SECTION 489 The Order of the Prayers on the Second Night of Pesach; the Counting of the Omer (1-30)

סימן תפט סֵדֶר תְּפִלַּת לֵיל שֵׁנִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח וּסְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר וּבוֹ ל' סְעִיפִים:

1 It is a positive Scriptural commandment for every Jew to count the days of seven weeks1 from the day the omer offering was brought, as it is written:2 “And you shall count for yourselves from the day following the Shabbos, from the day that the omer that was waved was brought.3 They shall be seven complete weeks.” And it is written:4 “You shall count for yourself seven weeks.”

[Based on these verses,] our Sages debated5 [the nature of the obligation stemming from the commandment], “You shall count.” Is [the intent that the counting be done] by the court, as is true regarding the Jubilee Year, [concerning which] it is the court that counts seven sets of Sabbatical years and sanctifies the fiftieth year as the Jubilee?6 [In resolution,] the Torah states, “And you shall count for yourselves,” i.e., that every individual should count.7 Neither the congregation, nor the sheliach tzibbur can count for all [the people]. Even if one [person] directs another to count for him, and appoints [the other person] as his agent to do this, [the person who gave the directive] does not fulfill his obligation unless he listens to [that person] count.

If, however, [a person] listened to [that other person] count and [a) the listener] had the intent of fulfilling his obligation by hearing [this counting] and [b) the other person who was counting] had the intent that [the listener] fulfill his obligation, [the listener] fulfills his obligation according to Scriptural Law.8 [The rationale is that] one who listens is equivalent to one who speaks,9 provided he listens to [the desired content] from one who is obligated in this mitzvah.10

There are authorities who differ with this [ruling] and maintain that the counting must actually be performed by each person individually, [i.e.,] each person must count [the days] for himself.11 As an initial preference, it is desirable [for a person] to give weight to their words and not to rely on listening to the counting of [the omer by] the sheliach tzibbur.

However, [even according to this opinion, a person,] even one who knows how to recite the blessings himself, may listen to – [and fulfill his obligation through] – the blessing recited by the sheliach tzibbur.12 [The rationale is that when] ten people are performing a mitzvah at one time, one of them may recite the blessing on behalf of all of them, as explained in sec. 8[:11].

After hearing the blessing, one should immediately count [the omer].13

א מִצְוַתא עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָהב שֶׁיִּסְפֹּר כָּל אֶחָד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵלג שִׁבְעָה שָׁבוּעוֹת יָמִיםד,1 מִיּוֹם הֲבָאַת קָרְבַּן הָעֹמֶר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרה,2 "וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת מִיּוֹם הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת עֹמֶר הַתְּנוּפָה3 שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימֹת תִּהְיֶינָה", וְאוֹמֵרו,4 "שִׁבְעָה שָׁבֻעֹת תִּסְפָּר לָךְ וְגוֹ'", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:ז,5 "תִּסְפָּר לָךְ", יָכוֹל בְּבֵית דִּין, כְּמוֹ בְּיוֹבֵל שֶׁסּוֹפְרִין בְּבֵית דִּיןח שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתוֹת שָׁנִים וּמְקַדְּשִׁין שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים לַיּוֹבֵל?ט,6 תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: "וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם", כְּדֵי לְסָפְרָהּ לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד.י,7 וְאֵין הַצִּבּוּר אוֹ שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר יְכוֹלִים לִסְפֹּר בְּעַד כֻּלָּם.יא אַף אִם אֶחָד מְצַוֶּה לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁיִּסְפֹּר בִּשְׁבִילוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ שָׁלִיחַ לְכָךְ – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ כְּשֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע הַסְּפִירָה מִפִּי חֲבֵרוֹ.יב

אֲבָל אִם הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ שָׁמַע הַסְּפִירָה מִפִּי חֲבֵרוֹ,יג אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּשְׁמִיעָה זוֹ, וְגַם חֲבֵרוֹ הַמַּשְׁמִיעַ נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהוֹצִיאוֹיד – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה,8 שֶׁהַשּׁוֹמֵעַ הוּא כְּאוֹמֵר.טו,9 וְהוּא שֶׁשָּׁמַע מִפִּי הַמְּחֻיָּב בְּמִצְוָה זוֹ.טז,10

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִיםיז שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שֶׁתְּהֵא סְפִירָה לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד יִסְפֹּר בְּעַצְמוֹ.11 וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמֹךְ עַל שְׁמִיעַת הַסְּפִירָה מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר.יח

אֲבָל הַבְּרָכָה יָכוֹל לִשְׁמֹעַ מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה אַף אִם הוּא יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ,יט,12 שֶׁעֲשָׂרָה שֶׁעוֹשִׂין מִצְוָה בְּבַת אַחַת – יָכוֹל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לְבָרֵךְ בִּשְׁבִיל כֻּלָּם,כ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ח'.כא וְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁמַע הַבְּרָכָה יִסְפֹּרכב מִיָּד:כג,13

2 Women14 and bondmen15 are exempt from this mitzvah, because it is a positive commandment whose observance is dependent on [a specific] time.16 In certain regions, women have accepted this mitzvah upon themselves as an obligation.17 There is no concern that [women will be violating] a prohibition by reciting a blessing [over the fulfillment of this mitzvah] even though they are exempt from it. See sec. 17[:3, where this concept is explained].18

This mitzvah must be observed both in Eretz [Yisrael] and in the Diaspora, [both] when the Beis [HaMikdash] is standing and when it is not standing. There are authorities19 who maintain that in the present era when the Beis HaMikdash is not standing, and the omer is not being offered, this mitzvah is not applicable according to Scriptural Law. Instead, it is a Rabbinic ordinance, instituted as a remembrance of the [Beis] HaMikdash.19 Fundamentally, the halachah follows this view.20 Nevertheless, every practice ordained by the Sages was ordained in a manner comparable to Scriptural Law.21 [Thus,] there is no difference between [the observance of this mitzvah in the present age and its observance in the era of the Beis HaMikdash], except with regard to those points that will be explained.22

ב נָשִׁים14 וַעֲבָדִים15 פְּטוּרִים מִמִּצְוָה זוֹ,כד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא.כה,16 וּבְמִקְצָת מְדִינוֹת שָׂמוּ הַנָּשִׁים מִצְוָה זוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם חוֹבָה.כו,17 וְאֵין חֲשַׁשׁ אִסּוּר בְּמַה שֶּׁהֵן מְבָרְכוֹת עָלֶיהָ אַף שֶׁהֵם פְּטוּרוֹת מִמֶּנָּה, עַיֵּן סִימָן י"[ז].כז,18

וּמִצְוָה זוֹ נוֹהֶגֶת בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת.כח

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכט,19 שֶׁבַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁאֵין בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּם וְאֵין מַקְרִיבִין הָעֹמֶרל – אֵין מִצְוָה זוֹ נוֹהֶגֶת כְּלָל מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה, אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ "זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ".לא,20 וְכֵן עִקָּר.לב,20 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כָּל מַה שֶּׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים תִּקְּנוּ כְּעֵין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,לג,21 וְאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּינֵיהֶם אֶלָּא בַּדְּבָרִים שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:לד,22

3 The time for offering the omer is the sixteenth of Nissan, as [implied by] the verse [referring to the omer offering],23 “You shall wave it on the day following the Shabbos….” The Sages24 received the tradition that [the intent of the verse] is the day following the first festive day of Pesach.25

The counting [of the omer]26 begins from this day,27 and not from the following day, as [indicated by] the verse,28 “From [the day] the sickle is first put to the standing crop, you shall begin to count….” From this verse, it is derived that the counting [begins] at the time one begins harvesting [his field],29 i.e., the time [the barley] for the omer is harvested,30 and the harvest [of the barley for the omer] precedes its offering; it does not follow it.31

It is impossible to begin the counting [of the omer during the day] on the day when it was brought (for the omer may only be offered when it is actually day),32 as [implied by] the verse,33 “[seven weeks], they shall be complete.” And it is impossible for the weeks to be complete unless one began counting in the evening,34 i.e., one will begin counting the first day on the night of, [i.e., the eve of,] the sixteenth of Nissan before the morning light.

This same law applies to counting on all the other days. [One may] count only at night, for it is assumed that all the nights are the same [in this respect].

