SECTION 484 [The Laws Pertaining to a Person] who Desires to Conduct a Seder in Several Homes (1-6)

סימן תפד מִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת הַסֵּדֶר בְּהַרְבֵּה בָּתִּים וּבוֹ ו' סְעִיפִים:

1 How should a person conduct himself when he desires to conduct Sedarim in a number of homes, because no one in those [homes] knows how to recite Kiddush, the Haggadah, Hallel, andthe Grace after Meals, and this person needs to enable them to fulfill their obligation? He should first conduct the Seder in his own home, [beginning with Kiddush and continuing] until after drinking the cup [of wine] over which the Grace after Meals [is recited].1

Then, if [the person] desires to go to another home, he should [do the following in that house]: He should take a cup [of wine] from one of the members of that household and recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen, the Kiddush, and [the blessing] Shehecheyanu over it.2 He should [then] return the cup to [the person from whom he took it] and each of [the members of the household] should drink from his own cup [of wine. However, the person who recited Kiddush] should not taste from the cup at all. [The rationale is that: a)] he already ate the afikoman in his house3 and [b) he] has not yet concluded the Hallel, and he is forbidden to drink wine before concluding the Hallel.4

Even though he will not be tasting [the wine] at all with [the people for whom he is conducting the Seder, this person] may recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen for them,5 because the blessing Borei pri hagafen that is made over the cup of Kiddush [differs] from [all] the other blessings [recited in appreciation of] the satisfaction [one receives. The other blessings] are not obligations incumbent upon a person. Therefore, if [the person] himself is not deriving benefit, he may not recite the blessing in order to fulfill the obligation of one who does not know how to recite the blessing, as explained in sec. 167[:23].6 The blessing Borei pri hagafen [recited for Kiddush], by contrast, is an obligation like the Kiddush [itself]. Therefore, the laws applying to it are the same as those [applying to] Kiddush itself, i.e., a person may recite Kiddush on behalf of others7 who do not know how to recite Kiddush8 even though he has no need to recite Kiddush for himself, as explained in sec. 273[:6]. Consult that text.

א מִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת הַסֵּדֶר בְּהַרְבֵּה בָּתִּיםא לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְקַדֵּשׁ וְלוֹמַר הַהַגָּדָה וְהַלֵּל וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן וְצָרִיךְ לְהוֹצִיאָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם, כֵּיצַד יִתְנַהֵג? יַעֲשֶׂה הַסֵּדֶר תְּחִלָּה בְּבֵיתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר שְׁתִיַּת כּוֹס בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,1 וְאָז אִם יִרְצֶה לֵילֵךְ לְבַיִת אַחֵר יִקַּח כּוֹסוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הַבַּיִת וִיבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" וְקִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם וְ"שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ",2 וְיַחֲזִיר לָהֶם הַכּוֹס וְיִשְׁתּוּ כָּל אֶחָד מִכּוֹסוֹ, אֲבָל הוּא לֹא יִטְעֹם כְּלוּם מֵהַכּוֹס,ב שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר אָכַל הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן בְּבֵיתוֹ,ג,3 וְגַם עֲדַיִן לֹא גָּמַר הַהַלֵּל בְּבֵיתוֹ, וְאָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן קֹדֶם גְּמַר הַהַלֵּל.ד,4

וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יָכוֹל הוּא לְבָרֵךְ לָהֶם "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ טוֹעֵם עִמָּהֶם כְּלוּם,5 לְפִי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" זוֹ שֶׁעַל כּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ אֵינָהּ כִּשְׁאָר בִּרְכוֹת הַנֶּהֱנִין שֶׁאֵינָן חוֹבָה עַל הָאָדָם, וְלָכֵן אִם הוּא אֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כְּלוּם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא אֶת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ז,ה,6 אֲבָל בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" זוֹ הִיא חוֹבָה כְּמוֹ קִדּוּשׁ, וְלָכֵן דִּינָהּ כְּמוֹ קִדּוּשׁ עַצְמוֹ שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁ לַאֲחֵרִיםו,7 שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹדְעִין לְקַדֵּשׁז אַף שֶׁהוּא עַצְמוֹ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְקִדּוּשׁ זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"גח עַיֵּן שָׁם:

2 Afterwards, [the person conducting the Seder] should give [the participants] vegetables that were dipped [in vinegar or salt water].9 [He should] recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah for them if none [of the participants] knows how to recite the blessing. [The person conducting the Seder] may recite the blessing for the others even though he does not partake of the vegetables – [he may not partake of them] since he already partook of the afikoman10– because this [recitation of] the blessing Borei pri haadamah is also different from other Birchos HaNehenin, which are left to a person’s discretion.

