CHAPTER 11 [The Laws Governing the Blessings Recited Over Fragrance and the Blessing Shehechiyanu] (1–16)

פרק יא [דִּינֵי בִּרְכַּת הָרֵיחַ וְ"שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ", וּבוֹ ט"ז הֲלָכוֹת]

1 The blessing recited over a pleasant fragrance must be recited before one begins to smell it, just as a blessing over food is recited before one tastes [it], because it is forbidden to derive satisfaction from this world without reciting a blessing.1

Which blessings are recited [on fragrances]? If the pleasant fragrance comes from a species of herbs, one should recite the blessing …Borei isvei v’somim [which praises G‑d, “Who created fragrant herbs”]. The ayin [of isvei] should be enunciated with a chirik, as in the phrase (Mishlei 27[:25]): isvos horim (“herbs of the mountains”).

א א ב ג בִּרְכַּת הָרֵיחַ הַטּוֹב צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּתְחִיל לְהָרִיחַ,ד כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל הָאֳכָלִין קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְעֹם,ה לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה.ו

וְכֵיצַד מְבָרֵךְ?ז אִם זֶה שֶׁהָרֵיחַ הַטּוֹב יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ הוּא מִין עֵשֶׂב – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא עִשְּׂבֵי בְשָׂמִים".ח וְיֵשׁ לוֹמַר (עִשְּׂבֵי) הָעַיִ"ן בְּחִירִיק,ט כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּבי "עִשְּׂבוֹת הָרִים".

2 If [the fragrance comes from] a species of tree, the blessing Borei atzei v’somim [praising G‑d, “[Who] created fragrant trees”] should be recited over it. [This includes] even plants that, unlike fruit trees, are not trees in the full sense of the word. [Nevertheless,] since they have trunks that are not entirely soft like [those of] herbs and vegetables, but rather are somewhat firm like flax stalks, for example, spikenard and rosemary plants, they are categorized as trees with regard to this blessing. In this vein, Scripture uses the term “tree” [eitz] when referring to flax, as is written:2 “She concealed them with the stalks (haetz, literally “trees”) of flax.” Similarly, the blessing Borei atzei v’somim should be recited over the fragrance of spikenard oil.

ב וְאִם הוּא מִין עֵץ – מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא עֲצֵי בְשָׂמִים".יא וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ עֵץ גָּמוּר מַמָּשׁ כְּעֵץ הָאִילָןיב אֶלָּא גִּבְעוֹלִין, שֶׁאֵינָן רַכִּים מַמָּשׁ כַּעֲשָׂבִים וְיֶרֶק אֶלָּא קָשִׁים קְצָת כְּגִבְעוֹלֵי הַפִּשְׁתָּן,יג כְּגוֹן שִׁבֹּלֶת נֵרְדְּ שֶׁקּוֹרִין אושפי"ג,יד וְכֵן סִימְלָקטו (שֶׁקּוֹרִין רוסמארי"ןטז) – נִקְרָאִין עֵץ לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה זוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמָּצִינוּ בִּלְשׁוֹן הַכָּתוּב שֶׁהַפִּשְׁתָּן נִקְרָא עֵץ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּביז "וַתִּטְמְנֵם בְּפִשְׁתֵּי הָעֵץ".יח וְכֵן עַל רֵיחַ הַשֶּׁמֶן מִשִּׁבֹּלֶת נֵרְדְּ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שפיגנארד"ייט) – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא עֲצֵי בְשָׂמִים".כ

3 If [fragrance comes from] a fruit which is fit to eat, whether [it is] one that grows on a tree like an apple or an esrog, or one that grows from the earth, the blessing Baruch Atah A-donai… asher nasan rei’ach tov bapeiros,“Blessed are You, G‑d our L‑rd Who endowed fruits with pleasant fragrance,” should be recited over its fragrance.

If one took [a fruit] in his hand intending only to eat it, and its fragrance wafted to his nose on its own, [as it were,] a blessing should not be recited over this fragrance. [The rationale is that] he did not take [the fruit] in his hand so that the fragrance would reach his nose. Rather, he only [picked up the fruit] to eat it. [If, however,] he changed his mind and lifted the fruit to his nose to enjoy its fragrance before eating it, he should first recite the blessing Asher nasan rei’ach tov bapeiros, and then [he should recite] the blessing Borei pri haetz or Borei pri haadamah. [Only] after [reciting these blessings], should he eat [the fruit].