The entire night is fit for the counting of the omer.35If one forgot and did not count at the beginning of the night and remembered before dawn,36 he is obligated to count. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, the optimum way of fulfilling the mitzvah is to count at the beginning of the night, directly after the Evening Service.37

Before counting at night, one must recite a blessing, as one recites a blessing for [the observance of] all mitzvos, whether Scriptural or Rabbinic.38

However, if one forgot and did not count at night, but remembered during the day, he should count without a blessing. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that if the omer was not harvested at night, it should be harvested during the day.39 Therefore, [according to their opinion,] if one forgot or intentionally did not count at night, he is obligated to count during the day and recite a blessing. Other authorities differ [and maintain that the omer may only be harvested at night, but not during the day]. Therefore, one should count [during the day] without reciting a blessing, for when there is a doubt whether or not a blessing should be recited, leniency is advised.40

ג זְמַן הַקְרָבַת הָעֹמֶר הוּא בְּט"ז בְּנִיסָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרלה,23 "מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת יְנִיפֶנּוּ וְגוֹ'". וְקִבְּלוּ חֲכָמִיםלו,24 שֶׁזֶּה הוּא מִמָּחֳרַת יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח,25 וּמִיּוֹם זֶה עַצְמוֹ27 מַתְחִילִין לִסְפֹּר וְלֹא מִיּוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו,לז שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרלח,28 "מֵהָחֵל חֶרְמֵשׁ בַּקָּמָה תָּחֵל לִסְפֹּר וְגוֹ'", הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁזְּמַן הַסְּפִירָה הוּא בִּזְמַן רֵאשִׁית הַקְּצִירָה,29 דְּהַיְנוּ בִּזְמַן קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר,לט,30 וּקְצִירָתוֹ הוּא קֹדֶם הֲבָאָתוֹ וְלֹא אַחַר כָּךְ.מ,31

וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַתְחִיל הַסְּפִירָה בְּיוֹם הֲבָאָתוֹ מַמָּשׁ (וְאֵין הָעֹמֶר קָרֵב אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם מַמָּשׁמא,32), שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרמב,33 "תְּמִימֹת תִּהְיֶינָה", וְאֵין אַתָּה מוֹצֵא "תְּמִימֹת" אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמַּתְחִיל לִסְפֹּר בָּעֶרֶב,34 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמַּתְחִיל הוּא לִסְפֹּר יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּלֵיל ט"ז קֹדֶם אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר.מג וְהוּא הַדִּין סְפִירַת שְׁאָר הַיָּמִים שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בַּלַּיְלָה, שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם סְפִירַת כָּל הַיָּמִים הֵם שָׁוִין.

וְכָל הַלַּיְלָה35 כָּשֵׁר לִסְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר,26 שֶׁאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא סָפַר בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה וְנִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר36 – חַיָּב לִסְפֹּר.מד אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לִסְפֹּר בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה מִיָּד אַחַר תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית.מה,37

וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיִּסְפֹּר בַּלַּיְלָה צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ,מו כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת, בֵּין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בֵּין שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.38

אֲבָל אִם שָׁכַח לִסְפֹּר בַּלַּיְלָה וְנִזְכַּר בַּיּוֹם – יִסְפֹּר בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה,מז לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמח שֶׁאִם לֹא נִקְצַר הָעֹמֶר בַּלַּיְלָה קוֹצְרִין אוֹתוֹ בַּיּוֹם,39 וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם שָׁכַח אוֹ הֵזִידמט וְלֹא סָפַר בַּלַּיְלָה – חַיָּב לִסְפֹּר בַּיּוֹם וּלְבָרֵךְ,נ וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה,נא לְפִיכָךְ יִסְפֹּר בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, שֶׁסְּפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל:40

4 One who counts the omer must recite the blessing while standing,41 as it is written:42 “[the sickle is first put] bekamah, to the standing crop.” Our Sages43 extrapolated: “Do not read, bakamah,4‘to the standing crop,’ read bekomah, ‘while standing,’ ” [i.e.,] begin to count while standing. Nevertheless, if one counted while sitting, he fulfills his obligation, since this interpretation is merely an asmachta.44

ד הַסְּפִירָהנב צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְנג מְעֻמָּד,41 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרנד,42 "בַּקָּמָה", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:נה,43 אַל תִּקְרָא "בַּקָּמָה"4 אֶלָּא "בְּקוֹמָה" תָּחֵל לִסְפֹּר. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם מָנָה מְיֻשָּׁב – יָצָא,נו לְפִי שֶׁדְּרָשָׁה זוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַסְמַכְתָּא44 בְּעָלְמָא:נז

5 According to Scriptural Law, one must count the days and also the weeks,45 for it is written:46 “You shall count 50 days,” i.e., [count the days] until the fiftieth [day], and it is [also] written:42 “You shall count seven weeks.”

How should one count both? When [the person] reaches the seventh day, he should say: “Today is seven days, which is one week [of the omer].” When he reaches the fourteenth day, he should say: “Today is fourteen days, which is two weeks [of the omer].” He should [count in this manner] at the end of each of the [following] weeks. If [a person] does not conduct himself in this manner, he does not fulfill his obligation [to count the days of the omer] according to Scriptural Law.

ה מִן הַתּוֹרָה צָרִיךְ לִמְנוֹת הַיָּמִים וְגַם הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת,נח,45 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרנט,46 "תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם", כְּלוֹמַר עַד חֲמִשִּׁים,ס וְאוֹמֵרסא,42 "שִׁבְעָה שָׁבוּעוֹת תִּסְפָּר לָךְ", כֵּיצַד יִסְפֹּר שְׁנֵיהֶם? כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְשִׁבְעָה יָמִים יֹאמַר: "הַיּוֹם שִׁבְעָה יָמִים שֶׁהֵם שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד", וּכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יֹאמַר: "הַיּוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם שֶׁהֵם שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת", וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר כָּל סוֹף שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ.סב וְאִם לֹא עָשָׂה כֵן – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה:סג

6 [There is a difference of opinion regarding the way one must count on] the days between [the last day of] one week and [the last day of] the next [week], i.e., from the eighth day until and including the thirteenth day, from the fifteenth day until the twentieth day, and, similarly, the other days between [the last days of] the other weeks.

There are authorities who maintain that [on these days], it is not necessary to count the weeks, only the days. For example, [according to this opinion,] on the eighth day, one should say, “Today is eight days [of the omer].” It is not necessary to add “…which is one week and one day [of the omer].” Other authorities maintain that [one should do] the opposite: On the eighth day, one should say, “Today is one week and one day [of the omer].” And on the fifteenth day, he should say, “Today is two weeks and one day [of the omer].”

And there are [still] other authorities who maintain that one should mention both the sum of the days and that of the weeks. For example, on the eighth day, one should say, “[Today is] eight days, which are one week and one day [of the omer].” Similarly, [according to this opinion,] on all other days, one must mention the sum of all the days, all the weeks, and the remaining number of the days [of the current week] besides the [previous full] weeks. This custom has spread throughout the entire Jewish community and one should not deviate from it.

Nevertheless, if one erred and counted according to either of the two (previously [mentioned]) modes of counting on the days between the ends of the week, there is no need to count again in the present era, when the counting is [merely] a Rabbinic ordinance. [Indeed,] there are authorities who maintain that even on the days on which the weeks end, i.e., the seventh day, the fourteenth day, and the like, if one erred and counted only the days and did not mention the [sum of the] weeks at all, it is not necessary to count again in the present age. [The rationale for this ruling is that] since the counting is a mere remembrance,47 [if] one [only] counted the days, he [has still] fulfilled his obligation.

[However, even according to these authorities,] if one only counted the weeks, for example, he said, “Today is one week…” or “…two weeks [of the omer],” and did not mention the number of days, he must count again. [The rationale is that] the primary [dimension of] the counting is the number of the days, for only by counting the days can one count all 49 days. If, however, one counts the weeks without mentioning the number of days at all, it is only possible to count the days that mark the end of the weeks.

There are authorities who maintain that even if one counted only the days, he must count again, because every practice ordained by the Sages was ordained in a manner comparable to Scriptural Law.21 One should give weight to their opinion and count again [in such an instance] without reciting a blessing.48

ו אֲבָל בַּיָּמִים שֶׁבֵּין כָּל שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ, דְּהַיְנוּ מִיּוֹם ח' עַד יוֹם י"ג וְעַד בִּכְלָל, וּמִיּוֹם ט"ו עַד יוֹם עֶשְׂרִים, וְכֵן הַיָּמִים שֶׁבֵּין שְׁאָר הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסד שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְנוֹת בָּהֶן הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת אֶלָּא הַיָּמִים בִּלְבַד, כְּגוֹן בְּיוֹם ח' יֹאמַר: "הַיּוֹם שְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים", וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "שֶׁהֵם שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וְיוֹם אֶחָד".

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסה לְהִפּוּךְ, בְּיוֹם ח' יֹאמַר: "הַיּוֹם שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וְיוֹם אֶחָד", וּבְיוֹם ט"ו יֹאמַר: "הַיּוֹם ב' שָׁבוּעוֹת וְיוֹם אֶחָד".

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסו שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר בָּהֶם סְכוּם הַיָּמִים וְהַשָּׁבוּעוֹת, כְּגוֹן בְּיוֹם ח' יֹאמַר: "שְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים שֶׁהֵם שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וְיוֹם אֶחָד", וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַיָּמִים צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר סְכוּם כָּל הַיָּמִים וְהַשָּׁבוּעוֹת וּמִנְיַן הַיָּמִים הָעוֹדְפִים עַל הַשָּׁבוּעַ. וְכֵן נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג בְּכָל תְּפוּצוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל,סז וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם טָעָה וּמָנָה בְּאַחַת מִב' הַסְּפִירוֹת (הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹתסח) בַּיָּמִים שֶׁבְּאֶמְצַע הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁהַסְּפִירָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.סט

וְאַף בַּיָּמִים שֶׁהֵם סוֹפֵי הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת, כְּגוֹן יוֹם ז' וְי"ד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם, אִם טָעָה וְלֹא מָנָה אֶלָּא הַיָּמִים בִּלְבַד וְלֹא הִזְכִּיר הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת כְּלָל – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםע שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה, שֶׁהַסְּפִירָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא "זֵכֶר",47 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁסָּפַר הַיָּמִים – יָצָא.עא

