CHAPTER 8 [The Laws Pertaining to the Minimum Measure of Food that Requires a Blessing to be Recited After Eating It] (1–11)

פרק ח [דִּינֵי שִׁעוּר בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה וּבוֹ י"א הֲלָכוֹת]

1 One is required to recite a blessing after partaking of food or drink(berachah acharonah) only when he partakes of a minimum measure. For such a blessing is not recited after eating or drinking unless one partakes of an amount of food fit to be described as “eating” rather than “tasting,” or one drinks an amount fit to be described as “drinking.”

[Partaking of] less than an olive-sized portion1 is never considered “eating,” and [imbibing] less than a reviis halog (a fourth of a log)2 — [the volume of] one-and-a-half eggs with their shells — is never considered “drinking.” Even if one drank a sharp, strong beverage of which people ordinarily drink [only] a small amount, e.g., [some] alcoholic beverages, the satisfaction he receives from drinking [this small amount] is not [considered] significant enough [to warrant a blessing] unless [he drank the measure] for partaking of all beverages, i.e., a reviis.

There are authorities who are in doubt whether a blessing should be recited after partaking of an olive-sized portion of wine.3 [Hence,] it is desirable to be careful to drink either less than an olive-sized portion or [at least] a reviis. After the fact, however, if one already drank an olive-sized portion [of wine] and does not have [enough to drink] a reviis, there is no need to recite a berachah acharonah afterwards.

א א ב ג בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה בֵּין שֶׁל אֳכָלִיןד בֵּין שֶׁל מַשְׁקִיןה – צְרִיכִים שִׁעוּר, שֶׁאֵין מְבָרְכִין אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אָכַל כַּשִּׁעוּר הָרָאוּי לִהְיוֹת נִקְרָא אֲכִילָה וְלֹא טְעִימָה, אוֹ שָׁתָה כַּשִּׁעוּר הָרָאוּי לִהְיוֹת שְׁתִיָּה. וְאֵין אֲכִילָה פְּחוּתָה מִכַּזַּיִת,ו וְאֵין שְׁתִיָּה פְּחוּתָה מֵרְבִיעִית הַלֹּג,ז שֶׁהוּא בֵּיצָה וּמֶחֱצָהח בִּקְלִפָּתָהּ.ט

וַאֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקֶה חָרִיף וְחָזָק שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ כָּל אָדָם לִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט כְּמוֹ יֵין שָׂרָף – אֵין הֲנָאַת שְׁתִיָּתוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה אִם אֵין בָּהּ שִׁעוּר שְׁתִיַּת כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִים שֶׁהוּא רְבִיעִית.י

וְיֵשׁ מִסְתַּפְּקִיםיא בִּבְרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁל יַיִןיב אִם מְבָרְכִים אוֹתָהּ עַל כַּזַּיִת.יג וְטוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת אֶלָּא פָּחוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת אוֹ רְבִיעִית.יד אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁכְּבָר שָׁתָה כַּזַּיִת וְאֵין לוֹ כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו.טו

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2 [The following rules apply] if one ate the equivalent of half an olive-sized portion, paused some, and then ate the equivalent of another half of an olive-sized portion. If more time than is needed to eat a p’ras4(which is half a loaf of bread that comprises the volume of six egg-sized portions)5 elapsed between the beginning of the first time he ate and the end of the second time he ate, the two times he ate are not combined with each other. [Thus, he is not required to recite a blessing after eating. This ruling also applies] even if one did not interrupt his eating at all, but took this amount of time from when he began eating an olive-sized portion until he concluded.

As long as one did not wait this amount of time, the two times he ate are considered as one [regarding the recitation of a blessing after eating. This ruling applies] even when the second time he ate is considered a second meal with regard to the recitation of a blessing before eating, e.g., he changed the place [where he ate] in the interim.6

The half loaf [mentioned with regard to this amount of time] refers to bread made from wheat, which can be eaten quickly, and is eaten while reclining, with accompanying foods, without diverting one’s attention, and is actually eaten quickly.7

ב אָכַל כַּחֲצִי זַיִת וְשָׁהָה מְעַט וְחָזַר וְאָכַל כַּחֲצִי זַיִת, אִם יֵשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת אֲכִילָה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַד סוֹף אֲכִילָה אַחֲרוֹנָה יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס (שֶׁהוּא כַּחֲצִי כִּכַּר שֶׁל שִׁשָּׁה בֵּיצִיםטז) – אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה.יז וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִפְסִיק כְּלָל בַּאֲכִילָתוֹ, אֶלָּא שָׁהָה כָּל כָּךְ מִתְּחִלַּת אֲכִילַת הַכַּזַּיִת עַד סוֹפוֹ.יח

וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהָה יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס – מִצְטָרְפוֹת שְׁתֵּי אֲכִילוֹת לְהֵחָשֵׁב כְּאַחַת, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהַשְּׁנִיָּה נֶחְשֶׁבֶת כִּסְעוּדָה אַחֶרֶת לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשִּׁנָּה מְקוֹמוֹ בֵּינְתַיִם.יט

וַחֲצִי כִּכָּר זֶה מְשַׁעֲרִים בְּפַת חִטִּיםכ שֶׁנֶּאֱכֶלֶת מַהֵר,כא וּמֵסֵב וְאוֹכְלוֹ בְּלִפְתָּן,כב וְאֵינוֹ פּוֹנֶה אָנֶה וָאָנָה,כג וְאוֹכְלוֹ מַהֵר.כד

3 Based on the above, [an interesting halachic predicament can arise when] flour from one of the five species of grain was mixed with flour made from various kinds of kitniyos and bread was baked from [the mixture]. The blessing HaMotzi is recited over the bread, since the grain is considered the primary element, even if only a small amount [of grain-flour is used in the bread], as explained (in ch. 3, [law 6]). Nevertheless, one should not recite Grace after partaking of such bread, unless there is an olive-sized portion of flour made from grain within half a loaf of the bread made from this mixture [of flour. Only] in such a situation is one required to recite Grace after eating an olive-sized portion.

[However,] other authorities maintain that one is not required to recite Grace unless he eats the half-loaf portion in its entirety.8 Weight should be given to their words, [since] we rule leniently when questions arise regarding [whether or not] to recite blessings.

ג לְפִיכָךְ, קֶמַח שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי דָּגָן שֶׁעֵרֵב עִם קֶמַח שֶׁל מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת וְעָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ פַּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא",כה שֶׁהַדָּגָן עִקָּר אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא מוּעָט, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר (בְּפֶרֶק ג'כו), מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בְּקֶמַח הַדָּגָן כַּזַּיִת בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס מֵהַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת,כז וְאָז צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל כַּזַּיִת מֵהַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת.כח

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכט שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כָּל הַפְּרָס.ל וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל בִּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת.לא

4 If, however, the mixture of grain-flour made is less than this proportion, one should recite the blessing HaMotzi [before partaking of the bread], but should not recite Grace [afterwards], even if he ate a great deal. Instead, he should recite the one blessing that encapsulates three (Al hamichyah), even if he only ate an olive-sized portion. [The rationale is that] the flavor of [wheat] bread pervades the entire [loaf] even though it contains only the slightest substance of bread.

There are authorities who maintain that there is an unresolved question regarding [the blessing to recite after partaking of such bread]. Therefore, it is proper to avoid eating this kind of bread except within a meal.

ד אֲבָל אִם תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת קֶמַח הַדָּגָן הוּא פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר זֶהלב – מְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא", וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹןלג אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל הַרְבֵּה,לד אֲבָל מְבָרֵךְ "מֵעֵין ג'"לה אֲפִלּוּ לֹא אָכַל אֶלָּא כַּזַּיִת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ טַעַם פַּת בְּכֻלָּן,לו אַף שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁוּת הַפַּת אֶלָּא כָּל שֶׁהוּא.לז

וְיֵשׁ מִסְתַּפְּקִים בָּזֶה.לח וְלָכֵן נָכוֹן לִמְנֹעַ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל מִפַּת זוֹ כִּי אִם תּוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה.לט

5 When bread was made from wheat flour mixed with rice9 flour, Grace should be recited [after partaking of it]. When a cooked dish is made from such flour, the one blessing that encompasses three (Al hamichyah) should be recited [after partaking of it. This ruling applies] even if the bread does not contain an olive-sized portion of wheat flour within a quantity sufficient to yield a half a loaf, provided it has the taste of grain. [The rationale is that] the wheat flavors all of the rice.

ה קֶמַח חִטִּים שֶׁעֵרְבוֹ עִם קֶמַח אֹרֶזמ – מְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אִם עָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ פַּת,מא אוֹ "מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ" אִם עָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ תַּבְשִׁיל, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בּוֹ כַּזַּיִת בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָסמב כָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם דָּגָן,מג לְפִי שֶׁהַחִטִּים גּוֹרְרִים אֶת הָאֹרֶז לִהְיוֹת בְּכֻלּוֹ טַעַם חִטִּים.מד

6 [There as a difference of opinion among the Rabbis concerning] the measure [of time in which liquids must be] drunk for [separate drinks to be] combined [to require a blessing to be recited]. Some authorities maintain that [this measure] is the time it takes to drink a reviis. [Thus,] should one drink the equivalent [amount] of half a reviis hastily, [far quicker] than most people would drink it, wait a bit, and then drink another [half reviis, all] within less time than it would take most people to drink a reviis, thenhis two drinks are combined.[In other words, if less time] elapsed between the beginning of the time he first drank and the end of the second time he drank [than it takes most people to drink a reviis], his drinks can be considered as one drink [and he can recite a blessing after the second drink. However, if it took] longer than that, [the two drinks] are not combined. (The same laws apply if he did not make an interruption between drinking, but drank very slowly to the extent [that it took him longer to drink a reviis than it takes most people].)

