CHAPTER 12 [The Blessings Shehechiyanu, HaTov VehaMeitiv, and the like] (1–21)

פרק יב [בִּרְכַּת "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ", "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם וּבוֹ כא הֲלָכוֹת]

1 A person is obligated to recite a blessing over any happiness of the heart he experiences as a result of the goodness of this world. If no one else shares this positive experience with him, he must recite the blessing Shehecheyanu. If he shares the positive experience with someone, he should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv [praising G‑d “…Who is good and grants goodness”].

א א ב ג כָּל שִׂמְחַת לֵבָבד הַבָּאָה לְאָדָם מִטּוֹבַת עוֹלָם הַזֶּהה – חַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ, וְאִם אֵין עִמּוֹ שֻׁתָּף בַּטּוֹבָה – מְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ",ו וְאִם יֵשׁ עִמּוֹ שֻׁתָּף בַּטּוֹבָה – מְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב".ז

2 What is implied? When a person builds or purchases a new house or purchases new clothing — even if he already possesses a similar house and clothing — he is required to recite the blessing Shehecheyanu. Similarly, if he had purchased [such articles] once and now purchases [similar ones] again, he must recite the blessing every time [he purchases them. This requirement applies] not only for new items, but also for old ones, provided they are new for him — i.e., these articles never belonged to him. If they had belonged to him, but he sold them and then repurchased them, he should not recite a blessing over them.

If one bought a garment to wear at times, and for other members of his household to wear on other occasions, he should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv, since others share the positive experience with him.

ב כֵּיצַד? בָּנָה בַּיִת חָדָשׁח אוֹ קָנָה,ט אוֹ קָנָהי בְּגָדִים חֲדָשִׁים,יא אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ בַּיִת וּבְגָדִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶםיב – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ".יג וְכֵן אִם קָנָה וְחָזַר וְקָנָה – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל פַּעַם.יד וְלֹא עַל חֲדָשִׁים בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ יְשָׁנִיםטו כָּל שֶׁהֵם חֲדָשִׁים לוֹטז שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ שֶׁלּוֹ מֵעוֹלָם,יז אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שֶׁלּוֹ וּמְכָרָם וְחָזַר וּקְנָאָם – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם.יח

וְאִם קָנָה בֶּגֶד לְהִתְכַּסּוֹת בּוֹ פַּעַם הוּא וּפַעַם בְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ – מְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב",יט הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ עִמּוֹ שֻׁתָּף בַּטּוֹבָה.כ

3 If [such an article] was given to a person as a present, there are authorities who maintain that he should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMei­tiv rather than Shehecheyanu. [The rationale is that giving the gift] is a positive experience for both the recipient and the giver. (For if the recipient is poor, giving the gift is a positive experience for the giver, for the Holy One, blessed be He, gave him the merit to perform [the mitzvah of] charity. And if the recipient is wealthy, the giver will be happy for [it is a sign of esteem] that [such a person] accepts his present).

Other authorities differ [and maintain that only the recipient benefits from the gift]. Weight should be given to their words and [the recipient should] recite the blessing Shehecheyanu, for it is an appropriate and required blessing, and all authorities agree that it is not being recited in vain.

ג וְאִם נִתַּן לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכא שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְכב בִּמְקוֹם "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ"כג – "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב", שֶׁהוּא טוֹבָה לוֹ וְלַנּוֹתֵן (שֶׁאִם הַמְקַבֵּל עָנִי, הוּאכד טוֹבָה לַנּוֹתֵן, שֶׁזִּכָּהוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת צְדָקָה. וְאִם הַמְקַבֵּל עָשִׁיר – שָׂמֵחַ הַנּוֹתֵן, שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ מַתְּנָתוֹכה). וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים.כו וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם וּלְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ", שֶׁהִיא בְּרָכָה הָרְאוּיָה וּצְרִיכָה וְאֵינָהּ לְבַטָּלָה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.כז

4 Whenever the blessings Shehecheyanu or HaTov VehaMeitiv are recited on new clothing, it should be recited immediately upon purchasing them. [The rationale is that] the blessing is [recited] solely as [an expression of] the happiness of one’s heart — and that is experienced when making the purchase.

[The above law applies] provided he purchased a garment which was [fully] sewn and tailored. If, however, it [still] requires adjustments, there are authorities who maintain that the blessing should not be recited at the time of the purchase, but rather immediately after putting on [the finished garment]. If one did not recite the blessing at that time, it may [still] be recited as long as he has not taken [the garment] off. If, however, the person took the garment off with the intent not to put it on again directly afterwards, [but] only [to put it on again] later, he should not recite the blessing when he puts it on a second time.