אֲבָל אִם סָפַר שָׁבוּעוֹת בִּלְבַד, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר: "הַיּוֹם שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד" אוֹ "שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת", וְלֹא הִזְכִּיר מִנְיַן הַיָּמִים – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר,עב לְפִי שֶׁעִקַּר הַסְּפִירָה הוּא מִנְיַן הַיָּמִים,עג שֶׁבְּמִנְיַן הַיָּמִים בִּלְבַד יְכוֹלִין לִסְפֹּר כָּל הַמ"ט יוֹם, אֲבָל בְּמִנְיַן הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת בִּלְבַד בְּלֹא הַזְכָּרַת שׁוּם מִנְיַן יָמִים אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִסְפֹּר אֶלָּא הַיָּמִים שֶׁהֵם סוֹפֵי הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעד שֶׁאַף אִם מָנָה הַיָּמִים לְבַד צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר, שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים תִּקְּנוּ כְּעֵין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.עה,21 וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה:עו,48

7 [Each letter of the Hebrew alphabet has a numerical value. As such,] there are authorities who maintain that if one counted [a day using] the letters of the alef beis, e.g., he counted “today is yom alef (‘the first day’),” “…yom beis (‘the second day’),” or “…gimmel yamim (‘three days’),” he fulfills his obligation. Other authorities maintain that one [who counts in this manner] does not fulfill his obligation. One should give weight to the [latter] opinion and count again without reciting a blessing.48

If one did not say, “Today is,” but instead merely counted, “these-and-these many days of the omer,” he does not fulfill his obligation, and must count again with a blessing.49 [The rationale is that] since [the person merely] said, “these-and-these many days,” he did not count [with a focus on] the uniqueness of the present day. [Now,] the Torah commanded, “Count 50 days,” implying that one should count the day itself, saying, “Today is this-and-this [many days].”

If, however, [the person] said, “Today is this and this [many days],” but did not say, “of the omer,” he fulfills his obligation. [The rationale is that] according to the fundamentals of the law, it is not at all necessary to say, “of the omer.” It is customary to do so only to clarify the purpose of the count, when one is counting. After the fact, this is not an absolute requirement at all.

[There are some who say laomer. Others] say baomer [instead]. Neither rendering should be altered, for they are both correct. (There are some who for esoteric reasons say laomer after the number of days before the reckoning including the weeks, e.g., [they say,] “Today is eight days of the omer, which are one week and one day.”)50

ז אִם סָפַר בְּאוֹתִיּוֹת א"ב שֶׁאָמַר: "הַיּוֹם יוֹם אָלֶ"ף", אוֹ "יוֹם ב'", אוֹ "ג' יָמִים" – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעז שֶׁיָּצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעח שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא. וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה.עט

אִם לֹא אָמַר "הַיּוֹם", אֶלָּא מָנָה סְתָם: כָּךְ וְכָךְ יָמִים לָעֹמֶר – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,פ וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר בִּבְרָכָה,49 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאָמַר: כָּךְ וְכָךְ יָמִים, הֲרֵי לֹא סָפַר אֶת עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בּוֹ, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה:פא "תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם", שֶׁתִּסְפֹּר הַיּוֹם עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁיֹּאמַר: הַיּוֹם כָּךְ וְכָךְ.

אֲבָל אִם אָמַר: הַיּוֹם כָּךְ וְכָךְ וְלֹא אָמַר "לָעֹמֶר" – יָצָא,פב שֶׁמֵּעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר כְּלָל "לָעֹמֶר", אֶלָּא שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ כָּךְ לְבָאֵר יָפֶהפג בַּסְּפִירָה לְאֵיזֶה דָּבָר סוֹפְרִים, וְאֵין זֶה מְעַכֵּב כְּלָל בְּדִיעֲבַד.

וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר "בָּעֹמֶר".פד וְאֵין לְשַׁבֵּשׁ שׁוּם נֻסַּח כִּי שְׁנֵיהֶם נְכוֹנִים.פה

(וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶםפו לוֹמַר "לָעֹמֶר" אַחַר מִנְיַן הַיָּמִים קֹדֶם מִנְיַן הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת, כְּגוֹן "הַיּוֹם שְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים לָעֹמֶר שֶׁהֵם שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וְיוֹם אֶחָד"50):

8 [The guidelines for] proper and precise diction in the Holy Tongue dictate that the plural form yamim should be used [when counting the number of days] from two to ten inclusively, but from eleven on, one should use the singular form yom.51[When counting a double-digit number of days,] it is preferable to say the smaller number before the larger number, for example, [one should say] echad ve’esrim [“one and twenty”] and not esrim ve’echad [“twenty and one”].

Where does this apply? In these regions, where it is customary to mention the smaller number first. However, in regions where it is customary to mention the larger number first, one may count according to the local custom.

ח דֶּרֶךְ צַחוּת לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ לוֹמַר "יָמִים" לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים מִשְּׁנַיִם וְעַד עֲשָׂרָה וְעַד בִּכְלָל, אֲבָל מֵאַחַד עָשָׂר וָאֵילָךְ יֹאמַר "יוֹם" לְשׁוֹן יָחִיד.פז,51 וְטוֹב לוֹמַר מִנְיַן הַמּוּעָט קֹדֶם מִנְיַן הַמְרֻבֶּה, כְּגוֹן "אֶחָד וְעֶשְׂרִים" וְלֹא "עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד". בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִסְפֹּר מִנְיַן הַמּוּעָט קֹדֶם, אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִסְפֹּר מִנְיַן הַמְרֻבֶּה קֹדֶם – יָכוֹל לוֹמַר גַּם בַּסְּפִירָה כְּמִנְהַג מְקוֹמוֹ:פח

9 The word shavua, [“week,”] is a masculine term.52 Therefore, one should say shavua echad (“one week”) and not achas. For the second week, one should say sh’nei and not sh’tei. For the third week, one should say sh’loshah and not shalosh, and so on for the other weeks.

ט "שָׁבוּעַ" הוּא לְשׁוֹן זָכָר,פט,52 וְלָכֵן יֹאמַר "שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד" וְלֹא "אַחַת",צ וּבַשָּׁבוּעַ הַשֵּׁנִי יֹאמַר "שְׁנֵי"צא וְלֹא "שְׁתֵּי", וּבַשָּׁבוּעַ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יֹאמַר "שְׁלֹשָׁה" וְלֹא "שָׁלֹשׁ", וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת:

10 It is permitted to count in any language one understands. However, if one does not understand the language in which he counts, [he does not fulfill his obligation]. Even if one counts in the Holy Tongue, if he does not understand [what he is saying], he does not fulfill his obligation.53 [The rationale is that] since [the person] does not understand how many days he counted, he is not considered as having counted at all.54

י מֻתָּר לִסְפֹּר בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן שֶׁמֵּבִין, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מֵבִין הַלָּשׁוֹן שֶׁסּוֹפֵר בּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ סָפַר בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אִם אֵינוֹ מְבִינוֹ – לֹא יָצָא,53 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ הַמִּנְיָן – אֵין זוֹ סְפִירָה כְּלָל:צב,54

11 After counting [the omer], it is customary to say: “May it be [G‑d’s] will that the Beis HaMikdash be rebuilt….”55 [The reason for this inclusion is that] in the present era, we are counting merely as a remembrance of the [Beis] HaMikdash.47 [In truth, however,] this counting does not [constitute] the performance of a mitzvah at all, for the mitzvah is to count [from the offering of] the omer, and in the present age, we do not have an omer [offering]to count from. It is only that our Sages ordained that we count as a remembrance of the [Beis] HaMikdash. Therefore, we pray that the Beis HaMikdash be rebuilt so that we can fulfill the mitzvah as ordained.56

(There are those who for esoteric reasons customarily recite the psalm [67, which begins] “May God be gracious unto us and bless us,” [the prayer,] Ana Bekoach, and [the supplication beginning:] “Master of the world.”)57

יא אַחַר הַסְּפִירָה נוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר: "יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ כוּ'",55 לְפִי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין אָנוּ סוֹפְרִין אֶלָּא "זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ",47 וְאֵין בִּסְפִירָה זוֹ עֲשִׂיַּת מִצְוָה כְּלָל,צג שֶׁהַמִּצְוָה הוּא לִסְפֹּר לָעֹמֶר, וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין לָנוּ עֹמֶר לִסְפֹּר לוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁחֲכָמִים תִּקְּנוּ לִסְפֹּר "זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ",צד לְפִיכָךְ מִתְפַּלְּלִין: "שֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ" וּנְקַיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה כְּתִקּוּנָהּ.צה,56

(וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶם לוֹמַר אַחַר כָּךְ מִזְמוֹרצו "אֱלֹהִים יְחָנֵּנוּ וִיבָרְכֵנוּ"צז וְ"אָנָּא בְּכֹחַ" וְ"רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם"צח):57

12 There are authorities who maintain that one is permitted to recite a blessing and count [the omer]during bein hashmashos.58True,59 [counting at that time is problematic because the status of that time period is in doubt]; maybe it is [already] night, [but] it is [just as] possible that it is [still the current] day. If so, how can one say, “Today is two days [of the omer]”? Perhaps it is still the first day?

Nevertheless, [the rationale for leniency can be explained as follows:] In the present era, the counting [of the omer] is a Rabbinic ordinance,60 and whenever there is a doubt regarding a Rabbinic ordinance, leniency [is granted].61

There are, [however,] authorities who differ with the above and maintain that as an initial preference one should not enter into a situation [where the halachah]is unresolved, even with regard to [matters of] Rabbinic Law. [Hence,] one should not count until the appearance of the stars, for [that time] is definitely [categorized as] night. Those who are meticulous [in their observance of mitzvos] conduct themselves in this manner. Indeed, it is befitting that everyone conduct themselves in this manner. Nevertheless, at present the practice of the general populace is to follow the first opinion and to count [the omer] during bein hashmashos.

