into smaller pieces], since it is possible to use [the wood for firewood] as is.

ד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּעֵצִים גְּדוֹלִים מְאֹד, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַסִּיקָן כְּלָל בְּלֹא בִקּוּעַ, כְּגוֹן קוֹרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ, אֲבָל עֵצִים שֶׁל הַסָּקָה שֶׁהֵן גְּדוֹלִים קְצָת וּרְאוּיִים לְהַסָּקָה בְּלֹא בִקּוּעַ – לֹא יְבַקְּעֵם כְּלָללה אֲפִלּוּ בְּסַכִּין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַסִּיקָן בְּלֹא בִקּוּעַלו – הֲרֵי זֶה טִרְחָא שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה.לז וְלָכֵן יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לְשַׁבְּרָן אֲפִלּוּ בְּיָד,לח אֲפִלּוּ לַחֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לֶאֱסוֹר מִשּׁוּם תּוֹלֶדֶת טוֹחֵן.לט וְכֵן לֹא יַכְנִיס הָעֵץ בְּחוֹר כְּדֵי לְשַׁבְּרוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַסִּיקוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא.מ

5 Those who are meticulous in their observance follow the custom of forbidding chopping wood that is fit for firewood without being chopped, even on Chol HaMoed. [Instead,] they organize and prepare all the small pieces of wood necessary to cook fish before the festival out of concern [lest they undertake] unnecessary effort [during these days] since [the larger pieces of wood] could be burned without chopping them. Indeed, it is proper to follow [this] stringency.

Nevertheless, in places where wood is expensive and burning [large pieces of wood] without chopping them [into smaller pieces] would lead to a severe [financial] loss, it is even permitted to chop wood that could burn without chopping during [Chol] HaMoed.

When does [the stringency mentioned previously] apply? When one chops [the wood] with a utensil. However, [a person] need not be stringent [and refrain from] breaking wood by hand during [Chol] HaMoed. [Leniency is granted] sincehe is deviating from his [ordinary] weekday practice. [This license applies] even in places where wood is not expensive.

ה וְהַמְדַקְדְּקִים נוֹהֲגִים לֶאֱסוֹר הַבִּקּוּעַ שֶׁל עֵצִים הָרְאוּיִים לְהַסָּקָה בְּלִי בִקּוּעַ אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד, וּמְתַקְּנִים וּמְכִינִים כָּל הָעֵצִים הַקְּטַנִּים הַצְּרִיכִים לְבִשּׁוּל דָּגִים קֹדֶם יוֹם טוֹב, דְּחוֹשְׁשִׁין לְטִרְחָא שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי יָכוֹל לְבַעֲרָם בְּלֹא בִקּוּעַ. וְכֵן נָכוֹן לְהַחֲמִיר.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהָעֵצִים יְקָרִים, דְּיֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אִם נַצְרִיךְ לְהַבְעִיר בְּלִי בִקּוּעַ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְבַקֵּעַ בַּמּוֹעֵד אֲפִלּוּ עֵצִים שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַסִּיקָן בְּלֹא בִקּוּעַ.מא

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? לְבַקְּעוֹת בִּכְלִי, אֲבָל לְשַׁבֵּר בְּיָד,מב כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בּוֹ כְּלָל בַּמּוֹעֵד, אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין הָעֵצִים יְקָרִים.

6 When [pieces of] wood – whether large or small – are scattered in a courtyard, it is forbidden to gather them on a festival.18 [The rationale is that] it appears that [the person] is gathering for the sake of the weekdays since it is common practice to gather [wood] on one day for [use on] the following day.19 If, however, one desires to cook a pot [of food] in the courtyard, it is permitted to gather wood near the place he will be cooking his food because his pot [of food] makes it obvious that he is gathering [the wood for immediate use as kindling and] not for the next day.19

To what does the above [restriction] apply? To scattered [pieces of] wood. When, by contrast, [pieces of] wood are stored [in an organized manner] in a private domain, it is permitted to take them15 and even bring them to another courtyard and burn them there.