Some authorities maintain that one should recite the blessing Asher nasan reiach tov bapeiros even over the fragrance from produce that is fit to be eaten only when mixed with other foods if the produce is primarily [prepared to be used] in this manner, for example, cinnamon or cloves, which are prepared to be used as spices for cooked food.

Other authorities differ and maintain that the blessing Borei atzei v’somim is recited over them, since they are not fit to be eaten by themselves. Because of this doubt, [in this instance,] one should recite the blessing Borei minei v’somim [praising G‑d, “Who created types of fragrant spices,”], which covers all kinds [of fragrances] and with which, after the fact, one fulfils his obligation [to recite a blessing] over all types of pleasant fragrances.3 [Similarly, when one is in doubt whether [a fragrant plant] is considered a tree or an herb, [he should recite the blessing Borei minei v’somim over its fragrance].

ג וְאִם הוּא פְּרִי הָרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה, בֵּין פְּרִי הָעֵץ כְּמוֹ תַּפּוּחַ וְאֶתְרוֹג,כא בֵּין פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָהכב – מְבָרֵךְ עַל רֵיחוֹ: "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר נָתַן רֵיחַ טוֹב בַּפֵּרוֹת".כג

וְאִם נְטָלוֹ בְּיָדוֹ לְאָכְלוֹ בִּלְבַד וְהָרֵיחַ עוֹלֶה מֵאֵלָיו אֶל חָטְמוֹ – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עַל רֵיחַ זֶה, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נְטָלוֹ בְּיָדוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה הָרֵיחַ אֶל חָטְמוֹ רַק לַאֲכִילָה לְבַדָּהּ,כד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִמְלַךְ וּמַגְבִּיהַּ הַפְּרִי אֶל חָטְמוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מֵרֵיחוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹאכְלֶנּוּכה – אָז מְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "אֲשֶׁר נָתַן רֵיחַ טוֹב בַּפֵּרוֹת", וְאַחַר כָּךְ בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ" אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה", וְאוֹכְלוֹ.כו

וַאֲפִלּוּ פְּרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת,כז אִם עִקָּרוֹ עוֹמֵד לְכָךְ,כח כְּגוֹן קִנָּמוֹן (שֶׁקּוֹרִין צימרינ"ד)כט וְצִפֹּרֶן (שֶׁקּוֹרִין נעגלי"ך)ל שֶׁעוֹמְדִין לְתַבְלִין בְּתַבְשִׁילִין – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל רֵיחָם "אֲשֶׁר נָתַן רֵיחַ טוֹב בַּפֵּרוֹת".לא וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים בָּזֶהלב וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן "בּוֹרֵא עֲצֵי בְשָׂמִים",לג מֵאַחַר שֶׁאֵינָם רְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה בְּעֵינָם. וּמִסָּפֵק יֵשׁ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי בְשָׂמִים",לד שֶׁהִיא כּוֹלֶלֶת כָּל הַמִּינִים,לה וְיוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּדִיעֲבַד עַל כָּל הַמִּינִים.לו וְכֵן בְּדָבָר שֶׁסָּפֵק לוֹ אִם הוּא מִין עֵץ אוֹ מִין עֵשֶׂב.לז

4 One should recite the blessing Borei isvei v’somim over the fragrance of roses which grow from the ground, and the blessing Borei atzei v’somim over the fragrance of roses which grow on a tree.

Even though [roses] are fit to be eaten in a confection,4 they [are not grown] primarily for that purpose, but [rather, they are grown primarily] for their fragrance.

ד וְרָדִים, שֶׁהֵם שׁוֹשַׁנִּים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין רויזי"ן), הַגְּדֵלִים בַּקַּרְקַע – מְבָרֵךְ עַל רֵיחָם "בּוֹרֵא עִשְּׂבֵי בְשָׂמִים",לח וְהַגְּדֵלִים בָּאִילָן – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא עֲצֵי בְשָׂמִים",לט וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה בְּמִרְקַחַתמ – אֵין עִקָּרָם עוֹמֵד לְכָךְ, אֶלָּא לְהָרִיחַ.מא

5 The blessing Borei minei v’somim should be recited over fragrances which do not emerge from either a tree or a herb, e.g., musk. [This substance] is extracted from a gland5 in the neck of a known wild animal where a bloodlike substance first collects. It then dries and musk is produced from it.

