SECTION 481 Not to Drink after the Four Cups [of Wine] (1-2)

סימן תפא שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת אַחַר אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 It has become universal Jewish custom from the early generations [onward] to refrain from drinking wine or any other intoxicating beverage after [drinking] the fourth cup [of wine.1 The rationale is that] a person is obligated to occupy himself the entire night in [the study of] the laws of Pesach and [the story of] the Exodus from Egypt, relating the miracles and wonders that the Holy One, blessed be He, performed on behalf of our ancestors until he is overcome by sleep. If one would be permitted to drink [wine], there is room for concern that he would become intoxicated and would not occupy himself [with study] or relate [these miracles] at all. [However,] once having fallen asleep, [if one awakens during the night,] it is permitted for him to drink.

There are authorities who differ with the above [rationale] and maintain that according to the fundamentals of the law, it is forbidden for one to drink all beverages, so that the flavor of the matzah [eaten as] the afikoman will not depart from his mouth. [The only] exceptions are water2 and other similar beverages, e.g., ginger water, licorice water, and apple water.3 [The term “apple water”] refers to water that was cooked together with apples. However, the apple drinkthat is made in Germany [by] pressing apples in a press4 has a significant flavor and is not like water. [Hence,] it is forbidden to drink [it at this time].

Weight should be given to [the more stringent opinion] unless there is a great need.5 For example, [in the instance of] an extremely delicate person or one who desires very much to drink, it is possible to rely on the first opinion and allow [such a person] to drink beverages that will not lead to intoxication.

If the person does not have other beverages, only wine, he may be permitted to drink a fifth cup [of wine]6 and recite the Great Hallel,7 [the passage beginning with the word] Nishmas, and [the blessing] Yishtabach including its conclusion, provided he did not recite these passages on the fourth cup [of wine].8

On the second night, it is possible to rely on the first opinion [and, after the Seder, allow one] to drink any beverage that does not lead to intoxication even if there is no great need.9 [The rationale is that] according to the fundamentals of the law, there is no prohibition against eating or drinking after the third or fourth cup [of wine] on the second night [of Pesach]. It is only that those who are meticulous [observe] the second night [in a similar manner] as the first. Thus, one who eats or drinks [after the third or fourth cup of wine] is not culpable at all. All he has done is removed himself from the category of those who are meticulous. [He has also] violated the counsel of the Sages who said10 that a person should never remove himself from the [conduct of the] community as a whole.

However, with regard to other practices observed this night, there is absolutely no difference between the first night [of Pesach] and the second.11

א אַחַר ד' כּוֹסוֹת נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִדּוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִןא אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה הַמְשַׁכֵּר,ב,1 לְפִי שֶׁחַיָּב אָדָם לַעֲסֹק כָּל הַלַּיְלָה בְּהִלְכוֹת פֶּסַח וּבִיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִםג וּלְסַפֵּר בְּנִסִּים וְנִפְלָאוֹת שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ עַד שֶׁתַּחְטְפֶנּוּ שֵׁנָה,ד וְאִם יְהֵא מֻתָּר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁתַּכֵּרה וְלֹא יַעֲסֹק וִיסַפֵּר כְּלָל. אֲבָל לְאַחַר שֶׁחֲטָפַתּוּ שֵׁנָה – מֻתָּר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת.ו

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִיםז שֶׁמֵּעִקַּר הַדִּין אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת כָּל מַשְׁקֶה, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבֹר מִפִּיו טַעַם מַצָּה שֶׁל הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן, חוּץ מִמַּיִם2 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם, כְּגוֹן מֵי זַנְגְּבִיל (שֶׁקּוֹרִין אינגבר וואשר),ח וּמֵי שֹׁרֶשׁ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין לאקריץ), וּמֵי תַּפּוּחִים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין עפיל טראנק)ט,3 שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלִים מַיִם עִם תַּפּוּחִים,י אֲבָל עפיל טראנק שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּאַשְׁכְּנַז שֶׁכּוֹתְשִׁין הַתַּפּוּחִים בְּבֵית הַבַּד4 וְיֵשׁ לוֹ טַעַם גָּדוֹל – אֵינוֹ כְּמַיִם, וְאָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת.יא

וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶםיב אִם לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ הַרְבֵּה,5 כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא אִסְטְנִיס אוֹ שֶׁתָּאֵב הַרְבֵּה לִשְׁתּוֹת – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְהַתִּיר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת שְׁאָר הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁאֵינָן מְשַׁכְּרִין. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין רַק יַיִן – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת כּוֹס חֲמִישִׁי6 וְלוֹמַר עָלָיו הַלֵּל הַגָּדוֹליג,7 וְ"נִשְׁמַת" וְ"יִשְׁתַּבַּח" עַד הַחֲתִימָה, וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרֵם עַל כּוֹס רְבִיעִי.יד,8

וּבְלֵיל ב' – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לִשְׁתּוֹת כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁאֵינָן מְשַׁכְּרִיןטו אַף שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַרְבֵּה,9 לְפִי שֶׁמֵּעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין אִסּוּר לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת בְּלֵיל ב' אַחַר כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי וְאַחַר כּוֹס רְבִיעִי.

אֶלָּא שֶׁהַמְהַדְּרִין נוֹהֲגִין לֵיל ב' כְּלֵיל א', וְהָאוֹכֵל וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה – אֵין עָלָיו כְּלוּם, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּמְצָא מוֹצִיא עַצְמוֹ מִכְּלַל הַמְהַדְּרִין, וְעוֹבֵר עַל דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִיםטז שֶׁאָמְרוּ:10 לְעוֹלָם אַל יוֹצִיא אָדָם אֶת עַצְמוֹ מִן הַכְּלָל.יז

אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים הַנּוֹהֲגִין בְּלַיְלָה זֶה – אֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין לֵיל א' לְלֵיל ב' בְּשׁוּם עִנְיָן:יח,11

2 It is customary before retiring for the night to recite only the blessing Hamapil12and the [first] passage of the Shema.13[The rationale is that the recitation of] this passage is mentioned in the Gemara.14[One should not] recite the other passages [and verses] which are customarily recited on other nights for protective purposes.15 [The rationale is that] this night is “a night of protection”16 [when the Jews are protected] from destructive forces.

Nevertheless, if when one recited the Shema in the synagogue it was not actually night,17 he must recite all three passages [of the Shema] before retiring, as explained in sec. 235. Consult that text.18

ב נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לִקְרוֹת עַל מִטָּתוֹ רַק בִּרְכַּת "הַמַּפִּיל"יט,12 וּפָרָשַׁת "שְׁמַע",כ,13 שֶׁפָּרָשָׁה זוֹ מֻזְכֶּרֶת בַּגְּמָרָא,כא,14 אֲבָל לֹא שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לִקְרוֹת בִּשְׁאָר לֵילוֹת כְּדֵי לְהָגֵן,כב,15 כִּי לַיְלָה זֶה לַיְלָה הַמְשֻׁמֶּרֶת16 הִיא מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין.כג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם כְּשֶׁקָּרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת לֹא הָיָה עֲדַיִן לַיְלָה מַמָּשׁ17 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִקְרוֹת כָּל הַג' פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת עַל מִטָּתוֹ,כד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רל"הכה עַיֵּן שָׁם:18