North of Jerusalem, and outside of three camps. Rabbi Yosei says: They are burned in the place of the ashes. לִצְפוֹנָהּ שֶׁל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, וְחוּץ לְשָׁלֹשׁ מַחֲנוֹת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: אַבֵּית הַדֶּשֶׁן נִשְׂרָפִין.
Rava said: Who is the tanna who disagrees with Rabbi Yosei on this issue? It is Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “Where the ashes are poured out [shefekh hadeshen] shall it be burned” (Leviticus 4:12), which means that there shall already be ash there in that place, so that it is known as the ash heap even before this animal is burned there. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: This verse indicates that its place should be slanted [meshupakh] so that ash that is deposited there will roll downhill. Rava understood that whereas Rabbi Yosei requires that there already be ash present when the bull is burned, Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov does not. אָמַר רָבָא: מַאן תְּנָא דִּפְלִיג עֲלֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי — רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב הוּא. דְּתַנְיָא: ״אֶל שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵף״, שֶׁיְּהֵא לְשֵׁם דֶּשֶׁן, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר: שֶׁיְּהֵא מְקוֹמוֹ מְשׁוּפָּךְ.
Abaye said to him: There is no proof from here, as perhaps they disagree only about whether the place must be slanted. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov may agree there should be ash there to begin with, but he adds that the place must also be slanted. Therefore, there is no proof to support Rava’s statement. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: וְדִילְמָא בִּמְקוֹמוֹ מְשׁוּפָּךְ הוּא דִּפְלִיגִי.
The Sages taught: It states: “And he who burns them shall wash his garments” (Leviticus 16:28), to indicate that only the garments of the one who burns the bull and goat of Yom Kippur are rendered impure, but not the garments of the one who kindles the fire, and not the garments of the one who arranges the pile of wood. And who is the one who burns? It is the one who assists at the actual time of burning. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: ״וְהַשּׂוֹרֵף״ — הַשּׂוֹרֵף מְטַמֵּא בְּגָדִים וְלֹא הַמַּצִּית אֶת הָאוּר וְלֹא הַמְסַדֵּר אֶת הַמַּעֲרָכָה. וְאֵי זֶהוּ הַשּׂוֹרֵף? זֶה הַמְסַיֵּיעַ בִּשְׁעַת שְׂרֵיפָה.
One might have thought that garments would be rendered impure even after the bull and goat have become ash. Therefore, the verse states: Them, to indicate that they themselves, the bull and goat of Yom Kippur, render garments impure, but they do not render garments impure once they become ash. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: The bull causes ritual impurity before it is burned, but once the flesh is burned it no longer renders garments impure. יָכוֹל אַף מִשֶּׁנַּעֲשׂוּ אֵפֶר מְטַמְּאִין בְּגָדִים — תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״אוֹתָם״, אוֹתָם מְטַמְּאִין בְּגָדִים, וְלֹא מִשֶּׁנַּעֲשׂוּ אֵפֶר מְטַמְּאִין בְּגָדִים. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר: הַפָּר מְטַמֵּא, נִיתַּךְ הַבָּשָׂר אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא בְּגָדִים.

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The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between the opinion of the first tanna and the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between them when he turned it into a charred mass and the form of the animal has already become distorted but has not actually become ash. According to Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, it no longer causes impurity. מַאי בֵּינַיְיהוּ? אִיכָּא בֵּינַיְיהוּ דְּשַׁוְּיֵהּ חֲרוֹכָא.
MISHNA: They said to the High Priest: The goat has reached the wilderness. And how did they know in the Temple that the goat reached the wilderness? They would build platforms [dirkaot] all along the way and people would stand on them and wave scarves [sudarin] to signal when the goat arrived. And therefore they knew that the goat reached the wilderness. מַתְנִי׳ אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל: הִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר. וּמִנַּיִין הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר? דִּירְכָּאוֹת הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין וּמְנִיפִין בְּסוּדָרִין. וְיוֹדְעִין שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר.
Rabbi Yehuda said: Why did they need these platforms? Didn’t they already have a reliable indicator? From Jerusalem to Beit Ḥiddudo, the edge of the wilderness, where the mitzva of dispatching the goat was performed, was a distance of three mil. Since the nobles of Jerusalem walked a mil to escort the dispatcher and returned a mil, and waited the time equivalent to the time it takes to walk a mil, they knew that the goat reached the wilderness. There was no need for the platforms. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, וַהֲלֹא סִימָן גָּדוֹל הָיָה לָהֶם: מִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְעַד בֵּית חֲדוֹדוֹ, שְׁלֹשָׁה מִילִין, הוֹלְכִין מִיל וְחוֹזְרִין מִיל, וְשׁוֹהִין כְּדֵי מִיל וְיוֹדְעִין שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר.
Rabbi Yishmael says: Didn’t they have a different indicator? There was a strip of crimson tied to the entrance to the Sanctuary, and when the goat reached the wilderness and the mitzva was fulfilled the strip would turn white, as it is stated: “Though your sins be as scarlet, they will become white as snow” (Isaiah 1:18). רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר: וַהֲלֹא סִימָן אַחֵר הָיָה לָהֶם: לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית הָיָה קָשׁוּר עַל פִּתְחוֹ שֶׁל הֵיכָל, וּכְשֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר הָיָה הַלָּשׁוֹן מַלְבִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״אִם יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ״.
GEMARA: Abaye said: Learn from this that Beit Ḥiddudo is located in the wilderness, and this comes to teach us that Rabbi Yehuda holds that once the goat has reached the wilderness, its mitzva is complete even before it is pushed off the cliff, and there is no need to wait any longer. גְּמָ׳ אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ בֵּית חֲדוֹדוֹ בַּמִּדְבָּר קָיְימָא, וְהָא קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן דְּקָסָבַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר — נַעֲשֵׂית מִצְוָתוֹ.


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