[The course of action to be described should be followed by] a person who desires to be meticulous and count [the omer]after the appearance of the stars, [but yet] recites the Evening Service with the community while it is still day with a congregation who recites the Evening Service close to sunset and counts [the omer] during bein hashmashos. It is desirable that [the person] count [the omer] with [the congregation] without [reciting] a blessing, and have in mind: “If I forget to count [the omer] at night, I will rely on this counting to fulfill my obligation. And if I do not forget [to count] at night, my intent now is not to fulfill my obligation with this counting.”62

[The latter stipulation is effective] even according to the authorities who maintain that the intent [to perform a mitzvah] is not imperative, [and as long as one performs the deed of the mitzvah], he fulfills his obligation [even if he does not intend to do so.63 The rationale is that even these authorities would agree that when] one explicitly intends not to fulfill his obligation, he certainly does not fulfill his obligation against his will. Therefore, when [the person] remembers [to count the omer] at night, he should count with a blessing.

[A different ruling applies] if, however, [the person] did not make an explicit stipulation not to fulfill his obligation with the [earlier] counting if he remembers [and counts again] at night, but instead counted [with the congregation] without any thought in mind. Even though he did not recite a blessing [when counting with the congregation] and did not [even] respond Amen to the blessing [the others recited], he should not recite a blessing when counting at night.64 [The rationale is that] perhaps it was already night when he counted during bein hashmashos65 and thus, he already fulfilled his obligation according to the authorities who maintain that the intent [to perform a mitzvah] is not imperative.66

[Moreover,] even according to the authorities who maintain that the intent [to perform] a mitzvah is imperative, [the person should not recite a blessing when he counts at night if he did not make the above stipulation. The rationale is that] in the present era, the counting of the omer is a Rabbinic ordinance60 and there are authorities who maintain that is universally accepted that the intent [to perform a mitzvah] is not imperativefor mitzvos that are Rabbinic ordinances, as explained in sec. 475[:29].67

[Indeed, the person] should not recite a blessing when he counts at night [if he did not make the above stipulation] even if he did not count [the omer] with [the congregation], but merely listened to another person or to the congregation count. [This ruling applies despite the fact that the congregation or that other person] did not intend to enable him to fulfill his obligation, nor did he intend to fulfill his obligation when listening to the counting,68 but merely heard its recitation without having any intent. [The rationale is that] one who listens to [a pronouncement] is considered as if he made the pronouncement himself.9 Even if [the person] had in mind that he is not intending to fulfill his obligation with this counting, it is of no consequence according to the authorities who maintain that the intent [to perform a mitzvah] is not imperative, unless [the person specifically] has in mind to explicitly intend not to fulfill his obligation [by listening].69

All the above applies regarding bein hashmashos. However, there is no custom at all to count [the omer] before bein hashmashos. Even on Friday evening when it is customary for the community to complete the Evening Service in the synagogue before bein hashmashos,70the community should not count [the omer]in the synagogue.71 Instead, every individual should count the omer at home when the time [for the counting] arrives.72

If [an individual or a community] erred on a cloudy day and recited the blessing and counted [the omer when they thought the sun had set] and afterwards, the clouds dispersed and they realized that [they had counted] before bein hashamshos, they are obligated to count again. Nevertheless, as long as [the first time] they counted [was] after p’lag haminchah,73they should not recite a second blessing.

[The rationale is that] it is common custom to recite the Shema for the evening from p’lag haminchah onward. [That leniency is taken because the congregation] is relying on the authorities who maintain that just as [the time] from p’lag haminchah onward is considered as night with regard to [reciting] the Evening Service according to Rabbi Yehudah,74 so too, it is [also] considered as night with regard to [the recitation of] the Shema of the evening. [Continuing this logic,] these people maintain that according to Rabbi Yehudah, [this time period] should also be considered as night with regard to the counting of the omer.

Nevertheless, [such people] must count [the omer] again when the [correct] time arrives. [The rationale is that] fundamentally, the halachah follows those authorities who maintain that even according to Rabbi Yehudah [the time] from p’lag haminchah onward is considered as night only with regard to the Evening Service, but not with regard to other matters that must be performed at night, as explained in sec. 235.75

יב יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצט שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְבָרֵךְ וְלִסְפֹּר בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.58 אַף עַל פִּי59 שֶׁהוּא סְפֵק לַיְלָה וּסְפֵק יוֹםק הֶעָבָר, וְאִם כֵּן הֵיאַךְ יֹאמַר: "הַיּוֹם שְׁנֵי יָמִים", שֶׁמָּא עֲדַיִן הוּא יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן? מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַסְּפִירָה בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים60 – סְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל.61

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִיםקא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לְהַכְנִיס עַצְמוֹ לִידֵי סָפֵק אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְאֵין לִסְפֹּר עַד צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים שֶׁהוּא לַיְלָה וַדַּאי. וְכֵן עוֹשִׂין הַמְדַקְדְּקִים. וְכֵן רָאוּי לְכָל אָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת.קב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמִּנְהָג הֶהָמוֹן עַכְשָׁו כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לִסְפֹּר בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.קג

וּמִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְדַקְדֵּק לִסְפֹּר בְּצֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים וְהוּא מִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם עִם צִבּוּר הַמִּתְפַּלְּלִין עַרְבִיתקד עִם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְסוֹפְרִים בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתקה – טוֹב שֶׁיִּסְפֹּר עִמָּהֶם בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, וְיַחְשֹׁב בְּדַעְתּוֹ:קו אִם אֶשְׁכַּח לִסְפֹּר בַּלַּיְלָה הֲרֵינִי סוֹמֵךְ עַל סְפִירָה זוֹ לָצֵאת בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתִי, וְאִם לֹא אֶשְׁכַּח בַּלַּיְלָה הֲרֵי דַּעְתִּי עַכְשָׁו שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בִּסְפִירָה זוֹ,62 שֶׁאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםקז שֶׁמִּצְוֹת אֵין צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה לָצֵאת בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,63 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁמְּכַוֵּן בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ – בְּוַדַּאי אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ,קח וּלְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁיִּזְכֹּר בַּלַּיְלָה יִסְפֹּר בִּבְרָכָה.קט

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הִתְנָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בִּסְפִירָה זוֹ כְּשֶׁיִּזְכֹּר בַּלַּיְלָה, אֶלָּא סָפַר סְתָם,קי אַף שֶׁלֹּא בֵּרַךְ עַכְשָׁו וְגַם לֹא עָנָה "אָמֵן" אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַצִּבּוּר – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁיִּסְפֹּר בַּלַּיְלָה,64 שֶׁמָּא הָיָה כְּבָר לַיְלָה כְּשֶׁסָּפַר בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,65 וּכְבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמִּצְוֹת אֵין צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה.66 וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמִּצְוֹת צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַסְּפִירָה בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקיא וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמִּצְוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ה.קיב,67

וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא סָפַר עִמָּהֶם כְּלָל, אֶלָּא שֶׁשָּׁמַע הַסְּפִירָה מִן אֶחָד (וּ)מִן הַצִּבּוּר שֶׁסָּפְרוּ וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ, וְגַם הוּא לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת בִּשְׁמִיעָה זוֹ,68 אֶלָּא שָׁמַע לְפִי תֻּמּוֹ – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁיִּסְפֹּר בַּלַּיְלָה,קיג שֶׁהַשּׁוֹמֵעַ כְּעוֹנֶה.9 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה מְחַשֵּׁב: אֵין אֲנִי מִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת בִּסְפִירָה זוֹ – אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם, לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמִּצְוֹת אֵין צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה כְּלָל, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מְחַשֵּׁב: אֲנִי מִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בָּהּ.קיד,69

וְכָל זֶה הוּא בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, אֲבָל קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – אֵין מִנְהָג כְּלָל לִסְפֹּר.

אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁמַּקְדִּימִין לִגְמֹר תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית בְּצִבּוּר בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת70 – אֵין הַצִּבּוּר סוֹפְרִין כְּלָל בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,קטו,71 אֶלָּא כָּל אֶחָד סוֹפֵר בְּבֵיתוֹ כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן.72

וְאִם טָעוּ בַּיּוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן וּבֵרְכוּ וְסָפְרוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְפַּזְּרוּ הֶעָבִים וְנוֹדַע שֶׁהָיָה קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – צְרִיכִין לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר,קטז אֲבָל לֹא יְבָרֵךְ שֵׁנִית אִם כְּשֶׁסָּפְרוּ הָיָה מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה73 וָאֵילָךְ,קיז שֶׁהֲרֵי מִנְהַג הָעוֹלָם לִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל עַרְבִית מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וָאֵילָךְ לְפִי שֶׁסּוֹמְכִין עַל הָאוֹמְרִיםקיח שֶׁמִּפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וָאֵילָךְ כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא כְּלַיְלָה לְעִנְיַן תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָהקיט,74 כָּךְ הוּא כְּלַיְלָה לְעִנְיַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל עַרְבִית, וְאִם כֵּן הוּא הַדִּין שֶׁהוּא כְּלַיְלָה לְעִנְיַן סְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה לְפִי דִּבְרֵיהֶם.קכ וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צְרִיכִים לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן, לְפִי שֶׁהָעִקָּר כְּהָאוֹמְרִיםקכא שֶׁמִּפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּלַיְלָה אֲפִלּוּ לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן תְּפִלָּה בִּלְבַד, אֲבָל לֹא לְעִנְיַן שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁמִּצְוָתָם בַּלַּיְלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רל"ה:קכב,75

13 If, however, those individuals who are precise and [make it a point to] count [the omer] with the appearance of the stars erred on a cloudy day and counted bein hashmashos, according to the fundamentals of the law, they are not required to count again after the appearance of the stars. [This ruling applies] even [if they would count again] without reciting a blessing. [The rationale is that] according to the fundamentals of the law, they already fulfilled their obligation by counting [the omer during] bein hashmashos, for there is an unresolved question whether [or not bein hashmashos] is night. [Since the counting of the omer is a Rabbinic commandment, we follow the principle that] when there is a question regarding a point of Rabbinic Law, leniency [is granted].