ד וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" אוֹ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" עַל בְּגָדִים חֲדָשִׁים – מְבָרֵךְ מִיָּד בִּשְׁעַת הַקִּנְיָן, שֶׁאֵין הַבְּרָכָה אֶלָּא עַל שִׂמְחַת הַלֵּב שֶׁהוּא שָׂמֵחַ בִּקְנִיָּתָם.כח

וְהוּא שֶׁקָּנָה בֶּגֶד תָּפוּר וּמְתֻקָּן, אֲבָל אִם צָרִיךְ לְתָפְרוֹ – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכט שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ בִּשְׁעַת הַקִּנְיָןל אֶלָּא אַחַר שֶׁלְּבָשׁוֹ מִיָּד.לא וְאִם לֹא בֵּרַךְ – יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא פְּשָׁטוֹ.לב אֲבָל אִם פְּשָׁטוֹ עַל דַּעַת שֶׁלֹּא לַחֲזֹר וּלְלָבְשׁוֹ לְאַלְתַּר אֶלָּא לְאַחַר זְמַןלג – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ בִּלְבִישָׁה שְׁנִיָּה.לד

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 All the above applies to an important garment [whose purchase] brings happiness to a person’s heart. It should not be recited for less important garments, for example, a shirt, shoes, or socks. If, however, the person is poor and rejoices in [the acquisition of] such articles, he should recite the blessing. Conversely, a very wealthy person who buys fine clothing may not derive happiness from their purchase, because they are not so significant for him. [Hence,] he should not recite this blessing. In these regions, it is customary even for a poor person to refrain from reciting a blessing on a [new] shirt, shoes, and the like.

It is not customary to recite the blessing over the purchase — or the [initial] use — of other articles and utensils, even silver and gold items. Fundamentally, the Halachah [follows this view. This principle also] applies regarding [the purchase] of [sacred] texts.

ה וְכָל זֶה בְּבֶגֶד חָשׁוּב שֶׁלִּבּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם שָׂמֵחַ בּוֹ, אֲבָל עַל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כָּל כָּךְ, כְּגוֹן חָלוּק אוֹ מִנְעָלִים וְאַנְפִּילָאוֹתלה – אֵין לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם.לו וְאִם הוּא עָנִי וְשָׂמֵחַ בָּהֶם – יְבָרֵךְ.לז וְעָשִׁיר גָּדוֹל שֶׁקָּנָה בְּגָדִים חֲשׁוּבִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׂמֵחַ בָּהֶם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָם נֶחְשָׁבִים אֶצְלוֹ – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ.לח וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ עָנִי אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עַל חָלוּק וּמִנְעָלִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם.לט

עַל שְׁאָר כְּלֵי תַּשְׁמִישֵׁי אָדָם אֲפִלּוּ כְּלֵי כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב – אֵין נוֹהֲגִין לְבָרֵךְ כְּלָל, לֹא בִּקְנִיָּתָם וְלֹא בְּתַשְׁמִישָׁם.מ וְכֵן עִקָּר. וְכֵן בִּסְפָרִים.מא

6 Some authorities maintain that one who puts on a new garment should recite the blessing Malbish arumim [praising G‑d, “Who clothes the naked’’], although he already recited this blessing as part of the Morning [Blessings]. It is appropriate to recite the blessing without mentioning G‑d’s name and His Sovereignty. It is desirable to put on [the new garment] before reciting the Morning Blessings, and thus cover [the new garment] with the blessing Malbish arumim recited as part of the Morning Blessings.

Similarly, if one did not put a new belt on until after [reciting] the Morning Blessings, it is desirable to recite the blessing Ozer Yisrael b’gevurah, [praising G‑d “Who girds Israel with might,”] without G‑d’s name and His Sovereignty. Similarly, [when one first puts on a new] hat, he should say: Baruch Oter Yisrael b’siforah (“Blessed be He Who crowns Israel with glory”).

