I might have thought nobody should be present, even in the Temple courtyard. Therefore, the verse states “in the Tent of Meeting,” limiting the prohibition to the Temple itself. I have derived only that a prohibition exists in the Tent of Meeting of the Tabernacle that was in the desert, from where do I derive that the prohibition applies also to the Tabernacle that stood in Shiloh, and that it applies also to the Eternal House, i.e., the Temple in Jerusalem? The verse states “in the Sanctuary,” indicating that the prohibition applies to any Sanctuary. יָכוֹל אֲפִילּוּ בַּעֲזָרָה — תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד״. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד שֶׁבַּמִּדְבָּר, שִׁילֹה וּבֵית עוֹלָמִים מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״בַּקּוֹדֶשׁ״.
I have derived only that a prohibition exists during the burning of the incense; from where do I derive that the prohibition applies also during the presentations of the bull’s blood in the Holy of Holies? The verse states: “When he goes in to make atonement,” and atonement is achieved through the presentations of blood. I have derived only that a prohibition exists from the time of his entrance into the Holy of Holies; from where is it derived that the prohibition remains in force until his exit? The verse states: “Until he comes out.” אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה, בִּשְׁעַת מַתַּן דָּמִים מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״בְּבוֹאוֹ לְכַפֵּר״. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ, בִּיצִיאָתוֹ מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״עַד צֵאתוֹ״.
The baraita concludes by expounding the final part of the verse: “And have made atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the assembly of Israel (Leviticus 16:17). This teaches that his atonement precedes the atonement of his household; the atonement of his household precedes that atonement of his brethren, the priests; the atonement of his brethren, the priests, precedes the atonement of the entire community of Israel. ״וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כׇּל קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל״, כַּפָּרָתוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת לְכַפָּרַת בֵּיתוֹ, כַּפָּרַת בֵּיתוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת לְכַפָּרַת אֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים, וְכַפָּרַת אֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים קוֹדֶמֶת לְכַפָּרַת כׇּל קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל.
The Gemara analyzes the baraita: The Master said in the baraita: I have derived only that a prohibition exists during the burning of the incense. From where in the verse could this have been inferred? Rava said, and similarly Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said, and similarly Rabbi Elazar said: The conclusion of that verse states: “And have made atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the assembly of Israel.” Which act of atonement is the same for him, and for his household, and for his brethren, the priests, and for the entire community of Israel? You must say this is the burning of the incense. אָמַר מָר: אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה. מַאי מַשְׁמַע? אָמַר רָבָא, וְכֵן אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר אַבְדִּימִי, וְכֵן אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָמַר קְרָא: ״וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כׇּל קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל״, אֵיזֶהוּ כַּפָּרָה שֶׁשָּׁוָה לוֹ וּלְבֵיתוֹ וּלְאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְכׇל קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל — הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר זֶה הַקְטָרַת הַקְּטוֹרֶת.
Does incense effect atonement? The Torah mentions the concept of atonement only with regard to offerings. Yes, as Rabbi Ḥananya teaches in a baraita: We learned of the incense that it effects atonement, as it is stated: “And he put on the incense and made atonement for the people” (Numbers 17:12). And the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: For what does incense effect atonement? For slander. And why is that? Let something that is done in secret, i.e., the incense, which is burned in seclusion within the Sanctuary, come and effect atonement for an act done in secret, i.e., slander, which is generally said in private. וּקְטוֹרֶת מְכַפֶּרֶת? אִין, דְּהָא תָּנֵי רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא: לָמַדְנוּ לִקְטוֹרֶת שֶׁמְּכַפֶּרֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וַיִּתֵּן אֶת הַקְּטוֹרֶת וַיְכַפֵּר עַל הָעָם״, וְתָנָא דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל: עַל מָה קְטוֹרֶת מְכַפֶּרֶת — עַל לָשׁוֹן הָרָע. יָבֹא דָּבָר שֶׁבַּחֲשַׁאי, וִיכַפֵּר עַל מַעֲשֵׂה חֲשַׁאי.