(Nevertheless, in order to give weight to the words of the authorities who maintain that [even] in the present era, counting [the omer is mandated by] Scriptural Law,76 it is desirable [for these people] to count again when the stars appear without reciting a blessing.)

יג אֲבָל הַמְדַקְדְּקִים לִסְפֹּר בְּצֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים שֶׁטָּעוּ בַּיּוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן וְסָפְרוּ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר כְּלָל בְּצֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹקכג לְגַמְרֵי מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין בְּמַה שֶּׁסָּפְרוּ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהוּא סְפֵק לַיְלָה, וּסְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל.קכד

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּדֵי לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםקכה שֶׁסְּפִירָה בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה מִן הַתּוֹרָה76 – טוֹב לָהֶם שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ לִסְפֹּר בְּצֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים בְּלֹא בְּרָכָהקכו):

14 When one is asked by [another person] during bein hashmashos, “How many days [of the omer]are counted tonight?”, he should answer [the person]: “Yesterday was so-and-so many [days].” [The rationale is that] were [the responder] to tell him, “Today is so-and-so many [days],”77 [the responder] would not be able to count again with a blessing, since he already fulfilled his obligation according to the opinion of the authorities who maintain that the intent [to fulfill a mitzvah] is not imperative to its fulfillment.78 Even though [the responder] did not say, “…to the omer,” that is not of consequence.77

The questioner may, however, count with a blessing even though he heard the counting from the responder. [The rationale is that] since [the person] intended to count [afterwards himself] – for that was why he [asked about the count and] listened [to the response] – it is evident that his intent was not to fulfill his obligation by listening. By contrast, the person who responded did not explicitly have in mind while answering [the question] that he desired to count again afterwards. True, that was his intent. Nevertheless, since he did not explicitly have this in mind, he fulfilled his obligation according to the authorities who maintain that the intent [to observe a mitzvah] is not imperative.

If, however, [the person who responded] did not say, “Today is so-and-so many [days],” but merely answered him, “these-and-these many [days] to the omer,” all authorities agree that he did not fulfill his obligation79 and he must count again with a blessing. Even so, it is preferable [for him] to say, “Yesterday was these-and-these many [days].”

יד מִי שֶׁשּׁוֹאֵל אוֹתוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת כַּמָּה יְמֵי הַסְּפִירָה בְּלַיְלָה זֶה – יֹאמַר לוֹ: אֶתְמוֹל הָיָה כָּךְ וְכָךְ, שֶׁאִם יֹאמַר לוֹ: הַיּוֹם כָּךְ וְכָךְ – לֹא יוּכַל הוּא עַצְמוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלִמְנוֹת בִּבְרָכָה,קכז,77 לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּמַה שֶּׁאָמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ: הַיּוֹם כָּךְ וְכָךְ, לְפִי דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםקכח שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ כַּוָּנָה לָצֵאת.קכט,78 אַף שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר "לָעֹמֶר" – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.קל,77

אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹאֵל יָכוֹל לִסְפֹּר בִּבְרָכָה אַף שֶׁשָּׁמַע כְּבָר הַסִּפּוּר מֵהַמֵּשִׁיב, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁשָּׁמַע הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ הוּא שׁוֹמֵעַ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בִּשְׁמִיעָה זוֹ.

אֲבָל הַמֵּשִׁיב לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ בִּשְׁעַת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁרוֹצֶה לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר שֵׁנִית אַחַר כָּךְ אַף שֶׁבֶּאֱמֶת כֵּן הוּא, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה.

אֲבָל אִם לֹא אָמַר לוֹ: הַיּוֹם כָּךְ וְכָךְ, אֶלָּא הֵשִׁיב לוֹ סְתָם: כָּךְ וְכָךְ לָעֹמֶר – לֹא יָצָא בָּזֶהקלא לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,79 וְיַחְזֹר וְיִסְפֹּר בִּבְרָכָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יוֹתֵר טוֹב לוֹמַר: אֶתְמוֹל הָיָה כָּךְ וְכָךְ:קלב

15 All the above80 applies when [one person] inquires of another during bein hashmashos. If, however, [one asks another] earlier in the day,81 even if [the person responds by] telling [the inquirer]: “Today is so-and-so many [days] to the omer,” [the person responding] must count again with a blessing. [The rationale is that] fundamentally, the halachah follows the authorities who maintain that the time from p’lag haminchah and onward is considered as night solely with regard to prayer.82 [Moreover,] even according to the authorities who maintain that [this time] is considered as night [with regard to all matters, there is still a basis for reciting a blessing because] there are authorities who maintain that even mitzvos that are Rabbinic ordinances require that the intent to fulfill one’s obligation is imperative.83 (Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is desirable to be careful not to say, “Today is so-and-so many [days],” from p’lag haminchah onward.)84

טו וְכָל זֶה80 כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹאֲלוֹ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, אֲבָל קֹדֶם לָכֵן81 אַף אִם אָמַר לוֹ: הַיּוֹם כָּךְ וְכָךְ לָעֹמֶר – חוֹזֵר וְסוֹפֵר בִּבְרָכָה,קלג כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָעִקָּר כְּהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאַף מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וָאֵילָךְ אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּלַיְלָה אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן תְּפִלָּה בִּלְבַד,קלד,82 וְגַם לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהוּא כְּלַיְלָה – הֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקלה שֶׁאַף מִצְוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה לָצֵאת בָּהֶן.83

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לִזָּהֵר מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וָאֵילָךְ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר: הַיּוֹם כָּךְ וְכָךְקלו):84

16 It is permitted to count [the omer]before reciting the Evening Service. [This ruling applies] even on Saturday night, when one adds [additional time] from the mundane to the holy.85 [Although one is extending the observance of Shabbos,] it is nevertheless night and [this time] is not considered as part of the previous day,86 but as part of the coming day.87

Despite [the above], it is appropriate to recite the Evening Service before counting [the omer. The rationale is that] the Evening Service is recited regularly [throughout the year], while the counting [of the omer]is not [practiced as] frequently, and a more frequent [practice] takes precedence over a less frequent one.88

טז מֻתָּר לִסְפֹּר קֹדֶם תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית אֲפִלּוּ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִין מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ,85 שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם לַיְלָה הוּאקלז וְאֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב לְיוֹם הֶעָבָר86 אֶלָּא לְיוֹם הַמָּחֳרָת.87 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, רָאוּי לְהַקְדִּים תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית לַסְּפִירָה,קלח שֶׁתְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית הִיא תְּדִירָה וְהַסְּפִירָה אֵינָהּ תְּדִירָה,קלט וְתָדִיר קוֹדֵם לְשֶׁאֵינוֹ תָּדִיר:קמ,88

17 [The following rules apply] if [a person’s regular practice] is to recite the Evening Service while it is still day, and then recite all three passages [of the Shema when reciting the Shema] before retiring. [Throughout the year,] it is permitted for [such a person] to eat89 before reciting the Shema before retiring, as explained in sec. 235.90 Nevertheless, during the days of the counting [of the omer], one should not begin to eat91 even a light repast92 half an hour [or less] before the time93 for counting, i.e., half an hour [or less] before bein hashmashos.94 [This] decree is [a safeguard] lest [the person] continue to be occupied with his meal and [then forget and] refrain from counting the omer.

[An exception is granted] in a place where it is customary for the synagogue attendant to call [the townsfolk] to count the omer when the [appropriate] time arrives. In such an instance, there is no concern that [the person] will continue to be occupied with his meal, as explained in sec. 232.95

([Moreover,] even in those places [where it is] not customary [to have the attendant make such announcements], if a person violated [the above rulings] and began a meal within half an hour of the time for counting,96 he is not required to interrupt in the middle of his meal.)97 If, however, [the person] began his meal after the time for counting, he must interrupt and count in the midst of his meal according to the authorities who maintain that in the present era, the counting [of the omer] is [mandated by] Scriptural Law, as explained in sec. 235.98

[Moreover,] even though fundamentally, the halachah follows the opinion of the authorities who maintain that in the present era, the counting [of the omer] is a Rabbinic ordinance,99 nevertheless, with regard to a matter that does not involve any difficulty at all, i.e., to make a brief interruption and count [the omer], weight should be given to the first opinion.