ו עֵצִים הַמְפֻזָּרִין בֶּחָצֵר,מג בֵּין שֶׁהֵם גְּדוֹלִים בֵּין שֶׁהֵם קְטַנִּיםמד – אָסוּר לְגַבְּבָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב,18 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כִּמְלַקֵּט לְצֹרֶךְ חֹל,מה שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ לְגַבֵּב הַיּוֹם לְצֹרֶךְ מָחָר.מו,19

אֲבָל אִם רוֹצֶה לְבַשֵּׁל קְדֵרָתוֹ בֶּחָצֵר – מֻתָּר לְגַבֵּב סָמוּךְ לִמְקוֹם בִּשּׁוּל קְדֵרָתוֹ,מז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקְּדֵרָתוֹ מוֹכַחַת עָלָיו שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְגַבֵּב לְצֹרֶךְ מָחָר.מח,19

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּעֵצִים הַמְפֻזָּרִין, אֲבָל עֵצִים הַמְכֻנָּסִים בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד – מֻתָּר לִטּוֹל מֵהֶןמט,15 וּלְהוֹלִיכָן אֲפִלּוּ לְחָצֵר אַחֶרֶתנ וּלְהַסִּיקָן שָׁם.

7 Where does [the license to gather wood when one desires to cook nearby] apply? In a courtyard. In a field, by contrast, it is forbidden to gather wood. [This prohibition applies] even if one wants to cook a pot [of food] in the field and gather wood near the place he will be cooking his food.

[The reason for the prohibition is that] wood usually grows in a field, and one who gathers wood there appears to be collecting produce in the place where it grows. (See sec. 340[:15, which explains that this is one of the labors forbidden on Shabbos].)20

It was already explained in sec. 495[:9] that collecting produce is one of the melachos that was not permitted for the sake of preparing food.21 For this reason, it is even forbidden to take [wood] that was already gathered together in a field.15 [This is] a decree, [ordained as a safeguard] lest one take scattered [wood] and appear as one who is collecting produce.

ז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בֶּחָצֵר, אֲבָל בַּשָּׂדֶה אָסוּר לְלַקֵּט עֵצִים, אֲפִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לְבַשֵּׁל קְדֵרָתוֹ בַּשָּׂדֶה וּלְלַקֵּט עֵצִים סָמוּךְ לִמְקוֹם בִּשּׁוּל קְדֵרָתוֹ,נא לְפִי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ עֵצִים לִהְיוֹת גְּדֵלִים בַּשָּׂדֶה, וְהַמְלַקֵּט שָׁם עֵצִים נִרְאֶה כִּמְעַמֵּר דָּבָר בִּמְקוֹם גִּדּוּלוֹנב (עַיֵּן סִמָּן ש"מנג,20).

וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תצ"הנד שֶׁהָעִמּוּר הוּא מִמְּלָאכוֹת שֶׁלֹּא הֻתְּרוּ לְצֹרֶךְ "אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ",21 וּלְפִיכָךְ אֲפִלּוּ מִן הַמְכֻנָּסִים שֶׁבַּשָּׂדֶה אָסוּר לִקַּח,נה,15 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִקַּח מִן הַמְפֻזָּרִין, וְנִרְאֶה כִּמְעַמֵּר.נו

8 [The following rules apply to wood stored in] a karpeif,22 a place that is enclosed by barriers even though it is not enclosed for the purpose of habitation.23 If it can be locked or it is located within 70 cubits and four handbreadths of a city,24 it is considered like a courtyard since it is a protected place.25 [On a festival,] it is permitted to bring wood that was stored inside [a karpeif] in an organized manner.

If, however, [the karpeif] cannot be locked and is not located within 70 cubits and four handbreadths of the city, it is not [deemed] a protected place and thus, it is as if it was not surrounded by enclosures at all. One may not bring wood from it [on a festival], even if [the wood] is stored [in an organized manner] inside it.

ח קַרְפֵּף,נז,22 שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם הַמֻּקָּף מְחִצּוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקָּף לְדִירָה,נח,23 אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מִסְגֶּרֶת, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְנט שִׁבְעִים אַמָּה וְד' טְפָחִיםס לָעִיר,24 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר סא – הֲרֵי הוּא כֶּחָצֵר,25 וּמֻתָּר לְהָבִיא מִן הָעֵצִים הַמְכֻנָּסִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ.

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ מִסְגֶּרֶת וְאֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְ שִׁבְעִים אַמָּה וְד' טְפָחִים לָעִיר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקָּף מְחִצּוֹת כְּלָל, וְאֵין מְבִיאִין מִמֶּנּוּ עֵצִים אֲפִלּוּ מִן הַמְכֻנָּסִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ.