ו הַלּוֹבֵשׁ בֶּגֶד חָדָשׁ – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמב שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ "מַלְבִּישׁ עֲרֻמִּים", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּרַךְ בַּשַּׁחַר.מג וְנָכוֹן לְבָרֵךְ בְּלֹא שֵׁם וּמַלְכוּת.מד וְטוֹב לְלָבְשׁוֹ קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַשַּׁחַר, לְפָטְרוֹ בְּבִרְכַּת "מַלְבִּישׁ עֲרֻמִּים" שֶׁבַּשַּׁחַר.מה וְכֵן בַּחֲגוֹרָה חֲדָשָׁה.מו וְאִם לֹא חָגַר עַד לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַשַּׁחַר – טוֹב לְבָרֵךְ "אוֹזֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְבוּרָה" בְּלִי שֵׁם וּמַלְכוּת.מז וְכֵן בְּכוֹבַעמח "בָּרוּךְ עוֹטֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּתִפְאָרָה".מט

7 Upon hearing good news — whether the good news involves many others or just one other person — one should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv provided that his heart rejoices in the good [that was done for the other person]. For example, [the blessing should be recited if the recipient of this goodness] is his father, his teacher, or a friend whom [he regards as dearly] as his own soul. [The blessing praises G‑d as HaTov], “Who is good,” for He brings happiness to his heart, and VehaMeitiv, “and grants goodness,” to the person who benefitted from the goodness. Needless to say, [the blessing should be recited] if one sees [such goodness] with his own eyes.

One who hears good news that affects him should recite the blessing Shehecheyanu. If there is another person who shares in this goodness, he should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv. Similarly, he should recite the blessing Shehecheyanu if he sees with his own eyes or finds out by himself about good news that affects him, when there are no others who share in this [goodness].

ז עַל שְׁמוּעוֹת טוֹבוֹת,נ בֵּין שֶׁהִיא טוֹבַת רַבִּים,נא בֵּין שֶׁהִיא טוֹבַת יָחִיד,נב כָּל שֶׁלִּבּוֹ שָׂמֵחַ בְּטוֹבָתוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא אָבִיו אוֹ רַבּוֹ אוֹ רֵעוֹ אֲשֶׁר כְּנַפְשׁוֹ – מְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב", "הַטּוֹב" לוֹ שֶׁשִּׂמַּח לְבָבוֹ, "וְהַמֵּטִיב" לְמִי שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית לוֹ הַטּוֹבָה.נג וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם רוֹאֶה הַטּוֹב בְּעֵינָיו.נד

וְאִם בִּשְּׂרוּהוּ טוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ – מְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ". וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שֻׁתָּף בָּהּ – מְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב".נה וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם רוֹאֶה בְּעֵינָיונו אוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מֵעַצְמוֹ הַטּוֹבָה שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לוֹנז – מְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ", אִם אֵין לוֹ שֻׁתָּף בָּהּ.נח

8 Upon hearing bad news, one should recite the blessing “Blessed are You, G‑d our L‑rd, King of the universe, the true Judge (Dayan Ha’emes).” Needless to say, he should recite the blessing if he saw [the unfavorable incident] with his own eyes.

The general custom is to say Baruch Dayan Ha’emes without [mentioning] G‑d’s name or His Sovereignty when one hears of the death of any Jew. However, when one is pained by a person’s death because of his love for him, and all the more so when it is a great person who dies, he should mention G‑d’s name and His Sovereignty when reciting the blessing.

When one’s father, from whom he will receive an inheritance, dies, he should first recite the blessing Dayan Ha’emes and afterwards, the blessing Shehecheyanu. If he has a brother who will share the inheritance with him, even though his brother is not present at the time, each one should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv instead of Shehecheyanu, whether they heard of [their father’s] death or saw it.

One should not recite a blessing on hearing either good or bad news unless he heard it from a reliable person who saw the event. If he does not consider the one who told him the news reliable, he should recite the blessing without mentioning G‑d’s name and Sovereignty.

ח עַל שְׁמוּעוֹת רָעוֹת – אוֹמֵר: "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, דַּיַּן הָאֱמֶת".נט וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם רוֹאֶה בְּעֵינָיו.ס

וּמִנְהַג הָעוֹלָם לוֹמַר "בָּרוּךְ דַּיַּן הָאֱמֶת" בְּלֹא שֵׁם וּמַלְכוּת כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹמְעִים מִמִּיתַת אֵיזֶה אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל.סא אֲבָל בְּמִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ צַעַר בְּמִיתָתוֹ מִפְּנֵי אַהֲבָתוֹ לוֹ, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן בְּאָדָם חָשׁוּב שֶׁמֵּת – צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּשֵׁם וּמַלְכוּת.סב