יז וְאִם דַּרְכּוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְלִקְרוֹת עַל מִטָּתוֹ כָּל הַג' פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת, אַף שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל קֹדֶם קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁעַל הַמִּטָּה89 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רל"ה,קמא,90 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּימֵי הַסְּפִירָה לֹא יַתְחִיל לֶאֱכֹלקמב,91 אֲפִלּוּ סְעוּדָה קְטַנָּהקמג,92 חֲצִי שָׁעָה קֹדֶם זְמַן93 סְפִירָה,קמד דְּהַיְנוּ חֲצִי שָׁעָה קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,קמה,94 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמְשֹׁךְ בִּסְעוּדָתוֹ וְיִמָּנַע מִסְּפִירַת הָעֹמֶר. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין שֶׁהַשַּׁמָּשׁ קוֹרֵא לִסְפֹּר סְפִירָה כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ זְמַנָּהּ,קמו שֶׁאָז אֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִמְשֹׁךְ בִּסְעוּדָתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רל"ב.קמז,95

(וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁלֹּא נָהֲגוּ כֵּן,קמח אִם עָבַר וְהִתְחִיל בִּסְעוּדָה בְּתוֹךְ חֲצִי שָׁעָה סָמוּךְ לִזְמַן הַסְּפִירָה96 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק בְּאֶמְצַע סְעוּדָתוֹקמט).97

אֲבָל אִם הִתְחִיל הַסְּעוּדָה לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַסְּפִירָה – צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק וְלִסְפֹּר בְּאֶמְצַע סְעוּדָתוֹקנ לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁסְּפִירָה בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה,קנא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רל"ה.קנב,98 וְאַף שֶׁהָעִקָּר כְּהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁסְּפִירָה בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה הִיא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קנג,99 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ טֹרַח כְּלָל, דְּהַיְנוּ לְהַפְסִיק מְעַט וְלִסְפֹּר – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:קנד

18 [The following law applies] if [a person] did not know which day [of the omer should be counted], but he [nevertheless] recited a blessing with the intent that he would count [the same number of days] as he would hear another person count: If he remained silent after reciting the blessing, listened to the other person, and counted as he did, he fulfills the obligation of reciting a blessing.100 It is not necessary for him to recite a second blessing before counting, even though at the time he first recited the blessing he did not know for which day [of the omer] he is reciting the blessing.

יח אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה יוֹם הוּא בַּסְּפִירָה וּפָתַח וּבֵרַךְ עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּסְפֹּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, וְאַחַר הַבְּרָכָה שָׁתַק וְשָׁמַע מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְסָפַר כָּמוֹהוּ – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת הַבְּרָכָה,קנה,100 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ שֵׁנִית קֹדֶם סְפִירָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה לֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ עַל אֵיזֶה יוֹם הוּא מְבָרֵךְ:קנו

19 As an initial preference, however, one should not act [in the above manner. Instead,] he should not recite the blessing until he knows the day [of the omer] for which he is reciting the blessing.101

יט אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַד שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה יוֹם הוּא מֵהַסְּפִירָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדַע עַל מַה הוּא מְבָרֵךְ:קנז,101

20 If a person recited the blessing [before counting the omer] with the intent of counting four days of the omer because he thought that [was the correct reckoning,] but after reciting the blessing remembered that it was actually the fifth day, he need not recite another blessing [before counting.102 Instead,] he should immediately count the fifth [day], relying on the blessing he recited previously. Although he recited the blessing with the intent to count the fourth day, this is not of consequence. [The rationale is that] the thoughts in one’s heart are not significant in this context, as explained in sec. 209.103

כ אִם בֵּרַךְ עַל דַּעַת לִסְפֹּר "אַרְבָּעָה יָמִים לָעֹמֶר", שֶׁהוּא סָבוּר שֶׁהַיּוֹם יוֹם רְבִיעִי, וּלְאַחַר שֶׁגָּמַר הַבְּרָכָה נִזְכַּר שֶׁהַיּוֹם יוֹם חֲמִישִׁי – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ,102 אֶלָּא סוֹפֵר מִיָּד "חֲמִשָּׁה" עַל סְמַךְ הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ כְּבָר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבְּרָכָה הָיְתָה עַל דַּעַת יוֹם רְבִיעִי – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, לְפִי שֶׁדְּבָרִים שֶׁבַּלֵּב אֵינָן דְּבָרִים לְעִנְיָן זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"ט:קנח,103

21 If it was the fourth day [of the omer] and [a person] recited the blessing with the intent to count four, but had a slip of the tongue and [mistakenly] counted five, he is required to count again, [mentioning] the fourth [day. The rationale is that] he made a false statement – for it is the fourth day, and he verbally counted the fifth.104 Even though [the person] had in mind [to count] four, this is of no consequence, for the commandment to count is that he count verbally. Nevertheless, he need not recite another blessing before he counts the fourth day.

([Moreover,] even if he initially erred in his mind and thought that it was the fifth day, and recited the blessing with the intent of counting the fifth day, but after he counted [in that manner], remembered that it was the fourth day, he is not required to recite another blessing [provided he did not make an interruption before correcting himself].)

[The rationale for both rulings is that the person] fulfills his obligation with the blessing he already recited, provided he did not interrupt [between the blessing and the correct counting] with other matters. [His] first counting is not considered an interruption, because he was involved in the act over which he recited the blessing [immediately after reciting it]. It is only that he misspoke.105

כא אִם הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּיוֹם רְבִיעִי וּבֵרַךְ עַל דַּעַת לִסְפֹּר "אַרְבָּעָה" וְטָעָה בְּדִבּוּרוֹ וְסָפַר "חֲמִשָּׁה" – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר "אַרְבָּעָה", כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא שֶׁקֶר מִפִּיו,קנט שֶׁהַיּוֹם יוֹם רְבִיעִי הוּא וְהוּא סָפַר "חֲמִשָּׁה" בְּפִיו.104 אַף שֶׁהָיָה בְּמַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ "אַרְבָּעָה" – אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם, שֶׁמִּצְוַת הַסְּפִירָה הִיא בַּפֶּה.קס

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ קֹדֶם שֶׁחוֹזֵר לִסְפֹּר "אַרְבָּעָה"קסא (אֲפִלּוּ אִם טָעָה בִּתְחִלָּה בְּדַעְתּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה סָבוּר שֶׁהוּא יוֹם חֲמִישִׁי וּבֵרַךְ עַל דַּעַת לִסְפֹּר "חֲמִשָּׁה", וּלְאַחַר שֶׁסָּפַר נִזְכַּר שֶׁהַיּוֹם יוֹם רְבִיעִי – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְקסב), לְפִי שֶׁיּוֹצֵא בַּבְּרָכָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ כְּבָר אִם לֹא הִפְסִיק בֵּינְתַיִם בִּדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים. אֲבָל הַסְּפִירָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְעַסֵּק בְּדָבָר שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עָלָיו אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא עָלָה בְּיָדוֹ כַּהֹגֶן:קסג,105

22 ([In the above situation,] when [the person] goes back to count properly and] counts four, he must say, “Today is four [days]….”106 If, however, [the person corrects himself and] counts again directly after107 the first counting, he need not repeat “Today is”. Instead, he should immediately say “four days of the omer.”)

כב (וּכְשֶׁחוֹזֵר לִסְפֹּר "אַרְבָּעָה" – צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר: "הַיּוֹם אַרְבָּעָה כוּ'".106 וְאִם חוֹזֵר לִסְפֹּר בְּתוֹךְ כְּדֵי דִּבּוּר107 לַסְּפִירָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלוֹמַר "הַיּוֹם", אֶלָּא יֹאמַר מִיָּד: "אַרְבָּעָה יָמִים לָעֹמֶר"קסד):

23 There are authorities who maintain that if a person forgot [and did not] count one night,108 he need not count at all on the other nights [of the omer. The rationale is that the person] already lost [the opportunity to fulfill] the mitzvah of counting the omer entirely by missing one night, for it is written:2 “There shall be seven complete [weeks].”109

There are, [however,] other authorities who differ and maintain that [such a person] must count on the remaining nights because [counting] every night is an independent mitzvah and [one night] is not dependent on another.110

כג וְיֵשׁקסה אוֹמְרִיםקסו שֶׁאִם שָׁכַח לִסְפֹּר בְּלַיְלָה אַחַת108 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִסְפֹּר כְּלָל בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַלֵּילוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר הִפְסִיד מִמִּצְוַת סְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר לְגַמְרֵי כְּשֶׁחִסֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ יוֹם אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקסז,2 "תְּמִימֹת תִּהְיֶינָה".109

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין וְאוֹמְרִיםקסח שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִסְפֹּר בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַלֵּילוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל לַיְלָה הִיא מִצְוָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּקסט וְאֵינָן תְּלוּיוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ:110

24 With regard to the halachah, it is customary that [such a person] counts on the following days without reciting a blessing. [This ruling applies] whether he forgot to count on the first night or on one of the other nights. [The rationale is that] when there is a doubt as to whether a blessing should be recited, a lenient approach is followed.111

When does the above apply? When [the person] did not remember the entire night and the entire day that followed. If, however, [the person] remembered during the day on the morrow and counted [the omer] without a blessing as explained above,112 he may count on all the following nights with a blessing. [The rationale is that] even according to the first opinion, [the person] did not lose [the opportunity to fulfill] the mitzvah of counting [the omer]by not counting on one night, since he counted during the day on the morrow. [The weeks he counted] are still considered as “complete,” for he has counted all 49 days.

True, there are authorities who maintain that [the omer] may only be counted at night.113 Even if one forgot to count at night, [these authorities maintain that] it is unnecessary to count during the day, [for his counting will be to no avail].114 If so, even if one counted during the [following] day [to compensate for the night he missed], this counting [carries no weight] in completing the 49 days. Nevertheless, there are [other] authorities who maintain that even if one did not count one day, or even many days, at all, he may count [the omer] on [subsequent] nights with a blessing.115 [Therefore, on the basis of these various opinions,116 a person who only remembered and counted during the day may count with a blessing on the subsequent nights.]