It is forbidden to partake of [this substance] or to include it in cooked food due to the suspicion [that it is forbidden] as blood. There are authorities who permit [partaking of it], but a meticulous person6 should be stringent with himself, because doing so involves a question regarding a Scriptural prohibition.7

ה וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ לֹא מִין עֵץ וְלֹא מִין עֵשֶׂב, כְּגוֹן הַמֹּר, וְהוּא מוּסְק (שֶׁקּוֹרִין פיזו"ם בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַזמב) הַיּוֹצֵא מֵחֲטוֹטֶרֶ(וֹ)ת שֶׁבְּצַוַּאר חַיָּה יַדּוּעַ, שֶׁמִּתְקַבֵּץ שָׁם תְּחִלָּה כְּמִין דָּם וְאַחַר כָּךְ מִתְיַבֵּשׁ וְנַעֲשֶׂה מִמֶּנּוּ הַמֹּרמג – מְבָרֵךְ עַל רֵיחוֹ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי בְשָׂמִים".מד

וְאָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ וְלִתְּנוֹ בַּתַּבְשִׁיל, מִשּׁוּם חֲשַׁשׁ דָּם.מה וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִין.מו וּבַעַל נֶפֶשׁ יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ בְּסָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.מז

6 [The following rules apply to] oil which has been scented with spices. If there is some of the actual substance of the spice in the oil, the blessing for the spice — either [Borei] atzei v’somim or [Borei] isvei v’somim — should be recited over the scented oil. If one strained all of the spice from the oil, leaving only the fragrance absorbed in the oil, there are authorities who maintain that the blessing Borei minei v’somim should be recited. Weight should be given to their words.

Nevertheless, the liquid extracted from the spice has the same status as the substance of the spice [itself]. According to all opinions the blessing for the spice is recited [over this liquid]. Similarly, the blessing [Borei] atzei v’somim should be recited on fragrant sap which drips from trees, e.g., frankincense and gum mastic.

ו שֶׁמֶן שֶׁפִּטְּמוֹ בִּבְשָׂמִים, אִם יֵשׁ מַמָּשׁוּת הַבֹּשֶׂם בַּשֶּׁמֶן – מְבָרֵךְ עַל רֵיחַ הַשֶּׁמֶן כְּבִרְכַּת הַבֹּשֶׂם: "עֲצֵי בְשָׂמִים"מח אוֹ "עִשְּׂבֵי בְשָׂמִים".מט

וְאִם סִנְּנוֹ מֵהַשֶּׁמֶן לְגַמְרֵי רַק שֶׁרֵיחוֹ נִקְלַט בַּשֶּׁמֶן – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנ שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי בְשָׂמִים". וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם.נא

אֲבָל מַיִם הַנִּסְחָטִים מֵהַבֹּשֶׂם – הֲרֵי הֵם כְּמַמָּשׁוּת הַבֹּשֶׂם, וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל רֵיחָם כְּבִרְכַּת הַבֹּשֶׂםנב לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.נג

וְכֵן עַל רֵיחַ שְׂרָף הַנּוֹטֵף מֵהָעֵצִים, כְּגוֹן הַלְּבוֹנָה וְהַמיצטיכ"י – מְבָרֵךְ "עֲצֵי בְשָׂמִים".נד

7 If oil contains substances of species [over which the blessing Borei] atzei [v’somim is recited] and [substances of species over which the blessing Borei] isvei v’somim should be recited, all authorities agree that the blessing Borei minei v’somim should be recited over the [scented] oil. Similarly, if [species that require the blessing Borei] atzei [v’somim] and [other species which require the blessing Borei] isvei v’somim have been ground and mixed together without being mixed into oil, the blessing Borei minei v’somim should be recited over their fragrance. If, however, they were not ground together and it is possible to separate the [different types], one must [do so and] recite a blessing over the fragrance of each type individually.