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We learned in a mishna there: They remove themselves from the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar during the burning of the incense. Rabbi Elazar said: They taught that this is true only during the burning of the incense of the Sanctuary, but during the burning of the incense in the innermost chamber, i.e., the Holy of Holies, people are required to remove themselves only from the Sanctuary. They do not need to remove themselves from the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar. תְּנַן הָתָם: פּוֹרְשִׁין מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה דְּהֵיכָל, אֲבָל בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה דְּלִפְנַי לִפְנִים — מֵהֵיכָל פָּרְשִׁי, מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ לָא פָּרְשִׁי.
Rav Adda bar Ahava raised an objection to Rabbi Elazar’s opinion from a baraita, and some say it unattributed: Rabbi Yosei says: Just as they remove themselves from the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar during the burning of the incense, they similarly remove themselves during the blood presentations of the bull of the anointed priest, i.e., of the High Priest, which he brings if he issues an erroneous halakhic ruling and acts upon it; and also during the blood presentations of the bull for an unwitting communal sin brought if the Sanhedrin issues an erroneous halakhic ruling and the community acts upon it; and also during the blood presentations of the goats of idol worship brought for an inadvertent communal transgression of idol worship. מֵתִיב רַב אַדָּא בַּר אַהֲבָה, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ כְּדִי, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: כְּשֵׁם שֶׁפּוֹרְשִׁין מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה, כָּךְ פּוֹרְשִׁין בִּשְׁעַת מַתַּן פַּר כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ וּפַר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִיבּוּר וּשְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה.
The baraita continues: If so, what higher standard is applicable to the Sanctuary relative to the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar? Only that those in the Sanctuary remove themselves both during the incense burning and also during the blood presentations, which is not during the incense burning. Those who are in the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar remove themselves only during the incense burning but not during the blood presentations. הָא מָה מַעֲלָה יֵשׁ בֵּין הַהֵיכָל לְבֵין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ? אֶלָּא, שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל פּוֹרְשִׁין בֵּין בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה וּבֵין שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה, וּמִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֵין פּוֹרְשִׁין אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה.
The Gemara explains the challenge: In any case, it is evident from the baraita that during the incense burning they do remove themselves. What, is it not referring to during the burning of the incense of the innermost chamber, i.e., the Holy of Holies? This would contradict Rabbi Elazar’s opinion. בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה מִיהָא פָּרְשִׁי. מַאי לָאו, בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה דְּלִפְנַי לִפְנִים?
The Gemara defends his opinion: No, it is referring to during the burning of the incense of the Sanctuary. The Gemara asks: If so, how can the baraita say: What higher standard is applicable to the Sanctuary? This implies that it is superior only with respect to one higher standard. Are there not more? Surely, there is this higher standard, that whereas the people in the Sanctuary remove themselves both during its own, i.e., the Sanctuary’s, incense burning and during the incense burning of the innermost chamber, i.e., the Holy of Holies, but in the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar they remove themselves only during the burning of the incense of the Sanctuary. לָא, בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה דְּהֵיכָל. אִי הָכִי, הָא ״מָה מַעֲלָה״ וְתוּ לָא, הָא אִיכָּא הָא מַעֲלָה: דְּאִילּוּ מֵהֵיכָל פָּרְשִׁי בֵּין בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה דִידֵיהּ, בֵּין בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה דְּלִפְנַי לִפְנִים, וְאִילּוּ מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ לָא פָּרְשִׁי אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה דְהֵיכָל!
The Gemara explains: This is in fact what the baraita is teaching: It is teaching only that those in the Sanctuary remove themselves both during the burning of the incense and also during the blood presentations, which is not during the burning of the incense; from the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar they do not remove themselves, הָא קָתָנֵי: אֶלָּא שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל פּוֹרְשִׁין בֵּין בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה וּבֵין שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה, וּמִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֵין פּוֹרְשִׁין