וְאִם מֵת אָבִיו שֶׁיּוֹרְשׁוֹ – מְבָרֵךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה: "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, דַּיַּן הָאֱמֶת", וְאַחַר כָּךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ".סג וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ עוֹד אָח שֶׁיּוֹרֵשׁ עִמּוֹ,סד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אָחִיו אֶצְלוֹסה – מְבָרֵךְ כָּל אֶחָד "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" בִּמְקוֹם "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ",סו בֵּין שֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ מִמִּיתָתוֹ בֵּין שֶׁרָאוּ.סז

וְאֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל שְׁמוּעָה בֵּין טוֹבָה בֵּין רָעָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שָׁמַע מִפִּי אָדָם נֶאֱמָן שֶׁרָאָה אֶת הַדָּבָר,סח וְאִם אֵין הַמַּגִּיד נֶאֱמָן בְּעֵינָיו – יְבָרֵךְ בְּלִי שֵׁם וּמַלְכוּת.סט

9 One who finds an ownerless object should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv — [praising G‑d] “Who is good” in appreciation of the benefit he received and, “Who does good” [in consideration of the benefit to be received by] the Jewish poor, since he is obligated to give [a portion of its value] to charity. For [he has profited and] every person is obligated to give [charity] in accordance with his means — and [indeed, may be] compelled to do so and [may have his goods] seized [by the court for this purpose,] (as stated Hilchos Tzedakah).1

There is a difference between this instance and one who receives an inheritance from his father. In the latter instance, the poor do not benefit since his father was also obligated to give charity from this money to the poor. The tithes (maser) that the son will separate from [the inheritance need not be given to the poor]. Instead, they may be used for [the expenses associated with] other mitzvos.

ט הַמּוֹצֵא מְצִיאָה – מְבָרֵךְ: "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב",ע "הַטּוֹב" לוֹ, "וְהַמֵּטִיב" לַעֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְחַיֵּב בִּצְדָקָה,עא שֶׁכָּל אָדָם חַיָּב לִתֵּן כְּפִי הַשָּׂגַת יָדוֹ,עב וְכוֹפִין וּמְמַשְׁכְּנִין עַל זֶהעג (כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּהִלְכוֹת צְדָקָהעד).עה מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּאֶחָד שֶׁיָּרַשׁ אֶת אָבִיועו – אֵין זוֹ טוֹבָה לַעֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי גַּם אָבִיו נִתְחַיֵּב לִתֵּן צְדָקָה מִמָּמוֹן זֶה לָעֲנִיִּים,עז וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ הַבֵּןעח – יָכוֹל הוּא לְהוֹצִיא לִשְׁאָר מִצְווֹת.עט

10 One who receives a dowry must recite the blessing Shehecheyanu, as [he would] when he receives an inheritance. The same is true if he realizes a substantial profit. Conversely, if one suffers a serious financial loss, which would normally cause people anguish, he should recite the blessing Dayan Ha’emes.

A person is obligated to recite the blessing on bad news wholeheartedly and willingly, just as he recites the blessing on good news.

י כָּל נוֹטֵל נָדָן צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" כְּמוֹ בִּירֻשָּׁה.פ וְכֵן אִם הִרְוִיחַ רֶוַח גָּדוֹל.

וְהוּא הַדִּין לְהֵפֶךְ, כָּל הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּא לוֹ בְּמָמוֹנוֹ,פא אִם דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לְהִצְטַעֵר עָלָיופב – מְבָרֵךְ "דַּיַּן הָאֱמֶת".פג

וְחַיָּב אָדָם לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרָעָהפד בְּדַעַת שְׁלֵמָה וּבְנֶפֶשׁ חֲפֵצָה,פה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל הַטּוֹבָה.פו

11 When a person sees a friend who is very dear to him, and rejoices and takes pleasure in seeing him, he should recite the blessing Shehecheyanu, provided he has not seen him for 30 days. If he has not seen him for twelve months, he must recite the blessing “Blessed are You, G‑d our L‑rd, King of the universe, Who resurrects the dead.”

[The requirement to recite these blessings2 applies] even when he had [received] news about the other person in the interim, either in writing or by word of mouth,3 for the blessing reflects the pleasure and happiness experienced when seeing his face.

Women also recite this blessing when they see their friends when they are happy to see these friends. Similarly, a man [should recite this blessing] upon [seeing] a woman such as his mother, daughter or sister.