It is desirable to recite the blessing Borei atzei v’somim before the blessing Borei isvei v’somim. If there is a myrtle among [the fragrant leaves], the blessing should be recited on it first. If there is also a substance that requires the blessing Borei minei v’somim, the blessing Borei isvei v’somim should be recited before the blessing Borei minei v’somim.

ז וְאִם יֵשׁ בְּתוֹךְ הַשֶּׁמֶן מַמָּשׁוּת מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם מֵעֲצֵי וּמֵעִשְׂבֵי בְּשָׂמִים – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי בְשָׂמִים"נה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.נו וְכֵן אִם עֲצֵי וְעִשְּׂבֵי בְּשָׂמִים שְׁחוּקִים וּמְעֹרָבִים יַחַד בְּעֵינָם בְּלִי תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת שֶׁמֶן – מְבָרֵךְ עַל רֵיחָם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי בְשָׂמִים".נז אֲבָל אִם אֵינָם שְׁחוּקִים וְאֶפְשָׁר לְהַפְרִידָם – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל זֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְעַל זֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.נח

וְטוֹב לְהַקְדִּים בִּרְכַּת "עֲצֵי בְשָׂמִים" לְ"עִשְּׂבֵי בְשָׂמִים".נט וְאִם יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם הֲדַסס – הוּא מֻקְדָּם לַבְּרָכָה.סא וְאִם יֵשׁ לְפָנָיו גַּם דָּבָר שֶׁבִּרְכָתוֹ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי בְשָׂמִים" – צָרִיךְ לְהַקְדִּים בִּרְכַּת "עִשְּׂבֵי בְשָׂמִים" לְ"בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי בְשָׂמִים".סב

8 One should recite a blessing over a pleasant fragrance only when it was made to be smelled. In contrast, a blessing should not be recited [over the fragrance from] incense that was placed in censer to scent garments. The rationale is that the incense was not [kindled] to be smelled itself, [but to scent the garments]. Needless to say, a blessing is not recited over incense [kindled] in a house to remove an unpleasant odor. [This ruling] even [applies] to the spices which a delicate person takes with him to the toilet to negate the foul odor [present there], even if he smells them when he is not in the toilet. The rationale is that these spices are not prepared to be smelled themselves and for their fragrance to be enjoyed, but only to remove an unpleasant odor.

Following this reasoning, there are authorities who maintain that one who smells an esrog [which is being used] for the mitzvah should not recite a blessing [on its fragrance] throughout the seven days of the [Sukkos] festival. Although it is permitted to smell [the esrog], it was not designated to be smelled, but rather to be taken for the mitzvah.

It does not resemble an esrog at any other time of the year, or other kinds of fruits, which are designated to be eaten. Even though these [fruits] are primarily designated to be eaten, it is nevertheless also common to smell them while eating them. [Hence,] they can be considered as being designated to be smelled.

Other authorities maintain that even during the seven days of the [Sukkos] festival, since it is permitted to smell an esrog, it is considered as designated to be smelled, just like it is throughout the year. [Since there is a difference of opinion concerning the matter,] it is preferable to refrain from smelling an esrog throughout the festival, so that one will not enter [a situation] where there is a question [regarding whether or not to recite] the blessing. It is, however, forbidden to smell the myrtle throughout the festival according to law, as explained in Hilchos Lulav.8

ח אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הָרֵיחַ הַטּוֹב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נַעֲשָׂה לְהָרִיחַ בּוֹ,סג אֲבָל מֻגְמָר שֶׁמְּגַמְּרִים בּוֹ אֶת הַבְּגָדִים לִתֵּן בָּהֶם רֵיחַ – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה לְהָרִיחַ בְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁל מֻגְמָר.סד

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מֻגְמָר שֶׁמְּגַמְּרִין בַּבַּיִת לְהַעֲבִיר מִמֶּנּוּ רֵיחַ רַע. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשָׂמִים שֶׁמּוֹלִיךְ עִמּוֹ הָאִסְטְנִיס לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא לְבַטֵּל הָרֵיחַ רַע – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶםסה כְּלָל, אַף אִם בָּא לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶםסו שֶׁלֹּא בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין עוֹמְדִים לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם לֵהָנוֹת מֵרֵיחָם רַק לְהַעֲבִיר רֵיחַ רַע בִּלְבַד.