9 [More stringent laws apply to] the leaves of reeds and the leaves of vines that are gathered together and lying in a karpeif.26Even though [the karpeif] can be locked and is located within 70 cubits and four handbreadths of a city, [the leaves] are considered as scattered and it is forbidden to take them on a festival. [The rationale is that] there is concern that the wind will scatter [the leaves] when [the person] comes to take them and [then] he will gather them. If, however, he placed a heavy utensil on [the leaves] on the day before the festival so that the wind will not scatter them, he is permitted to take them on a festival.23

ט עֲלֵי קָנִים וַעֲלֵי גְפָנִים שֶׁהֵן מְכֻנָּסִים וּמֻנָּחִים בַּקַּרְפֵּף, סב, 26 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מִסְגֶּרֶת וְעוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְ שִׁבְעִים אַמָּה וְד' טְפָחִים לָעִיר – הֲרֵי הֵן כִּמְפֻזָּרִים וְאָסוּר לִקַּח מֵהֶן בְּיוֹם טוֹב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יְפַזְּרֵם הָרוּחַ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיָּבֹא לִקַּח אוֹתָם וְיָבֹא לְלַקְּטָם. סג

וְאִם הִנִּיחַ עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלִי כָבֵד מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא יְפַזְּרֵם הָרוּחַ – מֻתָּר לִקַּח מֵהֶן בְּיוֹם טוֹב. סד, 23

10 Even the authorities who permit using objects that are nolad on a festival27 [agree] that one may not use wood that fell from a tree on a festival as firewood on the festival. [The rationale is that this wood] is included in the decree applying to fruit that fell on its own [from a tree] on Shabbos or a festival. As explained in sec. 325[:8], the Sages forbade eating or moving such fruit on that day as a decree [and a safeguard] lest one climb [a tree] and pick [its fruit].28 [The laws that apply if wood] fell directly into an oven will be explained in sec. 507[:3-4] with G‑d’s help.

י עֵצִים שֶׁנָּשְׁרוּ מִן הָאִילָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב – אֵין מַסִּיקִין בָּהֶן בְּיוֹם טוֹב סה אֲפִלּוּ לְהַמַּתִּירִין נוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹב,27 לְפִי שֶׁהֵן בִּכְלַל גְּזֵרַת פֵּרוֹת הַנּוֹשְׁרִין מֵאֲלֵיהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁאֲסָרוּם חֲכָמִים בּוֹ בַיּוֹם בַּאֲכִילָה וּבְטִלְטוּל, סו מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְלוֹשׁ, סז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"[ה]. סח, 28

וְאִם נָפְלוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ז סט בְּעֶזְרַת ה'.

11 It was already explained29 that one should be stringent [and not use objects that are] nolad on a festival. Accordingly, utensils that broke on a festival and can no longer be used for the purpose for which they were originally intended are [categorized as] nolad,30as explained in sec. 495[:13. For this reason, their pieces] may not be used as kindling and are forbidden to be moved.31

[Moreover,] it is forbidden even to burn [the pieces of the broken utensils] in the place where they are located even though one does not move them.32 [The rationale is that] it is forbidden to use muktzeh or benefit from it,33 as will be explained in sec. 509[:16].

יא כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר ע, 29 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בְּנוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹב, לְפִיכָךְ כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב עא וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתָּן הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תצ"ה עג – אֵין מַסִּיקִין בָּהֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נוֹלָד, עד, 30 וַאֲסוּרִין בְּטִלְטוּל.31 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְשָׂרְפָן בִּמְקוֹמָן אָסוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַלְטְלָן,32 לְפִי שֶׁהַמֻּקְצֶה אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ וְלֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ, עה, 33 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ט. עו

12 A similar [law applies] when a non-Jew hews out a receptacle in a log on a festival, fashioning [the log] into a utensil. It may not be used as firewood because its status is nolad.34

יב וְכֵן נָכְרִי שֶׁחָקַק בֵּית קִבּוּל בִּבְקַעַת בְּיוֹם טוֹב – הֲרֵי עֲשָׂאָה כְּלִי, וְאֵין מַסִּיקִין בָּהּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נוֹלָד. עז, 34

13 One may, however, use whole utensils that were fashioned on the day before the festival as firewood.35 True, he will be deriving benefit from the utensil after a portion of it will have been consumed by flames and thus, it will have become a broken utensil. Nevertheless, this is not of consequence36 since [the person] derives this benefit as a matter of course, without performing any action with the articles that are muktzeh themselves. See sec. 509[:16].37

It is, however, forbidden to stir the fire after a portion [of these utensils] have been consumed by the fire, for then they will have become broken utensils.