יא הָרוֹאֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹפז הֶחָבִיב עָלָיופח הַרְבֵּהפט וְשָׂמֵחַ וְנֶהֱנֶה בִּרְאִיָּתוֹ,צ אִם לֹא רָאָהוּ זֶה שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם – יְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ",צא וְאִם לֹא רָאָהוּ זֶה שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁצב – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ: "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים".צג וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה לוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ יְדִיעָה בֵּינְתַיִם בִּכְתָב אוֹ בְּעַל פֶּה, כִּי עִקַּר הַבְּרָכָה הוּא עַל הֲנָאָה וְשִׂמְחַת הַלֵּב בִּרְאִיַּת פָּנָיו.צד

וְגַם הַנָּשִׁים מְבָרְכוֹת כֵּן עַל רְאִיַּת חַבְרוֹתֵיהֶן כְּשֶׁשְּׂמֵחוֹת בִּרְאִיָּתָן.צה וְכֵן הָאִישׁ עַל אִשָּׁה,צו כְּגוֹן אִמּוֹ אוֹ בִּתּוֹ וַאֲחוֹתוֹ.צז

12 If a man’s wife gave birth to a son, he must recite the blessing HaTov VehaMei­tiv, [praising G‑d], “Who is good” because of the benefit he received and, “Who does good,” because of the benefit received by his wife, for she also is happy over [the birth of] a son.

Similarly, he and she are also obligated to recite this blessing after every [subsequent] son is born.

Even if he is in another town and others come and tell him, “Your wife gave birth to a son,” he should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv. If his wife died in childbirth, it is proper not to recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv. Instead, he should recite the blessing Shehecheyanu.4

When he returns home and sees the son who was born to him [in his absence], if it is within thirty days of hearing the news [of his birth], there is no need to recite a further blessing Shehecheyanu, since he already recited the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv [upon hearing of] his birth. If, however, [he sees his son] thirty days after [hearing the news and reciting the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv], it is necessary for him to recite the blessing [Shehecheyanu. This requirement applies] even if he saw his son more than thirty days before, provided he is happy and takes pleasure in seeing him.

It is even necessary [for a father] to recite the blessing [Shehecheyanu] when he sees his daughter, whenever thirty days have passed since [last] seeing her, if he takes pleasure and rejoices in seeing her, as has been explained.5 Nevertheless, a blessing is not recited over hearing [the news of the birth of a daughter], since this is not considered good tidings.6

יב יָלְדָה אִשְׁתּוֹ זָכָר – חַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב",צח "הַטּוֹב" לוֹ, "וְהַמֵּטִיב" לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, שֶׁנּוֹחַ לָהּ גַּם כֵּן בְּזָכָר.צט וְכֵן עַל כָּל בֵּן וּבֵן שֶׁנּוֹלָד לוֹ.ק וְהִיא גַּם כֵּן חַיֶּבֶת לְבָרֵךְ כֵּן.קא וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בְּעִיר אַחֶרֶת וּבָאוּ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ יָלְדָה אִשְׁתְּךָ זָכָר – מְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב".קב

וְאִם מֵתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ בְּלִדְתָּהּ – נָכוֹן שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב", אֶלָּא "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ".קג

וּכְשֶׁחוֹזֵר וְרוֹאֶה הַבֵּן הַנּוֹלָד,קד אִם רוֹאֵהוּ תּוֹךְ ל' יוֹם מִיּוֹם שֶׁשָּׁמַע – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ", מֵאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּרַךְ עָלָיו "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב", אֲבָל אִם אַחַרקה ל' יוֹם – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, אֲפִלּוּ אִם רָאָהוּ כְּבָר לִפְנֵי שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם,קו אִם לִבּוֹ שָׂמֵחַ וְנֶהֱנֶה.

וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל בַּת צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם כְּשֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה וְשָׂמֵחַ בִּרְאִיָּתָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,קז אֶלָּא שֶׁעַל הַשְּׁמוּעָה אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵינָהּ שְׁמוּעָה טוֹבָה.קח

13 [The blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv is also recited over drinking] different wine [during a meal]. For example, [when people are sitting together drinking wine] and many different types of wine are served. When [one drinks from a different type of wine] or from different containers — for when wine is served in a different container, even if it is the same type [of wine] as [in] the first [container], it is considered a different type of wine7 — he should recite the blessing: “Blessed are You, G‑d our L‑rd, King of the universe, Who is good and Who does good.”