[In this instance, however, the blessing] resembles an obligation. [The rationale is that] our Sages ordained that the vegetable be eaten before [reciting] the Haggadah,9and it is impossible to partake of it without [reciting] a blessing [beforehand]. Therefore, the laws applying to [this blessing of Borei pri haadamah] resemble [those applying to the blessing] Borei pri hagafen recited for Kiddush. [The person conducting the Seder] may thus recite this blessing for [the participants] even though he does not partake of [the vegetable] with them.11

ב וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַאֲכִילֵם יְרָקוֹת בְּטִבּוּל,9 וִיבָרֵךְ לָהֶם "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה"ט אִם אֵין בָּהֶם מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ.

וְאַף שֶׁהוּא לֹא יִטְעֹם מֵהַיְרָקוֹת, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר אָכַל הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן10 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ לָהֶם, לְפִי שֶׁגַּם בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" זוֹ אֵינָהּ כִּשְׁאָר בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין שֶׁהֵן רְשׁוּת, אֶלָּא הִיא כְּמוֹ חוֹבָהי מֵחֲמַת תַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ לֶאֱכֹל יָרָק קֹדֶם הַהַגָּדָה,יא,9 וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, וְלָכֵן דִּינָהּ כְּ"בוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ לָהֶם אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ טוֹעֵם כְּלוּם עִמָּהֶם:11

3 Afterwards, [the person conducting the Seder] should recite the Mah nishtanah12and the entire Haggadah in a language [the listeners] understand.13 (Alternatively, the person should explain to [the participants] the concepts that are necessary to mention according to the fundamentals of the law. See sec. 473[:43].)14 Afterwards, [he should recite] Hallel until the end of the blessing asher ga’alanu [in the Holy Tongue] even though [the participants] do not understand it.15

[The person leading the Seder] should then recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen for [the participants] as is the custom in these regions,16 as explained in sec. 474[:2], if there is no one among [the participants] who knows how to recite the blessing. All [those present] should [then] drink their cups [of wine].

[The participants in the Seder] should then eat matzah and maror. [The person conducting the Seder] should recite the blessings al achilas matzah and al achilas maror for [the others. This is permitted] because even a person who already fulfilled his obligation may [recite all the blessings for the mitzvos to] fulfill the obligation of others who do not know [how to recite these blessings]. Even though he will not eat with [the others, the person conducting the Seder] may also recite the blessing HaMotzi for [the participants]7 if there is no one among them who knows how to recite this blessing. [The rationale is that the recitation of] the blessing HaMotzi for eating matzah on the first night of Pesach is an obligation17 like the eating of matzah itself. Therefore, the laws applying to it are the same as [those applying to] the blessing Borei pri hagafen recited in Kiddush, as explained in sec. 167[:23].6 [The person conducting the Seder] should then have [the participants] eat the korech and the entire meal until the Grace after Meals. [While they are eating, the person conducting the Seder] may go to another house and perform [the Seder for them] in this manner. He may do the same in the third or fourth homes.

[The person conducting the Seder] may not recite the Grace after Meals for [the others], since he did not eat with them, and the Torah commanded:18 “And you shall eat, be satiated, and bless.” [The implication is that only] one who eats should [recite] the blessing.19 See sec. 186.20 (In that source, it is explained that it is a Rabbinic ordinance that one may not recite Grace for others,21 and this verse is merely an asmachta.)22 Consult that source.

ג וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר לִפְנֵיהֶם: "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה"יב,12 וְכָל הַהַגָּדָה בְּלָשׁוֹן שֶׁהֵם מְבִינִיםיג,13 (אוֹ יְפָרֵשׁ לָהֶם הָעִנְיָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, עַיֵּן סִימָן תע"גיד,14).

וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַלֵּל עַד סוֹף בִּרְכַּת "אֲשֶׁר גְּאָלָנוּ" אַף אִם אֵינָן מְבִינִים הַלָּשׁוֹן.טו,15

וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְבָרֵךְ לָהֶם "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ16 שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ד,טז אִם אֵין בָּהֶם מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ, וְיִשְׁתּוּ כָּל אֶחָד כּוֹסוֹ.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹאכְלוּ מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר, וְהוּא יְבָרֵךְ לָהֶם "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" וְ"עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר", שֶׁכָּל בִּרְכוֹת הַמִּצְוֹת אַף מִי שֶׁיָּצָא כְּבָר יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ – יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹדְעִין.יז וְגַם "הַמּוֹצִיא" יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ לָהֶםיח,7 אִם אֵין בָּהֶם מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְיט אַף שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ טוֹעֵם עִמָּהֶם, לְפִי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" שֶׁל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה בְּלֵיל רִאשׁוֹן הוּא חוֹבָה17 כְּמוֹ אֲכִילַת מַצָּה עַצְמָהּ, וְדִינָהּ כְּ"בוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁכ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ז.כא,6

וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַנִּיחֵם לֶאֱכֹל הַכְּרִיכָה וְכָל הַסְּעוּדָה עַד לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, וּבְתוֹךְ כָּךְ יֵלֵךְ הוּא לְבַיִת אַחֵר וְיַעֲשֶׂה כַּסֵּדֶר הַזֶּה,כב וְכֵן לְבַיִת שְׁלִישִׁי וּרְבִיעִי.

אֲבָל אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ לָהֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל עִמָּהֶם,כג וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה:כד,18 "וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבֵרַכְתָּ", מִי שֶׁאוֹכֵל – הוּא יְבָרֵךְ,כה,19 עַיֵּן סִימָן קפ"וכו,20 (כִּי שָׁם נִתְבָּאֵר שֶׁמִּדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְבָרֵךְ לָהֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,21 וּמִקְרָא זֶה אַסְמַכְתָּא22 בְּעָלְמָא הוּא), עַיֵּן שָׁם:

4 After [reciting the Haggadah for others, the person conducting the Seder] may go back to his own home to complete the Hallel and the Haggadah23for the members of his household.24 Afterwards, he should return to the homes of the others to complete the Hallel and the Haggadah for them. They should drink the fourth cup, but he should not drink with them because he will have already drunk the four cups [ordained by the Sages].25

(If [the person conducting the Seder] desires, he may complete the Hallel and the Haggadah in [one of] the homes of [the other people], and drink the fourth cup there.26

If [the others] do not know how to recite Grace,27 [the person conducting the Seder] should read with them the entire Grace word by word. He is not considered as [one who is] reciting a blessing in vain. [The rationale is that] since [the others] repeat [Grace] after [the person leading the Seder] word for word, it is just like he is reading for a child and teaching him to recite Grace after eating.28

[If the person conducting the Seder chooses to drink the fourth cup of wine in another home, when he finishes reciting the Haggadah for that group,] he should then return home and complete the Hallel and the Haggadah for the members of his household. They should drink the fourth cup [of wine], but [the person conducting the Seder] should not drink with them, since he already drank [the fourth cup] in one of the [other] homes.)

ד וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵלֵךְ לְבֵיתוֹ לִגְמֹר הַהַלֵּל וְהַהַגָּדָה23 לִבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ,כז,24 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵלֵךְ לְבָתֵּיהֶם לִגְמֹר לָהֶם הַהַלֵּל וְהַהַגָּדָה, וְהֵם שׁוֹתִים כּוֹס רְבִיעִי, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה עִמָּהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר שָׁתָה ד' כּוֹסוֹת.25

(וְאִם הוּא רוֹצֶה – יָכוֹל לְהַקְדִּים לִגְמֹר הַהַלֵּל וְהַגָּדָה בְּבָתֵּיהֶם, וְיָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹת כּוֹס רְבִיעִי בְּבַיִת אֶחָד מֵהֶם.כח,26

וְאִם הֵם אֵינָן יוֹדְעִין לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן27 – יִקְרָא הוּא עִמָּהֶם כָּל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה,כט וְאֵינוֹ כִּמְבָרֵךְ לְבַטָּלָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵן עוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו כָּל מִלָּה וּמִלָּה,ל וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּמַקְרֵא אֶת הַקָּטָן וּמְלַמְּדוֹ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אַחַר אֲכִילָתוֹ.לא,28

וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵלֵךְ לְבֵיתוֹ לִגְמֹר הַהַלֵּל וְהַהַגָּדָה לִבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ, וְהֵם שׁוֹתִים כּוֹס הָרְבִיעִי, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה עִמָּהֶם אִם כְּבָר שָׁתָה בְּאֶחָד מֵהַבָּתִּים):

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 If [the person conducting the Seder for the others] desires, he may initially complete the Hallel and the Haggadah in his own home and then go to the homes of others to recite Kiddush for them and [afterwards] recite the Haggadah and the Hallel for them. He should not taste any [food] at their [homes], not even the fourth cup [of wine] if he already drank the fourth cup in his home.

If [the person conducting the Seder in various locations] desires to first conduct the entire Seder in the homes of others and then go to his own home and begin the Seder from Kiddush and [proceed] further, he has that option.29 He should be careful not to taste any [food] at the homes of the others, for it is forbidden to taste anything before reciting Kiddush.30 [The person] does not fulfill his obligation [for Kiddush] by reciting Kiddush in their homes, because he will not eat his meal there, and Kiddush [may only be recited] in the place of [one’s] meal.31

ה וְאִם הוּא רוֹצֶה – יָכוֹל לִגְמֹר הַהַלֵּל וְהַגָּדָה מִתְּחִלָּה בְּבֵיתוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵלֵךְ לְבָתִּים אֲחֵרִיםלב לְקַדֵּשׁ לָהֶם וְלוֹמַר לָהֶם הַהַגָּדָה וְהַלֵּל, וְלֹא יִטְעֹם עִמָּהֶם אַף מִן הַכּוֹס רְבִיעִי אִם כְּבָר שָׁתָה כּוֹס הָרְבִיעִי בְּבֵיתוֹ.

וְאִם הוּא רוֹצֶה לְהַקְדִּים לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל הַסֵּדֶר בְּבָתִּים אֲחֵרִים וְלֵילֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ לְבֵיתוֹ לְהַתְחִיל הַסֵּדֶר מִקִּדּוּשׁ וָאֵילָךְ – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ.29 וְיִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִטְעֹם כְּלוּם בְּבָתֵּיהֶם,לג שֶׁאָסוּר לִטְעֹם קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ,לד,30 וְהוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בְּמַה שֶּׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ בְּבָתֵּיהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ סוֹעֵד שָׁם בְּבָתֵּיהֶם, וְאֵין קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָה:לה,31

6 [The person conducting the Seder] may not, however, recite Kiddush in his home, carry out the entire Seder until after eating the korech, and then go to another house [and repeat the Kiddush and the Haggadah], because it is forbidden for a person to leave [the place of] his meal before reciting Grace and go to another home. [This restriction applies] even when [the person] intends to return to his place, eat more, and then recite Grace afterwards. The only exception [to the above is when the person] is [leaving the place of his meal] to fulfill a mitzvah that is an urgent imperative, as explained in sec. 178[:6]32 and in sec. 184[:1]. The present instance is not deemed a mitzvah that is an urgent imperative, since one can conduct the Seder in the homes of others after he concludes his meal and recites Grace in his home.

Nevertheless, one may leave [the place of] his meal before eating the afikoman and go to another home and conduct the entire Seder for [the people there]. He may eat the afikoman with them and recite Grace there with them if initially, when he recited the blessing HaMotzi, he intended to complete his meal in another home [and recite Grace there]. See sec. 178[:4]33 and sec. 479[:8].34

ו אֲבָל אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁ בִּתְחִלָּה בְּבֵיתוֹ וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל הַסֵּדֶר עַד לְאַחַר הַכְּרִיכָה וְלֵילֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ לְבַיִת אַחֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לְאָדָם לַעֲקֹר מִסְּעוּדָתוֹ קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן לֵילֵךְ לְבַיִת אַחֵר אַף שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר לִמְקוֹמוֹ לֶאֱכֹל עוֹד וּלְבָרֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוֹלֵךְ לִדְבַר מִצְוָה עוֹבֶרֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"חלו,32 וְקפ"ד,לז וְכָאן אֵין מִצְוָה עוֹבֶרֶת, שֶׁהֲרֵי יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַסֵּדֶר בְּבָתִּים אֲחֵרִים לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּגְמֹר סְעוּדָתוֹ וִיבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּבֵיתוֹ.לח

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יָכוֹל לַעֲקֹר מִסְּעוּדָתוֹ קֹדֶם אֲכִילַת הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן וְיֵלֵךְ לְבַיִת אַחֵר וְיַעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם כָּל הַסֵּדֶר וְיֹאכַל שָׁם עִמָּהֶם הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן וִיבָרֵךְ שָׁם עִמָּהֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,לט אִם הָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ לְכָךְ מִתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" שֶׁיִּגְמֹר סְעוּדָתוֹ בְּבַיִת אַחֵר וִיבָרֵךְ שָׁם, עַיֵּן סִימָן קע"חמ,33 וְתע"ט:מא,34