What should [the person] do? He should add other wood that was prepared [as firewood] and kindle it.35 In such an instance, [the person] may stir the fire even after a portion of the utensils have been consumed by the fire. [The rationale is that the utensils] are considered batel (insignificant) within the majority of [the other kindling, i.e.,] the wood which was prepared [as firewood], as will be explained in sec. 507[:3] with G‑d’s help.

יג אֲבָל מַסִּיקִין בְּכֵלִים שְׁלֵמִים עח שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב,35 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נֶהֱנֶה מִן הַכְּלִי לְאַחַר שֶׁהֻדְלַק מִקְצָתוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה שֶׁבֶר כְּלִי – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם36 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַהֲנָאָה בָּאָה לוֹ מֵאֵלֶיהָ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה שׁוּם מַעֲשֶׂה בְּגוּף הַמֻּקְצֶה, עט עַיֵּן סוֹף סִמָּן תק"ט. פ, 37

אֲבָל אָסוּר לַהֲפוֹךְ בָּאֵשׁ לְאַחַר שֶׁהֻדְלַק מִקְצָתוֹ, דְּאָז נַעֲשָׂה שֶׁבֶר כְּלִי, וְכֵיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה? מַרְבֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם עֵצִים מוּכָנִים וּמַסִּיקָן, פא, 35 דְּאָז יָכוֹל לַהֲפוֹךְ בָּאֵשׁ אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁהֻדְלְקוּ מִקְצָת מִן הַכֵּלִים, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן בְּטֵלִים בְּרֹב עֵצִים הַמּוּכָנִים, פב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ז פג בְּעֶזְרַת ה'.

14 When does the above apply? When [the person] does not have enough wood prepared for all of his needs. If, however, he has [enough wood available] for all of his needs, he is forbidden to use whole utensils for kindling even during the week, because he violates [the prohibition] against destroying [objects of value].38

יד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ עֵצִים פד מוּכָנִים כְּדֵי כָּל צָרְכּוֹ, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ כְּדֵי כָּל צָרְכּוֹ – אָסוּר לְהַסִּיק בְּכֵלִים שְׁלֵמִים אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עוֹבֵר עַל "בַּל תַּשְׁחִית". פה, 38

15 When a utensil breaks on the day before the festival, and [thus, on the festival, the broken pieces] do not have the form of the utensil, it is permitted to use [the broken pieces as kindling] on the festival,39 for they are prepared to be used as firewood. If, by contrast, an object that has the form of a utensil [before the festival] broke on the festival, it is forbidden to use [its pieces] as firewood on the festival, because [the pieces] are [classified as] nolad.40

טו כְּלִי שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּר מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב פו וְאֵין עָלָיו תֹּאַר כְּלִי פז – מֻתָּר לְהַסִּיקוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב,39 שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא כְּבָר מוּכָן וְעוֹמֵד לְהַסָּקָה. פח

וְאִם יֵשׁ עָלָיו תֹּאַר כְּלִי וְנִשְׁבַּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב – אָסוּר לְהַסִּיקוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נוֹלָד. פט, 40

16 Utensils and foods may be moved for any purpose. It is not said that utensils were [permitted to be moved] only for the purpose associated with them and foods, only so that they could be eaten. Therefore, nuts and almonds may be used for kindling. However, if [the nuts and almonds] were eaten on a festival, their shells may not be used for kindling, even if they are fit to be eaten by animals.41 [The rationale is that] on the previous day, [the shells] were joined to the food and [considered] secondary to it. [Therefore,] they were considered as the food itself. At present, they are not considered as food at all.42 Thus, [their present state is an entirely new development that came about on the festival. Hence, they] are deemed nolad.43

טז הַכֵּלִים וְהָאֹכָלִין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן לְכָל דָּבָר, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים: לֹא נִתְּנוּ הַכֵּלִים אֶלָּא לְתַשְׁמִישָׁן וְהָאֹכָלִין אֶלָּא לַאֲכִילָה, וּלְפִיכָךְ מַסִּיקִין בֶּאֱגוֹזִים וּשְׁקֵדִים. צ

וְאִם אֲכָלָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב – אֵין מַסִּיקִין בִּקְלִפֵּיהֶן צא אֲפִלּוּ הֵן רְאוּיִים לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה, צב, 41 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶתְמוֹל הָיוּ מְחֻבָּרִים וּטְפֵלִים לְהָאֹכֶל וְנֶחְשָׁבִין כָּאֹכֶל עַצְמוֹ, וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין נֶחְשָׁבִין כְּאֹכֶל כְּלָל,42 וַהֲרֵי זֶה נוֹלָד. צג, 43