Other authorities [differ and] maintain that the measure of time for drinking a reviis is the amount of time it takes to eat half a loaf of bread, the same measure that applies regarding eating. Fundamentally, [the Halachah] follows this [approach]. Accordingly, a person should recite a blessing after drinking hot coffee or tea, even though he drinks it slowly, provided he does not take longer than the time it takes to eat half a loaf of bread (k’dei achilas p’ras) to drink [a reviis of] it.

ו שִׁעוּר צֵרוּף שְׁתִיָּה – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמה שֶׁהוּא בִּכְדֵי שִׁעוּר שְׁתִיַּת רְבִיעִית,מו וְאִם שָׁתָה כַּחֲצִי רְבִיעִית בְּחִפָּזוֹן שֶׁלֹּא כְּדֶרֶךְ שְׁתִיַּת רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָםמז וְשָׁהָה מְעַט וְחָזַר וְשָׁתָה, אִם יֵשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת שְׁתִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַד סוֹף שְׁתִיָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה כְּדֵי שְׁתִיַּת רְבִיעִית שֶׁל שְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם – מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה, יוֹתֵר מִכֵּן – אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה (וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם לֹא הִפְסִיק בֵּינְתַיִם אֶלָּא שֶׁשָּׁהָה בִּשְׁתִיָּתוֹ כָּל כָּךְמח).

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמט שֶׁשִּׁעוּר צֵרוּף הַשְּׁתִיַּת רְבִיעִית בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס, כְּמוֹ צֵרוּף אֲכִילָה. וְכֵן עִקָּר.נ לְפִיכָךְ, יֵשׁ לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַל קאוו"י וְטֵיי"א חַמִּין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשּׁוֹתֵהוּ מְעַט מְעַט, אִם לֹא שָׁהָה יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס.

7 All foods are combined with each other to reach the measure of an olive-sized portion. [In such an instance,] the blessing recited after eating is the one appropriate for [the food of] the lesser status. For example, if one ate half an olive-sized portion of one of the seven species [of produce for which Eretz Yisrael is praised] and half an olive-sized portion of a food for which the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos is recited, he should recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos after partaking of them. [Similarly,] if one ate half an olive-sized portion of bread and half an olive-sized portion of one of the seven species [of produce for which Eretz Yisrael is praised], one should recite the one blessing that encapsulates three after eating.10

All beverages are combined with each other to reach the measure of a reviis. In contrast, foods and beverages are not combined with each other, neither to reach the measure of an olive-sized portion, nor that of a reviis.

ז כָּל הָאֳכָלִין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לְכַזַיִת, וּמְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם כְּבִרְכַּת הַקַּל שֶׁבָּהֶן, כְּגוֹן אָכַל כַּחֲצִי זַיִת מִז' הַמִּינִים וְכַחֲצִי זַיִת מִדָּבָר שֶׁבִּרְכָתוֹ הָאַחֲרוֹנָה הוּא "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" – מְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת".נא וְאִם אָכַל כַּחֲצִי זַיִת פַּתנב וְכַחֲצִי זַיִת מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִיםנג – מְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם "מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ".נד

וְכָל הַמַּשְׁקִין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לִרְבִיעִית.נה אֲבָל אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִים זֶה עִם זֶה,נו לֹא לְכַזַּיִת, וְלֹא לִרְבִיעִית.נז

8 The sauce in which a food was cooked is not combined with it [to reach the measure of an olive-sized portion. The rationale is that] it is considered a liquid in all respects.