וְלָכֵן יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסז שֶׁהַמֵּרִיחַ בְּאֶתְרוֹג שֶׁל מִצְוָה – אֵין מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו כָּל שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַחַג,סח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהָרִיחַ בּוֹסט – אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד לְהָרִיחַ בּוֹ,ע אֶלָּא לִטְּלוֹ לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה, וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לְאֶתְרוֹג שֶׁל כָּל הַשָּׁנָה וּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת הָעוֹמְדִים לַאֲכִילָה,עא שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעִקָּרָם לַאֲכִילָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם רְגִילוּת הוּא גַּם כֵּן לְהָרִיחַ מֵהֶם בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָה, וּלְכָךְ נִקְרָאִים גַּם כֵּן עוֹמְדִים לְרֵיחַ.עב

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעג שֶׁגַּם בְּשִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַחַג מֵאַחַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהָרִיחַ בּוֹ – נִקְרָא גַּם כֵּן עוֹמֵד לְרֵיחַ כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. וְלָכֵן טוֹב לִמְנֹעַ מִלְּהָרִיחַ בּוֹעד כָּל הַחַג,עה לְהִנָּצֵל מִסְּפֵק בְּרָכָה.עו

אֲבָל הַהֲדַס, מִן הַדִּין אָסוּר לְהָרִיחַ בּוֹעז כָּל הַחַג,עח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת לוּלָב.עט

9 Similarly, there are authorities who maintain that even [if] one derives pleasure from the fragrance of crushed peppercorns and ginger, he should not recite a blessing [when smelling them. The rationale is that] they are prepared only to serve as seasoning [for food] and it is not very common to smell them. Hence, they are not at all considered to be designated for smelling. This logic does not apply regarding cinnamon and cloves, which are commonly used for fragrance, even when one is not eating [dishes spiced with them. Indeed,] when they are added to a cooked dish, one’s intent is also for them to produce an aroma.

There are [other authorities] who disagree [and maintain that one should recite a blessing when smelling crushed peppers and ginger]. Hence, it is proper to refrain from smelling them. Similarly, one should refrain from smelling warm bread if it has a pleasant fragrance9 [since there is a difference of opinion regarding whether a blessing should be recited over its fragrance. In that way one will] protect oneself from [entering a situation] where there is a question whether or not a blessing is required.

ט וְכֵן פִּלְפְּלִין וְזַנְגְּבִיל כְּתוּשִׁיןפ אַף מִי שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה מֵרֵיחָם – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפא שֶׁאֵין לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵי[הֶן], לְפִי שֶׁמִּכֵּיוָן שֶׁעֲשׂוּיִין לְתַבְלִין בִּלְבַד וְאֵין רְגִילוּת כָּל כָּךְ לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם – לֹא נִקְרְאוּ עוֹמְדִים לָרֵיחַ כְּלָל,פב מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן קִנָּמוֹן וְצִפֹּרֶןפג רְגִילוּת הוּא לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָה, וְגַם כְּשֶׁמְּשִׂימִים אוֹתָם בְּתַבְשִׁיל מִתְכַּוְּנִים גַּם לִהְיוֹת רֵיחַ הַתַּבְשִׁיל נוֹדֵף. וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין בָּזֶה.פד וְלָכֵן נָכוֹן לִמְנֹעַ שֶׁלֹּא לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם.פה וְכֵן שֶׁלֹּא לְהָרִיחַ בְּלֶחֶם חַם אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ רֵיחַ טוֹב, לְהִנָּצֵל מִסְּפֵק בְּרָכָה.פו

10 [Moreover,] a blessing should not be recited even when spices are designated to be used for their fragrance, but have been stored away in a certain place, e.g., they were placed in a room for storage and safekeeping. Since they were not placed there for people to smell them, [a blessing should not be recited] when one enters [the room] and inhales their fragrance. [This rule applies] even if one entered [the area] intending to smell them.