17 A piece of wood that is used to stir a fire is considered as a utensil since it is designated for that purpose.44 If [that piece of wood] breaks on a festival, it is forbidden to use it as firewood,45 as explained.46

יז עֵץ שֶׁמְּחַתִּין בּוֹ הָאֵשׁ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד לְכָךְ צד – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּלִי, צה, 44 וְאִם נִשְׁבַּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב – אָסוּר לְהַסִּיקוֹ, צו, 45 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר. צז, 46

18 When a festival falls [directly] after Shabbos, on the festival,it is forbidden to kindle the remnants of the torches and wicks that were kindled and burnt out on Shabbos47 unless they already were kindled and burnt out once before Shabbos. [The rationale for this stringency is that] once [these objects] have been kindled and then extinguished, they are easier to kindle [a second time] because the fire will catch on to them more effectively.48 Thus, [the fact that the torches and wicks] burnt out on Shabbos makes them fit and prepares them to be kindled on the festival. [There is a general rule that] Shabbos may not prepare for a festival, as will be explained in sec. 513[:1, 9]; consult those sources. Therefore, it is forbidden to kindle these [remnants of wicks and torches] on the festival, even on the other side, [i.e., the side] that was yet to be kindled. [This is] a decree, [instituted as a safeguard] lest one kindle the side that had already been kindled and burnt out on Shabbos.

Since it is forbidden to kindle [the remnants of these objects] on the festival, [the laws pertaining to them are as follows:] The remnants of these wicks are governed by the laws applying to a utensil designated for a forbidden labor, i.e., they may be moved only for the sake of a permitted purpose49 or because their place is required,50 as stated in sec. 308[:12].51 By contrast, since the remnants of a torch are not fit to be kindled on the festival, they are forbidden to be moved [at all], not even for the sake of a permitted purpose or because their place is required. [The rationale is that] they are not considered as utensils at all.52

When do the above [restrictions against wicks] apply? On the first day of a festival. However, when the second day of a festival [observed] in the Diaspora falls on Saturday night, it is permitted to kindle the side [of wicks] that was not kindled previously. [The rationale is that] since [the observance of] the second day of a festival is merely a Rabbinic ordinance, a decree [to safeguard] against kindling the side that had already been kindled was not instituted. Since [the wicks] are fit to be kindled, they may also be moved, as is the law governing a utensil designated to be used for a permitted purpose,53 as explained in sec. 308[:16].54

When, however, the second day of a festival falls on Monday or a later [day of the week],55 it is permitted to kindle the remnants of the wicks and torches even on the side that was kindled on the first day of the festival. It is even permitted to kindle [these remnants] on the second day of Rosh HaShanah.56 [The logic is as follows:] If the second day [of Rosh HaShanah] is [essentially] a weekday,57 it is permitted to kindle [the used wick] as it would be on a weekday. And if [that day] is holy and the first day was the weekday, it is certainly permitted [to kindle the used wick], for a weekday may prepare for a festival.58 And if [one would postulate that] the two days are both holy, [then] they are considered as one continuum of holiness, since they are considered as one long day.59 [Accordingly,] the concept of one day of a festival preparing for the other does not apply in this instance for [the two days] are like one long day.

There are authorities who maintain that even when the first day of a festival falls [directly] after Shabbos, it is permitted to kindle the remnants of the torches and wicks that were kindled and burnt out on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] the extinguishing [of the torches and wicks] is not considered as preparation in a full sense60 since the actual substance of the wick already existed. It is only that it is easier to [re]kindle [the wick] because it was extinguished. This factor is not sufficient to cause the substance of the wick and the torches to be forbidden.

With regard to the halachah, weight should be given to the first opinion, and new wicks should be made. However, if the old wick is lying at the opening of the lamp, it is permitted to remove it so that another one can be put in its place. [The rationale is that] since the prohibition against moving [the wick] is only Rabbinic in origin, [in this context,] one may rely on the second opinion.61

יח יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת אַחַר שַׁבָּת – אָסוּר לְהַדְלִיק בְּיוֹם טוֹב שִׁיּוּרֵי הַלַּפִּידִים וְהַפְּתִילוֹת שֶׁנִּדְלְקוּ וְכָבוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, צח, 47 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִדְלְקוּ וְכָבוּ פַּעַם אַחַת קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת, צט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם יוֹתֵר נוֹחִים לְהַדְלִיק כְּשֶׁנִּדְלְקוּ כְּבָר פַּעַם אַחַת וְכָבוּ, שֶׁהָאוּר נֶאֱחָז בָּהֶן הֵיטֵב, ק, 48 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהַכְּבִיָּה שֶׁנִּכְבּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת הִיא מַכְשֶׁרֶת וּמְכִינָה אוֹתָם לְהַדְלָקָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב, קא וְאֵין שַׁבָּת מְכִינָה לְיוֹם טוֹב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקי"ג קב עַיֵּן שָׁם.