כד וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, נוֹהֲגִין לִסְפֹּר בִּשְׁאָר לֵילוֹת בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה,קע בֵּין שֶׁשָּׁכַח בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן בֵּין שֶׁשָּׁכַח בְּאֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר כָּל הַלֵּילוֹת,קעא לְפִי שֶׁסְּפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל.קעב,111

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁלֹּא נִזְכַּר כָּל הַלַּיְלָה וְכָל יוֹם הַמָּחֳרָת, אֲבָל אִם נִזְכַּר לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם וְסָפַר בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקעג,112 – יִסְפֹּר בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַלֵּילוֹת בִּבְרָכָה,קעד שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף לְפִי הַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהקעה לֹא הִפְסִיד מִצְוַת הַסְּפִירָה בְּחֶסְרוֹן לַיְלָה אֶחָד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁסָּפַר לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם, וַהֲרֵי הֵן נִקְרָאוֹת "תְּמִימֹת", שֶׁסּוֹפֵר כָּל הַמ"ט יוֹם. וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקעו שֶׁהַסְּפִירָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בַּלַּיְלָה,113 שֶׁאַף אִם שָׁכַח לִסְפֹּר בַּלַּיְלָה אֵין צָרִיךְ לִסְפֹּר בַּיּוֹם,114 וְאִם כֵּן אַף אִם סָפַר בַּיּוֹם אֵין סְפִירָה זוֹ שָׁוָה כְּלוּם לְהַשְׁלִים מִסְפַּר הַמ"ט יוֹם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקעז,115 שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא סָפַר כְּלָל יוֹם אֶחָד אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ יָמִים הַרְבֵּה סוֹפֵר בִּשְׁאָר הַלֵּילוֹת בִּבְרָכָה:116

25 All the above117 applies when [the person] is certain that he did not count [the omer] one night. If, however, he is in doubt concerning the matter,118 even though he did not count during the day on the following day, he should count with a blessing on the following nights.

[The rationale is that] there is a sefek sefeika, a compounded doubt, that would obligate [the person] to act stringently and count all the subsequent nights with a blessing. [The sefek sefeika is as follows:] It is possible that [the person] did count during the night, and it is also possible that [the halachah follows] the authorities who maintain that every night is an independent mitzvah and [the counting of one night] is not dependent on [the counting of] another. [Therefore, there are grounds to require that such a person conduct himself stringently and recite a blessing and count on all the subsequent nights.]119 Similarly, in all places where it was explained that one should count a second time without a blessing because there is a doubt whether [or not] his first counting [was valid],120 if [the person did not do as instructed and] did not count again [that night], he should [nevertheless] count with a blessing on [subsequent] nights.121

כה וְכָל זֶה117 כְּשֶׁבָּרִי לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא סָפַר בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד, אֲבָל אִם הוּא מְסֻפָּק בַּדָּבָר,118 אַף שֶׁלֹּא סָפַר לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם – יִסְפֹּר בִּשְׁאָר לֵילוֹת בִּבְרָכָה,קעח דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא סָפַר בַּלַּיְלָה, וְיֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק גַּם כֵּן שֶׁמָּא כְּהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁכָּל לַיְלָה וְלַיְלָה הִיא מִצְוָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ וְאֵינָן תְּלוּיוֹת זֶה בָּזֶה, נִמְצָא שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן סְפֵק סְפֵקָא לְהַחֲמִיר לְהַצְרִיךְ בְּרָכָה119 וּסְפִירָה בִּשְׁאָר הַלֵּילוֹת.קעט

וְכֵן בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרקפ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִסְפֹּר בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה מֵחֲמַת הַסָּפֵק שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּסְּפִירָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,120 אִם לֹא חָזַר וְסָפַר – יִסְפֹּר בִּשְׁאָר הַלֵּילוֹת בִּבְרָכָה:קפא,121

26 [The following laws apply] in places where it is customary to recite Kiddush and Havdalah on wine in the synagogue:122 The omer should be counted on Friday night and the night of a festival after Kiddush. [The rationale is that] one should do whatever is possible so as to recite Kiddush at the earliest opportunity.123

[Conversely,] on Saturday night and the night after the festival, [the omer]should be counted before Havdalah. [The rationale is that] one should do whatever is possible so as to recite Havdalah at the latest possible time so that the sanctity of the [Shabbos and festival] days not appear burdensome.124

Both in the places where Havdalah is recited on Saturday night before the passage Veyiten lecha,125directly after Kaddish Tiskabeil, and in those places where Veyiten lecha is recited before Havdalah, [the omer]should be counted directly after Kaddish Tiskabeil. [The rationale is that] one should do whatever is possible to count [the omer] at the earliest opportunity, and as soon as the Kaddish concluding the recitation of Shemoneh Esreh is recited, the obligationto count the omer becomes incumbent upon us.126

כו בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְקַדֵּשׁקפב וּלְהַבְדִּילקפג בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת עַל הַיַּיִן122 – סוֹפְרִים הָעֹמֶר בְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ,קפד לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁנּוּכַל לְהַקְדִּים קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם יֵשׁ לָנוּ לְהַקְדִּים.קפה,123 וּבְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב סוֹפְרִים קֹדֶם הַהַבְדָּלָה,קפו לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁנּוּכַל לְאַחֵר הַהַבְדָּלָה יֵשׁ לָנוּ לְאַחֲרָהּ,קפז כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תְּהֵא קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם נִרְאֵית עָלֵינוּ כְּמַשּׂאוֹי.קפח,124

וּבֵין בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמַּבְדִּילִין בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת קֹדֶם "וְיִתֶּן לְךָ"125 מִיָּד אַחַר קַדִּישׁ "תִּתְקַבֵּל" [וּבֵין בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאוֹמְרִים "וְיִתֶּן לְךָ" קֹדֶם הַהַבְדָּלָהקפט – סוֹפְרִים מִיָּד אַחַר קַדִּישׁ "תִּתְקַבֵּל"קצ],קצא לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָנוּ לְהַקְדִּים הַסְּפִירָה בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר, וּמִיָּד שֶׁנִּסְתַּלְּקָה הַתְּפִלָּה בְּקַדִּישׁ שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ – חָל עָלֵינוּ מִצְוַת סְפִירָה:קצב,126

27 When the final day of the festival [of Pesach] falls on Saturday night, and Kiddush and Havdalah are recited over one cup of wine,127 it is impossible to count [the omer] as is usually done on other festival and Saturday nights, [i.e.,] after Kiddush and before Havdalah.128 [Fulfilling both of these desired options is not possible in this instance, because] it is forbidden to make an interruption between the two [mitzvos]. In such an instance, the omer should be counted before Kiddush and Havdalah and not afterwards. [The rationale is that] whatever can possibly be done to recite Havdalah later should be done.

(However, when the second day of Pesach falls on Saturday night, neither Kiddush nor Havdalah is recited in the synagogue, based on the reason explained in sec. 487[:7].)129

כז וּכְשֶׁחָל יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת שֶׁאוֹמְרִים קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה עַל כּוֹס אֶחָד127 – אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִסְפֹּר אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ וְקֹדֶם הַהַבְדָּלָה כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר לֵיל יוֹם טוֹב וּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת,128 שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם כְּלָל, אֲזַי סוֹפְרִים קֹדֶם הַקִּדּוּשׁ וְהַהַבְדָּלָהקצג וְלֹא אַחַר כָּךְ, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁנּוּכַל לְאַחֵר הַהַבְדָּלָה יֵשׁ לָנוּ לְאַחֲרָהּ.קצד

(אֲבָל יוֹם שֵׁנִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁחָל בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין וְאֵין מַבְדִּילִין כְּלָל בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,קצה מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תפ"זקצו,129):

28 Whenever the first day of a festival falls on Shabbos, the liturgical hymns customarily recited on the first night are recited on the second night, because these hymns are not recited on Friday night for the reason explained in sec. 275[:1, 3].130 An exception to this rule is made when the first day of Pesach falls on Shabbos. [In this instance,] the custom is to recite the hymns designated for the second night [of Pesach] on the second night. Precedence is given to [these hymns, because of the] counting [of the omer, for one of these hymns] mentions the order of the harvesting of the omer that was harvested on this night.131

כח בְּכָל יוֹם טוֹב כְּשֶׁחָל יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן בְּשַׁבָּת נוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי הַמַּעֲרָבִיתקצז הַשַּׁיָּכִים לְלֵיל רִאשׁוֹן,קצח שֶׁבְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת אֵין אוֹמְרִים מַעֲרָבִית מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ער"ה,קצט,130 חוּץ מִיּוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי הַמַּעֲרָבִית הַשַּׁיָּכִים לְלֵיל שֵׁנִי,ר מִשּׁוּם בִּכּוּר לַסְּפִירָהרא שֶׁהֻזְכַּר בּוֹ סֵדֶר קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהָיָה נִקְצָר בְּלַיְלָה זֶה:רב,131

29 Even in the present era,132 it is forbidden to partake of chadash, newly harvested grain, until the beginning of the night of the seventeenth of Nissan.133 [This prohibition applies to] bread [made from such grain], parched grain, and fresh kernels [of such grain],134 as it is written:135 “Neither bread, nor parched grain, nor fresh kernels [from the new crop] may you eat until this selfsame day.”