[This blessing is recited over the second type of wine] even when it is not necessary to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen over it. For example, [if] the members of a group are sitting together with their host and, at the outset, they intended that [the blessing they originally recited over the first wine served would cover] all [the wine] their host would serve them [they should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv over the second wine served,although they do not have to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen].8 [The rationale is that] wine has unique importance, for it, “causes G‑d and man to rejoice.”9 [Therefore] the Rabbis instituted [this] further blessing for it when rejoicing increases, and hence, a second wine is brought to drink.

[This blessing is recited] even when it is not known whether the second wine is of better quality than the first, but [one drinks the second wine] without any prior knowledge [of its quality]. Similarly, [the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv is recited] even when it is necessary to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen again on the second wine. For example, one [decided to stop drinking and then] changed his mind. [Before drinking again,] he should first recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv and afterwards Borei pri hagafen.

If, however, he knows that the second wine is inferior to the first — even if it is only slightly inferior — he should not recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv on it. [There is an exception when] the first was red wine and the second, white. Since white wine is healthier for the body than red wine, one should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv on it, even when it is slightly inferior in taste, as long as it is not so inferior that it would only be drunk in extreme circumstances.

יג עַל שִׁנּוּי יַיִן,קט דְּהַיְנוּ כְּשֶׁמַּרְבִּים לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת מִמִּינִים שׁוֹנִים,קי אוֹ מִכֵּלִים שׁוֹנִים, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהַשֵּׁנִי הוּא מֵחָבִית אַחֶרֶת,קיא שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הוּא מִמִּין יַיִן הָרִאשׁוֹןקיב נֶחְשָׁב כְּמִין יַיִן אַחֵרקיג – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַשֵּׁנִי קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְעֹם מִמֶּנּוּ:קיד "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב",קטו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",קטז כְּגוֹן בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה הַמְּסֻבִּין אֵצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְדַעְתָּם מִתְּחִלָּה עַל כָּל מַה שֶּׁיָּבִיא לָהֶם בַּעַל הַבַּיִת,קיז שֶׁמִּפְּנֵי חֲשִׁיבוּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁהוּא מְשַׂמֵּחַ אֱלֹהִים וַאֲנָשִׁיםקיח – תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים עָלָיו עוֹד בְּרָכָהקיט כְּשֶׁמַּרְבִּים בְּשִׂמְחָה לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד יַיִן שֵׁנִי.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין יָדוּעַ שֶׁהַשֵּׁנִי מְשֻׁבָּח מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֶלָּא בִּסְתָם.קכ

וְאִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל הַשֵּׁנִי, כְּגוֹן בְּנִמְלַךְקכא – יְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" וְאַחַר כָּךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן".קכב

אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁהַשֵּׁנִי גָּרוּעַ מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן – אֵין לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב",קכג אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ גָּרוּעַ אֶלָּא מְעַט.קכד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָרִאשׁוֹן הוּא יַיִן אָדֹם וְשֵׁנִי לָבָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַלָּבָן הוּא בָּרִיא לַגּוּף יוֹתֵר מִן הָאָדֹם – יֵשׁ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא גָּרוּעַ מִמֶּנּוּקכה מְעַט בַּטַּעַם, כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָּרוּעַ הַרְבֵּהקכו עַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק.קכז

14 If, [on the other hand,] one [first] drank white wine and afterwards, red [wine], if it is known that the red wine is superior in taste, one should recite the blessing [HaTov VehaMeitiv on it]. Ordinarily, however, [without this knowledge,] one would not recite the blessing [HaTov VehaMeitiv] since white wine is healthier for the body. Needless to say, if one first drank an aged wine and afterwards [drank] a new one, one should not recite the blessing on [the new wine] unless it is known that its taste is as exemplary as that of the aged wine.

יד וְאִם שָׁתָה לָבָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָאָדֹם, אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁהָאָדֹם מְשֻׁבָּח יוֹתֵר בַּטַּעַם – מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו.קכח אֲבָל בִּסְתָם אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ,קכט כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַלָּבָן בָּרִיא יוֹתֵר לַגּוּף. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם שָׁתָה תְּחִלָּה יַיִן יָשָׁןקל וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָדָשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בִּסְתָם,קלא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יָדוּעַ שֶׁהוּא מְשֻׁבָּח בְּטַעְמוֹ כְּמוֹ הַיָּשָׁן.קלב

15 Whenever the blessing [HaTov VehaMei­tiv] is recited over the second wine without prior knowledge [of its quality], it is recited over the second wine even if [this wine] was brought to the table at the same time as the first [wine. Thus if] one drank one type of wine and recited the blessing Borei pri hagafen over it intending to drink the second [wine] as well, he should, nevertheless, recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv when he drinks the second wine because it is the second [type of wine] that he drinks.