Similarly, food that has dissolved to the extent that it can be drunk is removed from the halachic category of food. So too, a liquid that has congealed to the extent that it can be eaten is removed from the halachic category of a liquid, even if it is [sufficiently] moist to impart moisture [to something else that touches it].11

ח רֹטֶב שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ אֹכֶל – אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף עִמּוֹ, כִּי מַשְׁקֶה גָּמוּר הוּא לְכָל דָּבָר.נח וְכֵן אֹכֶל שֶׁנִּמּוֹחַ כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁרָאוּי לַשְּׁתִיָּה – יָצָא מִתּוֹרַת אֹכֶל. וְכֵן מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁנִּקְרַשׁ עַד שֶׁרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה – יָצָא מִתּוֹרַת מַשְׁקֶה, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בּוֹ טוֹפֵחַ עַל מְנָת לְהַטְפִּיחַ.נט

9 Some authorities raise a question, [presenting the hypothesis that] any entity that is [a beriah, i.e.,] an entity [that is intact] in the form that it was created, e.g., one grape or even one kernel of kitniyos, possibly warrants having a blessing recited after [one] partakes of it.12 Therefore, it is appropriate to be careful not to partake of less than an olive-sized portion of a beriah.13

[Produce] is considered a beriah only when it is eaten in its natural state [in its entirety]. If, by contrast, one discarded the pit of a fruit whose pits are ordinarily eaten, or if a small part of the body of the fruit is missing and thus, he did not eat it in its entirety, he has not eaten a complete beriah. If, [on the other hand,] one ate [an entire fruit, including] the contents of the pit, but discarded its shell or similarly [ate] a fruit [and discarded its pit] if the pit is not ordinarily eaten, since he ate [all] that is fit to be eaten from [the fruit], he has eaten a complete beriah.

[The above applies] provided that the fruit was served to him to eat while it was whole. If, however, its pit was removed before [the fruit] was brought to him, as is usually the case with pickled olives, it does not have the importance of a beriah. The same [law applies] if the fruit was cut or crushed before it was served.14

ט יֵשׁ מִסְתַּפְּקִים לוֹמַרס שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא כִּבְרִיָּתוֹ כְּגוֹן עֲנָבָה אַחַת אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ קִטְנִית אַחַתסא – אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ אַחֲרֶיהָ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה. לְכָךְ נָכוֹן לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל בְּרִיָּה פְּחוּתָה מִכַּזַּיִת.סב

וְאֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת בְּרִיָּה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אוֹכְלָהּ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא, אֲבָל אִם זָרַק הַגַּרְעִין מִן הַפְּרִי בִּפְרִי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לֶאֱכֹל גַּרְעִינֶיהָ,סג אוֹ אִם חָסֵר קְצָת מִגּוּף הַפְּרִיסד שֶׁלֹּא אֲכָלוֹ כֻּלּוֹ – הֲרֵי לֹא אָכַל בְּרִיָּה שְׁלֵמָה.

וְאִם אָכַל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹךְ הַגַּרְעִין וְזָרַק קְלִפָּתוֹ,סה וְכֵן פְּרִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לֶאֱכֹל גַּרְעִינֶיהָ,סו כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָכַל מַה שֶּׁרָאוּי לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ – הֲרֵי אָכַל בְּרִיָּה שְׁלֵמָה. וְהוּא שֶׁהוּבָא הַפְּרִי לְפָנָיו לֶאֱכֹל כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׁלֵם, אֲבָל אִם קֹדֶם שֶׁהוּבָא לְפָנָיו חָסֵר מִמֶּנּוּ גַּרְעִינָתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁרָגִיל לִהְיוֹת בְּזֵיתִים מְלוּחִים – אֵין עָלָיו חֲשִׁיבוּת בְּרִיָּה.סז וְכֵן אִם נֶחְתַּךְ אוֹ נִתְרַסֵּקסח קֹדֶם שֶׁהוּבָא לְפָנָיו.סט

10 All the above applies with regard to the blessing recited after [partaking of a food or drink]. In contrast, there is no required measure for the blessing recited before eating or drinking. Instead, even the slightest taste [of food or drink requires a blessing] because it is forbidden to derive satisfaction from this world without [first reciting] a blessing.15

י וְכָל זֶה בִּבְרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, אֲבָל לִבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ שִׁעוּר אֲכִילָה אוֹ שְׁתִיָּה, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ טְעִימָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה.ע

11 “Satisfaction” refers to the satisfaction of one’s gut and not the satisfaction of his palate alone. For example, one tastes a cooked dish to see whether it requires salt and spices, or whether it is palatable and then spits out [the food he tasted]. He need not recite a blessing even though he derives satisfaction from tasting, even if he tastes a considerable amount — up to, but not including, a reviis.

יא וְאֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֲנָאָה אֶלָּא הֲנָאַת מֵעָיו, וְלֹא הֲנָאַת הַחֵךְעא לְבַדּוֹ,עב כְּגוֹן הַטּוֹעֵם אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁילעג לֵידַע אִם הוּא צָרִיךְ מֶלַח וְתַבְלִיןעד אוֹ אִם הוּא טוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְחוֹזֵר וּפוֹלֵטעה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה בְּטַעְמוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ טָעַם הַרְבֵּהעו עַד כְּדֵי רְבִיעִיתעז וְלֹא עַד בִּכְלָל.עח