[In contrast,] anyone who enters a store where spices are sold and derives pleasure from their scent must recite a blessing.10 [The rationale is that] the shopkeeper arranged the spices with the intent that their pleasant fragrance would fill the air and attract customers. Similarly, [each day,] the shopkeeper [himself] should recite a blessing the first time he enters [his shop] and enjoys their fragrance.

Moreover, even when fragrant substances have been placed in a room for storage, [there are situations when] one must recite a blessing. [For example,] one took them in his hand and lifted them from their place to his nose in order to smell them. [The rationale is that these substances] are themselves designated to be smelled. It is only that [they were stored] in the place they are located [with the intent] that they not be smelled. Thus, when the person lifted them up in his hand, he changed their place to his hand so that he could smell them.

(For this same reason, one who takes a fruit in his hand [intending] only to eat it and afterwards changes his mind and lifts the fruit in his hand to his nose to smell it, must recite a blessing, as stated above.11 [The rationale is that] he has changed the original place — his hand — where the fruit was not being held for the purpose of smelling.)

י וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשָׂמִים הָעוֹמְדִים לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם, אִם הֵם מֻנָּחִים בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא הֻנְּחוּ שָׁם כְּדֵי לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם שָׁם, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהֻנְּחוּ בַּחֶדֶר לְהַצְנִיעָם וּלְשָׁמְרָם, הֲרֵי הַנִּכְנָס לְשָׁם וּמֵרִיחַ – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ, וַאֲפִלּוּ נִכְנַס כְּדֵי לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם.פז

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמֻּנָּחִים בַּחֲנוּת שֶׁנִּמְכָּרִים שָׁם – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל רֵיחָם כָּל הַנִּכְנָס לְשָׁם וְנֶהֱנֶה מֵהָרֵיחַ,פח לְפִי שֶׁבְּהַנָּחָתָם שָׁם מִתְכַּוֵּן הַמּוֹכֵר גַּם שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה מֵהֶם רֵיחַ טוֹב וְיִקְפְּצוּ עֲלֵיהֶם קוֹנִים.פט וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵרצ מְבָרֵךְ בַּפַּעַם הָרִאשׁוֹנָהצא שֶׁנִּכְנָס וְנֶהֱנֶה מֵהָרֵיחַ.

וַאֲפִלּוּ הַמֻּנָּחִים בַּחֶדֶר לְהַצְנִיעָם שָׁם, אִם נְטָלוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְהִגְבִּיהָם מִמְּקוֹמָם לְהַקְרִיבָם אֶל חָטְמוֹ לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, מֵאַחַר שֶׁהֵם בְּעַצְמָן עוֹמְדִים לְהָרִיחַ, רַק שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם זֶה שֶׁמֻּנָּחִים עַתָּה אֵינָם מֻנָּחִים לְרֵיחַ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִגְבִּיהָם בְּיָדוֹ – הֲרֵי שִׁנָּה מְקוֹמָם לְתוֹךְ יָדוֹ כְּדֵי לְהָרִיחַ.

(וּמִטַּעַם זֶה הַנּוֹטֵל פְּרִי בְּיָדוֹ לְאָכְלוֹ בִּלְבַד וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ וּמַגְבִּיהַּ הַפְּרִי בְּיָדוֹ אֶל חָטְמוֹ לְהָרִיחַ בּוֹ – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל,צב לְפִי שֶׁשִּׁנָּה מְקוֹמוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהָיָה שָׁם הַפְּרִי שֶׁלֹּא לָרֵיחַ שֶׁהוּא יָדוֹצג).

11 There are authorities who maintain that one should not recite a blessing over a pleasant fragrance that [does not emanate from a fragrant] substance, e.g., the fragrance of scented clothing. Weight should be given to their words and one should avoid smelling such objects [because of the doubt]. All authorities, however, agree that a blessing should not be recited [when smelling] a container that was used to hold spices and absorbed their fragrance. [The rationale is that] the spices were not placed in the container with the intent that it absorb the spices’ fragrance.

יא רֵיחַ טוֹב שֶׁאֵין לוֹ עִקָּר, כְּגוֹן בְּגָדִים הַמֻּגְמָרִים – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצד שֶׁאֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל רֵיחָם. וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ וְלִמְנֹעַ מִלְּהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם.צה

אֲבָל כְּלִי שֶׁהָיוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשָׂמִים וְנִקְלַט הָרֵיחַ לְתוֹכוֹ – לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הֻנְּחוּ בּוֹ הַבְּשָׂמִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּקְלֹט הָרֵיחַ אֶל תּוֹכוֹ.צו

12 One who sees a new fruit that appears seasonally from year to year, or even twice a year, and takes pleasure in seeing it [for the first time in the new season] should recite the blessing Shehecheyanu. [This rule applies] even if he sees [the fruit] in the hand of another person or on the tree. If he does not take pleasure in seeing the new fruit, he should not recite the blessing [Shehecheyanu] until he eats it. [Nevertheless,] people at large follow the custom of not reciting the blessing [Shehecheyanu over a fruit] under any circumstances until they eat it, so as not to make a distinction between one who takes pleasure in seeing [the new fruit] and one who does not.

One should first recite the blessing Shehecheyanu, and afterwards Borei pri haetz or Borei pri haadamah. One who recites the blessing Shehecheyanu when he sees [a new fruit] has not suffered a loss12 if [indeed] he took pleasure in seeing it.

יב הָרוֹאֶה פְּרִי חָדָשׁ שֶׁמִּתְחַדֵּשׁ מִשָּׁנָה לְשָׁנָה,צז אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים בְּשָׁנָה,צח וְנֶהֱנֶה בִּרְאִיָּתוֹ – מְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ", אֲפִלּוּ רוֹאֵהוּ בְּיַד חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ עַל הָאִילָן.צט וְאִם אֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה בִּרְאִיָּתוֹ – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עַד שְׁעַת אֲכִילָה.ק

וְהָעוֹלָם נָהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ בְּכָל עִנְיָן עַד שְׁעַת אֲכִילָה,קא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא לְחַלֵּק בֵּין מִי שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה בִּרְאִיָּתוֹ לְמִי שֶׁלֹּא נֶהֱנֶה.קב וִיבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ"קג וְאַחַר כָּךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ" אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה".קד

וְהַמְבָרֵךְ בִּשְׁעַת רְאִיָּה – לֹא הִפְסִיד, אִם נֶהֱנֶה בִּרְאִיָּתוֹ.קה

13 The blessing [Shehecheyanu] should not be recited over a fruit until it completes its full growth. Nevertheless, if one recited the blessing after [the tree or plant] produced fruit over which it is fit to recite the blessing [Borei pri haetz or Borei pri haadamah], as was explained in ch. 6, [law 1,] there is no need to recite the blessing Shehecheyanu again [over this fruit] once it completes its growth.

If one did not recite the blessing the first time he saw or ate [a fruit], he should recite it without mentioning G‑d’s name or His Sovereignty the second time he sees or partakes of the fruit.

יג אֵין לְבָרֵךְ עַד שֶׁנִּגְמַר תַּשְׁלוּם גִּדּוּל הַפְּרִי.קו וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם בֵּרַךְ מִשֶּׁהוֹצִיאוּ הַפֵּרוֹת, שֶׁהֵם רְאוּיִים לִבְרָכָה,קז שֶׁהִיא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק ו'קח – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" אַחַר תַּשְׁלוּם גִּדּוּלָם.

וְאִם לֹא בֵּרַךְ בִּרְאִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָהקט אוֹ בַּאֲכִילָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָהקי – יֵשׁ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרְאִיָּה הַשְּׁנִיָּה אוֹ עַל הָאֲכִילָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה בְּלֹא שֵׁם וּמַלְכוּת.קיא

14 When a fruit has a number of sub-species, the blessing [Shehecheyanu] should be recited over each of its sub-species, for example, [the blessing Shehecheyanu] should be recited over two types of pears (i.e. those called gedulin and barin [in Yiddish]), two types of apples (e.g., those cultivated in orchards and those that grow wild in the forest), and two types of cherries (e.g., those called veinkeshel and [those called] kirschen [in Yiddish]). [The blessing is recited on each of the species of a fruit] even if they have the same taste [but,] for example, [one sub-species is] red and [one is] black.

יד פְּרִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִינִים הַרְבֵּהקיב – מְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל מִין וָמִין,קיג כְּגוֹן שְׁנֵי מִינֵי אַגָּסִים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין גדאויליי"ן ובארי"ןקיד), אוֹ תַּפּוּחִיםקטו (כְּגוֹן תַּפּוּחַ שֶׁבַּשָּׂדוֹת וְתַפּוּחַ שֶׁבַּעֲצֵי הַיַּעַרקטז), אוֹ גֻדְגְּדָנִיּוֹת (כְּגוֹן שֶׁקּוֹרִין ויינקשי"ל וקארשי"ן). וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לָהֶם טַעַם אֶחָד,קיז כְּגוֹן אֲדֻמּוֹת וּשְׁחֹרוֹת.קיח

15 The blessing Shehecheyanu is recited only on [fruit] which can clearly be identified as “new,” [i.e.,] when none of the fruits from the previous season currently exist. Accordingly, one should recite the blessing only over those fruits which do not last from year to year and thus when the “new” fruit appears, there is none of the old produce in existence. [Nevertheless, this blessing should be recited] even though there are those who enable [the produce of the previous season] to be preserved through [various] techniques. [Since] they are very much in the minority, they may be disregarded.

In contrast, the blessing [Shehecheyanu] should not be recited over types of vegetables that are buried in pits and are preserved there throughout the year, (e.g., radishes and beets), because [even when] the “new” produce appears, there is much produce of these species from the previous season. Even if [a particular person] has not eaten from these types of produce throughout the year, many others have. [Nonetheless,] if the new produce is noticeably distinct in taste and in appearance, the blessing Shehecheyanu should be recited over it. For example, [this blessing should be recited over] grits made from new grain when it is clearly noticeable that they are new due to their appearance and superior taste.13

טו אֵין מְבָרְכִין "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר הַנִּכָּר הֵיטֵב שֶׁהוּא חָדָשׁ וְאֵין עַתָּה כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִן הַיָּשָׁן,קיט לְפִיכָךְ אֵין מְבָרְכִין אֶלָּא עַל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לְהִתְקַיֵּם מִשָּׁנָה לְשָׁנָה, שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הֶחָדָשׁ אֵין בָּעוֹלָם כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִן הַיָּשָׁן, וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ מְקַיְּמִין אוֹתָם עַל יְדֵי תַּחְבּוּלוֹת – הֵם מְעַט מִזְעָר וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָהֶם.קכ

אֲבָל מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת שֶׁמַּטְמִינִים אוֹתָם בְּבוֹרוֹת וּמִתְקַיְּמִים שָׁם כָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה (שֶׁקּוֹרִין רעטא"ך אוֹ בוריקע"ס)קכא – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם בְּחִדּוּשָׁם, הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ יְשָׁנִים רַבִּים כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם,קכב וְאַף אִם הוּא לֹא אָכַל מֵהֶם כָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה – הֲרֵי אֲחֵרִים רַבִּים אָכְלוּ מֵהֶם.קכג

וְאִם הֶחָדָשׁ נִכָּר הֵיטֵב בְּטַעְמוֹ וְגַם בְּמַרְאִיתוֹ – מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ",קכד כְּגוֹן הָרִיפוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין מִדָּגָן חָדָשׁ, שֶׁנִּכָּרִים הֵיטֵב שֶׁהֵם חֲדָשִׁים בְּמַרְאִית הָעַיִן וּבְטַעְמָם שֶׁהוּא לְשֶׁבַח.קכה

16 There are some authorities who maintain that the blessing Shehecheyanu should be recited over a fragrance which is renewed from year to year, like [it is recited] over edible fruits. Other authorities differ. Hence, one should recite the blessing without mentioning G‑d’s name and His sovereignty.

טז רֵיחַ הַמִּתְחַדֵּשׁ מִשָּׁנָה לְשָׁנָה – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקכו לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" כְּמוֹ עַל פְּרִי מַאֲכָל. וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין.קכז לָכֵן יֵשׁ לְבָרֵךְ בְּלֹא שֵׁם וּמַלְכוּת.קכח