If, however, he knows that one [wine] is inferior to the other, when they had both already been brought to him, even when they were brought one after the other, he should not first recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen on the inferior wine in order to recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv on the superior one. [The rationale is that] he prefers [the superior wine] and whenever one [food or beverage] is preferred over another, it deserves precedence with regard to Birchos HaNehenim (as explained in ch. 10, [law 6]).

Even though [as a result], he will not [be able to] recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv afterwards on the inferior wine, it is of no consequence. Nevertheless, if one transgressed and recited the blessing Borei pri hagafen on the inferior wine, he should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv on the superior wine, even when both [wines] were brought to the table at the same time. Indeed, [this rule applies] even if the superior [wine] was brought first, since [in fact] it was the second to be drunk.

טו וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל הַשֵּׁנִי בִּסְתָם – הֲרֵי זֶה מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ הֱבִיאוּהוּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּבַת אַחַת עִם הָרִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁשָּׁתָה תְּחִלָּה וּבֵרַךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל דַּעַת לִשְׁתּוֹת גַּם הַשֵּׁנִי, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹתֶה מִן הַשֵּׁנִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא שֵׁנִי בִּשְׁתִיָּה.קלג

אֲבָל אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא גָּרוּעַ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וּכְבָר הֵבִיאוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲפִלּוּ בָּזֶה אַחַר זֶה – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל הַגָּרוּעַ כְּדֵי לְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" עַל הַמְשֻׁבָּח, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא חָבִיב לוֹ,קלד וְכָל הֶחָבִיב מִן חֲבֵרוֹ – קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק י'קלה), וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יְבָרֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" עַל הַגָּרוּעַ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עָבַר וּבֵרַךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל הַגָּרוּעַ – יְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" עַל הַמְשֻׁבָּח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֱבִיאוּם בְּבַת אַחַת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן,קלו וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵבִיאוּ הַמְשֻׁבָּח תְּחִלָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא שֵׁנִי בִּשְׁתִיָּה.

16 When does [the principle that] the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv is recited over [the same type of] wine [because it was brought in] in another container apply? When the wine was placed in each of the barrels within forty days of being pressed from the grapes. Since each one fermented in a different barrel, they are considered two different types of wine.10

If, however, the [two batches of wine originally] fermented in one vessel, and after forty days [the wine] was divided and placed into two barrels, they are [considered] one wine. In this instance, the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv should not be recited over the second [barrel of wine] under any circumstance.

טז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁמְּבָרְכִים "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁמֵּחָבִית אַחֶרֶת? כְּשֶׁנָּתְנוּ כָּל אֶחָד בְּחָבִית בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ תּוֹךְ מ' יוֹם לִדְרִיכָתוֹ,קלז שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד הָיָה תּוֹסֵס בְּחָבִית בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹקלח – הֲרֵי הֵם כִּשְׁנֵי מִינֵי יֵינוֹת. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ תּוֹסְסִים בִּכְלִי אֶחָד וּלְאַחַר מ' יוֹם חִלְּקוּם וּנְתָנוּם בְּב' חָבִיּוֹת – הֲרֵי הַכֹּל יַיִן אֶחָד, וְאֵין מְבָרְכִין "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" עַל הַשֵּׁנִי בְּכָל עִנְיָן.קלט

17 If the group is brought a third type of wine, they should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv a second time, provided they did not have [this wine] in mind when they first recited the blessing [HaTov VehaMeitiv].

יז אִם הֵבִיאוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם עוֹד מִין יַיִן שְׁלִישִׁי – חוֹזְרִין וּמְבָרְכִין "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" שֵׁנִית,קמ וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה דַּעְתָּם מִתְּחִלָּה עָלָיו כְּשֶׁבֵּרְכוּ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה.

18 The blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv is only recited on the second wine when there is [still] some of the first wine left, and they wish to drink the second wine [for variety, i.e.,], change wines, to taste a different type of wine than the first. If, however, they are drinking the second wine because the first has already been finished, they do not recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv on the second wine.