[The word] “until” [implies that the prohibition also] includes [the day of the sixteenth of Nissan].136 It is only that in the era of the Beis HaMikdash, newly harvested grain was permitted immediately after the offering of the omer on the sixteenth [of Nissan],133 as [indicated by the continuation of the verse,] “until you have brought the sacrifice of your G‑d.” In the present era, [since] we do not have an [omer] sacrifice, it is the day – i.e., the passage of that entire “selfsame day” – that causes [the newly harvested grain] to be permitted.136

In the Diaspora, [in the era] when it was not known when the new month had been established in Eretz Yisrael,137 it was also forbidden to partake of the newly harvested grain for the entire day of the seventeenth [of Nissan],133 until the beginning of the night of the eighteenth. [The rationale is that] this is a question involving a Scriptural prohibition,133 for newly harvested grain is also forbidden in the Diaspora according to Scriptural Law,138 as [the above-cited verse] concludes: “[This is an eternal statute….] in all your dwelling places.”139 Even in the present era when we know the day established as the new month,140 we should not deviate from the custom of our ancestors, for the reason to be explained.141

כט אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל חָדָשׁ אַף בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה,רג,132 בֵּין לֶחֶם בֵּין קָלִי בֵּין כַּרְמֶל,רד,134 עַד תְּחִלַּת לֵיל י"ז בְּנִיסָן,רה,133 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַררו,135 "וְלֶחֶם וְקָלִי וְכַרְמֶל לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַד עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וְגוֹ'", עַד וְעַד בִּכְלָל.רז,133 אֶלָּא שֶׁבִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּם, מִשֶּׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר בְּיוֹם ט"ז – הֻתַּר הֶחָדָשׁ מִיָּד,רח,133 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַררט "עַד הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת קָרְבַּן אֱלֹהֵיכֶם", אֲבָל עַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ קָרְבָּן – הֲרֵי עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם מַתִּיר, דְּהַיְנוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁעָבַר כָּל עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם.רי,136

וּבַגּוֹלָה כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִים יוֹם שֶׁנִּקְבַּע בּוֹ הַחֹדֶשׁ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל137 – הָיוּ אֲסוּרִין לֶאֱכֹל חָדָשׁ גַּם כָּל יוֹם י"ז133 עַד תְּחִלַּת לֵיל י"ח,ריא לְפִי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,ריב,133 שֶׁהֶחָדָשׁ אָסוּר גַּם בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ מִן הַתּוֹרָה,ריג,138 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרריד "בְּכֹל מֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם".139 וְגַם עַכְשָׁו שֶׁאָנוּ יוֹדְעִים יוֹם קְבִיעוּת הַחֹדֶשׁ140 – אֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת מִנְהַג אֲבוֹתֵינוּ,רטו מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:רטז,141

30 In the present era, people at large142 are not at all careful in [the observance of] the prohibition against [partaking of] newly harvested grain. There are authorities who justify the conduct [of those who are lax in observing this mitzvah] in places where the majority of the grain [in the area] is sown before Pesach143 and [also] in places where grain is imported from places where the majority of the grain is sown before Pesach,144 [in which instance,] the prohibition against newly harvested grain is not relevant, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 293.145 Consult that source.

Those who, [nevertheless,] conduct themselves stringently in such places146 and are careful not to eat grain unless they know that it is from the prior harvest147 need not be careful regarding the discharges [of newly harvested grain] released from the utensils they desire to use to cook grain from the prior harvest, [lest these discharges be] from the same type [of grain they will be using] that was cooked [by others who are not meticulous regarding this matter].148 [The rationale for this license is that] the requirement that 60 [times the volume of a forbidden substance] of the same type149 is necessary to nullify [the presence of the forbidden substance] is only a Rabbinic ordinance.150 [Accordingly,] one should not be so stringent in this regard concerning grain whose status is unknown, for [refraining from using it] is merely a stringency.151

Even in places where the majority of the grain is sown after Pesach,152 e.g., Poland,153 where the majority of the oats and barley from which beer is made are sown after Pesach, and grain is not imported there from other places where the grain is sown before Pesach, the majority of [the Jewish community] does not observe the prohibition against [partaking of] newly harvested grain.

There are authorities who justify the conduct [of the Jews of Poland], explaining that theirs is a pressing situation because beer is the primary beverage they drink. Therefore, they rely on several of the Rishonim who maintain that the prohibition against newly harvested grain in the Diaspora is [merely] Rabbinic in origin. [These authorities maintain that the Sages who] imposed this decree [imposed it only as a safeguard] for Eretz Yisrael.154 [Therefore,] they imposed this decree only in the lands close to Eretz Yisrael, e.g., Egypt, Ammon, Moab, and Babylonia, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec.331.155

Others justify [the leniency taken in these places] with a different rationale. [These authorities] maintain that [the prohibition against partaking of] newly harvested grain applies only to grain owned by a Jew at the time it is harvested, but not to [grain] that belonged to non-Jews. According to this [explanation], it is necessary to caution Jews who live in villages and [grow] their grain after Pesach in fields belonging to [the non-Jewish] nobility to observe the prohibition against newly harvested grain.156

Nevertheless, every meticulous person157 should not rely on the authorities who grant license and should be stringent with himself as much as possible, according to the consensus of the majority of Rishonim and Acharonim who maintain that according to Scriptural Law, [the prohibition against partaking of] newly harvested grain applies even in all places in the Diaspora158 and it applies to [grain] belonging to non-Jews, for fundamentally, the halachah follows [this stringent view].159

See Yoreh Deah, sec. 293,160 [which states that a person who] observes [the prohibition against] newly harvested grain should also be careful [not to partake of] alcoholic beverages and mead that were left to ferment in the dregs of beer [made from newly harvested grain].161 Consult that source with regard to all the laws regarding [the prohibition against] newly harvested grain.

ל וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין הָעוֹלָם נִזְהָרִין כְּלָל בְּאִסּוּר חָדָשׁ.ריז

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּתריח בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁרֹב הַתְּבוּאָה נִזְרַעַת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,143 אוֹ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמְּבִיאִין לָהֶם תְּבוּאָה מִמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁרֹב הַתְּבוּאָה נִזְרַעַת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,144 שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ אִסּוּר חָדָשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן רצ"גריט,145 עַיֵּן שָׁם.

וְהַמַּחְמִירִים עַל עַצְמָם בַּמְּקוֹמוֹת הָהֵם146 וְנִזְהָר מִסְּתָם תְּבוּאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְדוּעָה לוֹ שֶׁהִיא יְשָׁנָה147 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר מִפְּלִיטַת הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בָּהֶםרכ מִמִּין שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְבַשֵּׁל עַכְשָׁו יָשָׁן,רכא,148 לְפִי שֶׁמִּין בְּמִינוֹ149 אֵין צָרִיךְ שִׁשִּׁים אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,רכב,150 וְאֵין לְהַחֲמִיר כָּל כָּךְ בִּסְתָם תְּבוּאָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ אֶלָּא חֻמְרָא בְּעָלְמָא.רכג,151

וְגַם בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁרֹב הַתְּבוּאָה נִזְרַעַת אַחַר הַפֶּסַח,152 כְּגוֹן בִּמְדִינוֹת פּוֹלִין153 שֶׁרֹב הַשִּׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָל וְהַשְּׂעוֹרִים שֶׁעוֹשִׂין מֵהֶם הַשֵּׁכָר נִזְרָעִין אַחַר הַפֶּסַח, וְגַם אֵין מְבִיאִין לְשָׁם תְּבוּאָה כְּלָל מִמְּדִינוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת שֶׁזּוֹרְעִין בָּהֶם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחרכד – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין רֹב הָעוֹלָם נוֹהֲגִין שָׁם אִסּוּר חָדָשׁ.

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּתרכה לְפִי שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, שֶׁעִקַּר שְׁתִיָּתָם הוּא הַשֵּׁכָר, לְפִיכָךְ הֵם סוֹמְכִים עַל מִקְצָת הָרִאשׁוֹנִיםרכו הַסּוֹבְרִים שֶׁחָדָשׁ בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁגָּזְרוּ מִשּׁוּם אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל,154 וְלֹא גָּזְרוּ אֶלָּא בַּמְּקוֹמוֹת הַסְּמוּכִים לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל,רכז כְּגוֹן מִצְרַיִם וְעַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב וּבָבֶל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן של"א.רכח,155

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּת אַחֵררכט שֶׁסּוֹבְרִים שֶׁחָדָשׁ אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בִּתְבוּאָה שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּשְׁעַת קְצִירָה, אֲבָל לֹא בְּשֶׁל נָכְרִים. וּלְפִי זֶה צָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרְאֵלִים הַדָּרִים בַּכְּפָרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם תְּבוּאָה זְרוּעָה אַחַר הַפֶּסַח בְּשָׂדֶה שֶׁל הַשַּׂר שֶׁיִּנְהֲגוּ בָּהּ אִסּוּר חָדָשׁ.156

אֲבָל כָּל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ157 לֹא יִסְמֹךְ עַל הַמַּתִּירִים הַלָּלוּ וְיַחֲמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹרל כְּהַסְכָּמַת רֹב הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְהָאַחֲרוֹנִיםרלא שֶׁהֶחָדָשׁ נוֹהֵג מִן הַתּוֹרָה אַף בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץרלב וּבְכָל מָקוֹם158 אַף בְּשֶׁל נָכְרִים,רלג כִּי כֵּן עִקָּר.רלד,159

עַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן רצ"גרלה,160 שֶׁהַנִּזְהָר מֵחָדָשׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ לִזָּהֵר גַּם מִיֵּין־שָׂרָף וּמִמֵּי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוּהוּ בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר,רלו,161 עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין הֶחָדָשׁ: