SECTION 483 The Laws Pertaining to a Person who does not Have Wine [for Pesach] (1-6)

סימן תפג דִּין מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ יַיִן וּבוֹ ו' סְעִיפִים:

1 When a person does not have wine or any other beverage that is “the wine of the region,”1 he should recite Kiddush over bread, [i.e., matzah,]2 before reciting the Haggadah. Before reciting Kiddush, he should break the middle matzah in two. Half he should set aside for the afikoman,3 and [the other] half he should place between the two whole matzos, holding [all] three [matzos] in his hand while making the blessing HaMotzi. Thus, he should hold the uppermost [matzah] from above, the lowermost [matzah] from below, with the broken piece in the middle.4 Afterwards, he may remove his hand from below the lowermost [matz­ah] and place both hands on the uppermost [matzah]. He should recite the Kiddush, sanctifying the day, and [the blessing] Shehecheyanu.5

If Pesach falls on Saturday night, [a person] should recite [the blessings alluded to by the acronym] YaKNaHaZ.6 Afterwards, he should hold the uppermost matzah and the broken piece below it and recite the blessing al achilas matzah. He should break off pieces from both of them simultaneously and eat an olive-sized portion from each one, as explained in sec. 475[:5]. Consult that source for the rationale for all the above.7

Why should one not recite the blessing al achilas matzah, [“concerning the eating of matzah,”]immediately after [the blessing] HaMotzi? Because [the recitation of] the Kiddush sanctifying the day occurs more frequently than [the recitation of] the blessing al achilas matzah, recurring on all festivals and Shabbasos. Any practice that occurs more frequently than another [practice] receives precedence over that other one.8

א מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ יַיִןא וְלֹא שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁהוּא חֲמַר מְדִינָהב,1 – יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת2 קֹדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה. וְקֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ יִבְצַע מַצָּה הָאֶמְצָעִית לִשְׁנַיִם,ג חֶצְיָהּ יַצְנִיעַ לַאֲפִיקוֹמָןד,3 וְחֶצְיָהּ יָשִׂים בֵּין שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׁלֵמוֹת, וְיֶאֱחֹז שְׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּיָדוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיֶּאֱחֹז בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה מִלְמַעְלָה וּבַתַּחְתּוֹנָה מִלְּמַטָּה וְהַפְּרוּסָה בֵּינֵיהֶן,4 וִיבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא", וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁמִיט יָדוֹ מִתַּחַת הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה וְיַנִּיחַ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיוה עַל גַּבֵּי הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וְיֹאמַר קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם וְ"שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ".5

וְאִם חָל בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – אוֹמֵר יַיִן־קִדּוּשׁ־נֵר־הַבְדָּלָה־זְמַן,ו,6 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֶאֱחֹז בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה וּבַפְּרוּסָה שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ וִיבָרֵךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה", וְיִבְצַע מִשְׁתֵּיהֶן יַחַד וְיֹאכַל כְּזַיִת מִזּוֹ וּכְזַיִת מִזּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ה,ז עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם לְכָל זֶה.7

וְלָמָּה אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" מִיָּד אַחַר "הַמּוֹצִיא"? לְפִי שֶׁקִּדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם הוּא תָּדִיר יוֹתֵר מִבִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה",ח שֶׁהוּא נוֹהֵג בְּכָל יוֹם טוֹב וְשַׁבָּת, וְכָל הַתָּדִיר מֵחֲבֵרוֹ – קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ:ט,8

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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2 After eating the two olive-sized portions of matzah, [a person] should not eat more [matz­ah or other food] before reciting the Haggadah. Instead, he should immediately take vegetables and eat them after dipping them.9 He should recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah over them if they are the types of vegetables that are not eaten to accompany bread, in which instance, the blessing over the bread does not cover them. See sec. 177.10

Afterwards, the Mah nishtanah and the entire Haggadah until the end of the blessing ga’al Yisrael should be recited.11 Then, he should recite the blessing over the maror and eat it, and afterwards, [eat] the korech.

Why should [the person] not eat the maror immediately after eating the matzah,12 before [reciting] the Haggadah? Because according to law, it is not at all appropriate to eat matzah or maror before [reciting] the Haggadah, (since the commandment to recite the Haggadah states:13 “You shall tell your children on that day, ‘It is for the sake of this….’” Our Sages14 taught: [“This” refers to visible symbols of redemption. Thus,] the verse is teaching [that the obligation applies] “when matzah and maror are placed before you.” If one already ate from them, how is it appropriate to say, “It is for the sake of this”?) [With regard to the matzah, however, in this instance, there is no other option. Since he has no wine or “wine of the region,”] he is obligated to eat matzah before reciting the Haggadah because he must recite Kiddush on bread, [i.e., the matzah]. He cannot recite Kiddush after reciting the Haggadah because [the Seder begins with eating the vegetable, and] one may not partake of the vegetables [for karpas] before reciting the Haggadah, since it is forbidden to taste anything before [reciting] Kiddush.

ב וְאַחַר שֶׁאָכַל הַשְּׁנֵי כְּזֵיתִים מַצָּה – לֹא יֹאכַל יוֹתֵר קֹדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה, אֶלָּא מִיָּד יִקַּח יְרָקוֹת וְיֹאכְלֵם בְּטִבּוּל,י,9 וִיבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה"יא אִם הֵם מִמִּינֵי יְרָקוֹת שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְלַפֵּת בָּהֶם אֶת הַפַּת, שֶׁאֵין בִּרְכַּת הַפַּת פּוֹטַרְתָּם, עַיֵּן סִימָן קע"ז.יב,10 וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה" וְכָל הַהַגָּדָה עַד סוֹף בִּרְכַּת "גָּאַל יִשְׂרָאֵל".יג,11 וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמָּרוֹר, וְאוֹכֵל אַחַר כָּךְיד הַכְּרִיכָה.טו

וְלָמָּה אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל הַמָּרוֹר מִיָּד אַחַר אֲכִילַת הַמַּצָּה12 קֹדֶם הַהַגָּדָה? לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין אֵין נָכוֹן כְּלָל לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר קֹדֶם הַהַגָּדָהטז (שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּמִצְוַת הַהַגָּדָה נֶאֱמַר:יז,13 "וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר בַּעֲבוּר זֶה", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:יח,14 "בַּעֲבוּר זֶה", בַּעֲבוּר מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר הַמֻּנָּחִים לְפָנֶיךָ, וְאִם כְּבָר אָכַל מֵהֶם – הַאֵיךְ שַׁיָּךְ לוֹמַר "בַּעֲבוּר זֶה"יט), אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּצָּה מֻכְרָח הוּא לְאָכְלָהּ קֹדֶם הַהַגָּדָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ הוּא לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת,כ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְקַדֵּשׁ אַחַר הַהַגָּדָה לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לֶאֱכֹל הַיְרָקוֹת קֹדֶם הַהַגָּדָה, שֶׁאָסוּר לִטְעֹם כְּלוּם קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ:כא

3 After the korech, [the person] should eat his entire meal and then the afikoman. [He should then recite] the Grace after Meals and conclude the Hallel and the Haggadah. He should not recite the blessing at the conclusion of [the passage] Yehallelucha or at the conclusion of [the passage] Yishtabach,15because this blessing was [only] ordained to be recited on the night of Pesach over a cup [of wine].

In contrast, the blessing asher ga’alanu should be recited [after the conclusion of the first part of the Haggadah] even without a cup [of wine. The rationale is that this blessing] was ordained to be recited in place of the blessing sheasah nissim la’avoseinu (“Who performed miracles on behalf of our ancestors”), which is recited [in commemoration] over all miracles16 without a cup [of wine].

ג וְאַחַר הַכְּרִיכָה אוֹכֵל כָּל סְעוּדָתוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אֲפִיקוֹמָן וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, וְגוֹמֵר הַהַלֵּל וְהַהַגָּדָה, וְלֹא יֹאמַר הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁבַּחֲתִימַת "יְהַלְלוּךָ"ככ אוֹ שֶׁבַּחֲתִימַת "יִשְׁתַּבַּח",כג,15 לְפִי שֶׁהַבְּרָכָה זוֹ לֹא נִתְקְנָה בְּלֵיל פֶּסַח אֶלָּא עַל הַכּוֹס,כד מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּרְכַּת "אֲשֶׁר גְּאָלָנוּ" שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ אוֹתָהּ אַף בְּלֹא כּוֹס, לְפִי שֶׁנִּתְקְנָה כְּנֶגֶד בִּרְכַּת "שֶׁעָשָׂה נִסִּים לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ"כה שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל כָּל הַנִּסִּיםכו,16 בְּלֹא כּוֹס:

4 All the above applies when one has no wine at all nor any beverage that is “the wine of the region.” If, however, [a person] has one cup of wine or “the wine of the region,” he should recite Kiddush on it and not recite Kiddush on bread, [i.e., matzah].

[This ruling applies] even [to an] individual who usually recites Kiddush on bread on other festivals and Shabbasos.17 However, on this night, when the Sages ordained that [one drink] four cups [of wine], they ordained that Kiddush be recited on wine and not on bread [i.e. matzah].18

ד וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ יַיִן כְּלָל וְלֹא שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁהוּא חֲמַר מְדִינָה, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ כּוֹס אֶחָד יַיִןכז אוֹ חֲמַר מְדִינָהכח – יְקַדֵּשׁ עָלָיו, וְלֹא יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת, אַף אִם בִּשְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִים וְשַׁבָּתוֹת הוּא מְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת,כט,17 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּלַיְלָה זֶה כְּשֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים ד' כּוֹסוֹת תִּקְּנוּ לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן וְלֹא עַל הַפַּת:ל,18

5 If [the person] has [only] two cups [of wine or other beverages that are “the wine of the region”], he should recite Kiddush on the first. Afterwards, he should recite the Haggadah without a cup [of wine], and recite the Grace after Meals on the second cup.

True, one should not bypass a mitzvah,19and it would be fitting to recite the Haggadah on the second cup. Nevertheless, since the Sages ordained that on this night a cup [of wine] be [drunk] for Grace and a cup for the Haggadah, these two cups of wine are of equal [halachic weight]. Accordingly, when only one cup [of wine] remains, it is more appropriate to recite Grace over it, since even without [the Sages’] ordinance [to drink four cups of wine on Pesach], there are authorities who maintain that [the recitation of] the Grace after Meals always requires a cup [of wine] even when one recites Grace when [eating] alone, as stated in sec. 182[:1].

Nevertheless, when one has only one cup [of wine], he should recite Kiddush on it and not leave the cup for Grace while reciting Kiddush on bread,20 because there are authorities who maintain that Kiddush should not be recited on bread at all, as stated in sec. 272[:11].

ה וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת – יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הָרִאשׁוֹן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹאמַר הַהַגָּדָה בְּלֹא כּוֹס, וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן יְבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס הַשֵּׁנִי.לא

וְאַף שֶׁאֵין מַעֲבִירִין עַל הַמִּצְוֹתלב,19 וְהָיָה רָאוּי לוֹמַר הַהַגָּדָה עַל כּוֹס שֵׁנִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִיםלג בְּלֵיל זֶה כּוֹס לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן וְכוֹס לַהַגָּדָה, וּשְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ שְׁקוּלִין הֵן, שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם מִתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים בְּלַיְלָה זֶה, אִם כֵּן כְּשֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאַר לוֹ רַק כּוֹס אֶחָד – רָאוּי יוֹתֵר לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁאַף בְּלֹא תַּקָּנָה זוֹ יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁכָּל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן טְעוּנָה כּוֹס אֲפִלּוּ בְּיָחִיד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ב.לד

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ רַק כּוֹס אֶחָד בִּלְבַד – מְקַדֵּשׁ עָלָיו, וְאֵינוֹ מַנִּיחוֹ לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן וּמְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת,20 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עַל הַפַּת כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ער"ב:לה

6 If [a person] has three cups [of wine], he should recite Kiddush on one, the Haggadah on the [second], and Grace on the [third]. He should not leave one over for the Hallel recited after Grace (so that he could recite [the passage] Yehallelucha21over it). [The rationale is that one] should not bypass a mitzvah.19

If a person has [no more than] four cups of wine, he should drink all of them on the first night and not leave [even] one of them for the second night. [The rationale is that] the first night is of fundamental importance, for we are [presently] certain about the [exact] date of [Rosh Chodesh], and [thus] we know that [fundamentally] the first day is holy and the second day [by right should be] an ordinary weekday. We regard [the second day] as holy only to avoid denigrating the custom of our ancestors.22

ו וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ ג' כּוֹסוֹת – מְקַדֵּשׁ עַל אֶחָד, וְאוֹמֵר הַהַגָּדָה עַל אֶחָד, וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל אֶחָד,לו וְאֵינוֹ מַנִּיחַ אֶחָד לְהַלֵּל שֶׁלְּאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן (כְּדֵי לוֹמַר עָלָיו "יְהַלְלוּךָ"לז),21 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַעֲבִירִין עַל הַמִּצְוֹת.19

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת – יִשְׁתֶּה כֻּלָּם בְּלֵיל רִאשׁוֹן, וְלֹא יַנִּיחַ אֶחָד מֵהֶם לְלֵיל שֵׁנִי, לְפִי שֶׁלֵּיל רִאשׁוֹן הוּא עִקָּר,לח שֶׁאָנוּ בְּקִיאִין בִּקְבִיעַת הַחֹדֶשׁ וְיוֹדְעִין אָנוּ שֶׁיּוֹם רִאשׁוֹן הוּא קֹדֶשׁ וְהַשֵּׁנִי חֹל, וְאֵין אָנוּ נוֹהֲגִין בּוֹ קֹדֶשׁ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא לְזַלְזֵל בְּמִנְהַג אֲבוֹתֵינוּ:לט,22