יח אֵין מְבָרְכִין "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" עַל הַיַּיִן הַשֵּׁנִי אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם מִן הָרִאשׁוֹןקמא וְרוֹצִים לִשְׁתּוֹת הַשֵּׁנִי מִשּׁוּם שִׁנּוּי יַיִן, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטְעֲמוּ יַיִן אַחֵר מְשֻׁנֶּה מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֲבָל אִם הֵם שׁוֹתִין יַיִן הַשֵּׁנִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּבָר כָּלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב".קמב

19 The blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv is only recited when two [or more] people are drinking together in company. It may also be recited when a man is drinking with his wife and children, but not when he is drinking by himself. [This law is implied] by the words of the blessing, [that praise G‑d] “Who is good,” [i.e. performing good for] the person himself, “and does good,” for the other person with him. Nor should one recite the blessing Shehecheyanu [when changing wines when drinking alone], for [the Rabbis] instituted [the recitation of] the blessing only because of an increase in happiness and a person does not feel such an increase in happiness when drinking alone. Therefore, even if [a second wine is brought and] another person also drinks this [second] wine in another room, the two are not [considered as] having joined together [and they should not recite this blessing].

יט אֵין מְבָרְכִין "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁשְּׁנַיִם שׁוֹתִים יַחַד בַּחֲבוּרָה אַחַת,קמג וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם אִשְׁתּוֹ אוֹ בָּנָיו שׁוֹתִין עִמּוֹ,קמד אֲבָל לֹא הַשּׁוֹתֶה יָחִיד, שֶׁכֵּן מַשְׁמָעוּת הַבְּרָכָה "הַטּוֹב" לוֹ "וְהַמֵּטִיב" לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁעִמּוֹ.קמה

וְגַם "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ, כִּי לֹא תִּקְּנוּ הַבְּרָכָה אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם רִבּוּי הַשִּׂמְחָה,קמו וּבְשׁוֹתֶה יְחִידִי אֵין רִבּוּי שִׂמְחָה כָּל כָּךְ.קמז

וְלָכֵן גַּם אִם חֲבֵרוֹ שׁוֹתֶה מִיַּיִן זֶה בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר – אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף.קמח

20 Even when he is eating or drinking together with a friend, the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv should only be recited when both drink the second type of wine. If, however, one’s friend only drinks the first wine, the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv should not be recited on the second wine. If both drink the second type of wine together, but only one drank the first, there is a question [whether the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv should be recited] and [we follow the principle that] whenever there is a doubt whether a blessing should be recited, we rule leniently [and do not recite the blessing].

כ וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁמֵּסֵב עִמּוֹ יַחַד – אֵין מְבָרְכִין "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שׁוֹתִין מֵהַיַּיִן הַשֵּׁנִי, אֲבָל אִם חֲבֵרוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן הָרִאשׁוֹן לְבַדּוֹ – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" עַל הַשֵּׁנִי.קמט

וְאִם שְׁנֵיהֶם שׁוֹתִין יַיִן הַשֵּׁנִי בְּיַחַד אֶלָּא שֶׁיַּיִן הָרִאשׁוֹן שָׁתָה הוּא לְבַדּוֹ – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בַּדָּבָר.קנ וּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל.קנא

21 One should recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv on [a second type of] wine whether [the wine is consumed] within a meal or independent of a meal. [When the wines are consumed] within a meal, each of those present should recite the blessing for himself. This [rule] also applies regarding the blessing Borei pri hagafen.11 In contrast to this, [when the wines are consumed] outside [the context of] a meal, one person may fulfill his companions’ obligation [to recite the blessing] with the blessing he recited, provided they had in mind to fulfill their obligation [with his blessing].12

If they were drinking one type of wine during the meal and recited Grace over another [type of wine], there is no need to recite the blessing HaTov VehaMeitiv before drinking it after Grace, since one has already recited HaTov VehaMeitiv in Grace.13

כא מְבָרְכִין "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" עַל הַיַּיִן בֵּין בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָהקנב בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,קנג אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהַמְּסֻבִּין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ,קנד וְכֵן בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",קנה וְשֶׁלֹּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה יָכוֹל הָאֶחָד לְהוֹצִיא חֲבֵרָיו בְּבִרְכָתוֹ אִם נִתְכַּוְּנוּ לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָה.קנו

וְאִם שָׁתוּ בַּסְּעוּדָה יַיִן אֶחָד וּמְבָרְכִין בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל יַיִן אַחֵר – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר אָמַר "הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב" בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.קנז