לְפִיכָךְ, אָסוּר לְהַדְלִיקָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֲפִלּוּ בַּצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁלֹּא נִדְלַק עֲדַיִן, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַדְלֵק בְּאוֹתוֹ צַד שֶׁנִּדְלַק כְּבָר וְנִכְבָּה בְּשַׁבָּת. קג וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַדְלִיקָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב – יֵשׁ עַל שִׁיּוּרֵי הַפְּתִילָה דִּין כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר, שֶׁאֵין לְטַלְטְלוֹ כִּי אִם לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ49 אוֹ מְקוֹמוֹ קד, 50 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח. קה, 51 אֲבָל שִׁיּוּרֵי הַלַּפִּידִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין רְאוּיִים לְהַסָּקָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָן וּמְקוֹמָן, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי כְּלָל. קו, 52

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן, אֲבָל יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לְהַדְלִיקָן בַּצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁלֹּא נִדְלַק עֲדַיִן, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁיּוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – לֹא גָזְרוּ שֶׁמָּא יַדְלִיק בַּצַּד שֶׁנִּדְלַק כְּבָר. קז וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִים לְהַדְלָקָה – מֻתָּר גַּם כֵּן לְטַלְטְלָן קח כְּדִין כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר53 שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח. קט, 54

אֲבָל יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁחָל בְּשֵׁנִי בְּשַׁבָּת וּמִמֶּנּוּ וְאֵילַךְ55 – מֻתָּר לְהַדְלִיק בּוֹ שִׁיּוּרֵי פְּתִילוֹת וְלַפִּידִים אֲפִלּוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ צַד שֶׁנִּדְלְקוּ בוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן. קי

וַאֲפִלּוּ (ב) בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה מֻתָּר לְהַדְלִיק, קיא, 56 מִמָּה נַפְשָׁךְ: אִם יוֹם שֵׁנִי חֹל57 – מֻתָּר לְהַדְלִיק בּוֹ כְּמוֹ בְּחֹל, וְאִם הוּא קֹדֶשׁ וְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן חֹל – כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁמֻּתָּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי חֹל מֵכִין לְיוֹם טוֹב,58 וְאִם שְׁנֵיהֶם קְדוֹשִׁים – אִם כֵּן הֲרֵי הֵן קְדֻשָּׁה אַחַת, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּיוֹם אֶחָד אָרֹךְ הֵן חֲשׁוּבִים, קיב, 59 וְאֵין שַׁיָּךְ כַּאן אִסּוּר הֲכָנָה מִיּוֹם טוֹב לַחֲבֵרוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵן יוֹם אֶחָד. קיג

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים קיד דַּאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת מֻתָּר לְהַדְלִיק שִׁיּוּרֵי הַלַּפִּידִים וְהַפְּתִילוֹת שֶׁנִּדְלְקוּ וְכָבוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין כְּבִיָּה זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה הֲכָנָה גְמוּרָה,60 כֵּיוָן שֶׁגּוּף הַפְּתִילָה כְּבָר הָיָה בָּעוֹלָם, קטו אֶלָּא שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כְּבִיָּה זוֹ הִיא נוֹחָה יוֹתֵר לְהַדְלִיק, וְאֵין בְּזֶה כְּדַאי לֶאֱסוֹר אֶת גּוּף הַפְּתִילָה וְהַלַּפִּידִים.

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לִסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה קטז וְלַעֲשׂוֹת פְּתִילוֹת חֲדָשׁוֹת. קיז וְאִם הַיְשָׁנָה מֻנַּחַת עַל פִּי הַנֵּר – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָהּ מִשָּׁם קיח כְּדֵי לְהַנִּיחַ אַחֶרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ, דְּכֵיוָן דְּאִסּוּר טִלְטוּל אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה. קיט, 61