CHAPTER 5 [The Laws Governing a Person Who Changes His Mind in the Course of Eating] (1–9)

פרק ה [דִּינֵי נִמְלַךְ וּבוֹ ט' הֲלָכוֹת]

1 If a person [was eating or drinking and] decided not to eat or drink [more], but afterwards, changed his mind [and decided to continue], he must always recite a second blessing.

The [only] exception to this rule is [when one is eating] a meal [that includes bread. In such a situation,] even if one decided not to eat any more, he is not considered to have diverted his attention [entirely from eating. The rationale is that] it is common for a person to linger and be drawn from one course to another. [Indeed,] there are times when a person sits down to [eat] a small meal and continues [eating until he has partaken of] a large meal.

Thus, changing one’s mind [and deciding to continue] eating [after sitting down] to a meal does not require [another] blessing unless one had only a small amount of bread at the time he recited the blessing HaMotzi and, at that time, had no knowledge at all that he would have more afterwards. [In such a situation,] if he was later given more bread — or even if afterwards he changed his mind and purchased more bread from the market place — [he is required to recite a second blessing]. If, however, one had bread in the house and cut a piece to eat, but afterwards wants to cut more, he is not considered to have changed his mind, for this is common practice.1

א א ב ג גָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל אוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְד – זָקוּק לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ בְּכָל מָקוֹם.ה

חוּץ מִבַּסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל עוֹדו – אֵין זֶה סִלּוּק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת,ז כֵּיוָן שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם לְהִמָּשֵׁךְ וּלְהִגָּרֵר מֵאֲכִילָה לַאֲכִילָה, וּפְעָמִים שֶׁאָדָם יוֹשֵׁב בִּסְעוּדָה קְטַנָּה וּמַמְשִׁיךְ לִסְעוּדָה גְּדוֹלָה.ח

וְאֵין נִמְלַךְ זָקוּק בְּרָכָה בַּסְּעוּדָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" לֹא הָיָה לוֹ אֶלָּא מְעַט לֶחֶם, וְלֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ כְּלָל בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ יוֹתֵר אַחַר כָּךְ,ט וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָתְנוּ לוֹ יוֹתֵר, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ וְקָנָה מִן הַשּׁוּק עוֹד לֶחֶם.י אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ לֶחֶם בְּבֵיתוֹ, וְחוֹתֵךְ לוֹ חֲתִיכָה לֶאֱכֹל אוֹתָהּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ רוֹצֶה לַחְתֹּךְ עוֹד – אֵין זֶה נִמְלַךְ, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ אָדָם הוּא כֵּן.יא

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2 Similarly, one must recite a blessing on all other foods when it is known that he did not have in mind [to partake of them] when he recited the blessing HaMotzi. [Moreover,] even with regard to bread and other foods that the person originally intended to partake of, if he finished eating, left his place, and diverted his attention from eating more, he is required to recite a second blessing when he returns to his meal.2 [The rationale is that] it is not characteristic for a person to be drawn from eating one course to another, unless he is [still] sitting at the place that served as the setting for his meal, but not when he [left that place and] went elsewhere.3

ב וְכֵן שְׁאָר מַאֲכָלִים שֶׁיָּדוּעַ שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" לֹא הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלָל.יב

וַאֲפִלּוּ לֶחֶם וּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁהָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁגָּמַר מִלֶּאֱכֹל וְעָקַר מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וְהִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִלֶּאֱכֹל עוֹד, כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר לִסְעוּדָתוֹ – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ,יג לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם לְהִתְגָּרֵר מֵאֲכִילָה לַאֲכִילָה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב בִּמְקוֹם קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָתוֹ, וְלֹא כְּשֶׁיּוֹצֵא לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר.יד

3 All this applies to eating [within a meal. Different rules apply to] drinking. If a person decided not to drink more and then changed his mind, he is required to recite another blessing. [This ruling applies even when one drank wine during a meal.] Even if he did not make an explicit decision [not to drink more], but merely said: “Bring a cup [of wine so that] we can recite Grace after Meals,” he is considered to have diverted his attention from drinking more. [The same rule applies] if he says: “Come, let us recite Grace.” If, afterwards, he changes his mind and decides to drink [again], he is required to recite a blessing beforehand.

If, however, he changes his mind and decides to eat again, he may eat without reciting [another] blessing. Moreover, if he is drawn to drink more because of what [he now] eats, he may drink without reciting a blessing. If, however, he changes his mind and wishes to return to his meal, but is [still] thirsty as a result of his original meal, he is required to recite a blessing. Nevertheless, he need not recite a blessing [after drinking].4 Similarly, if one changed his mind [and decided to] eat other foods that are served because of the meal, even though he did not intend to eat [any more] bread at all, he is not required to recite a blessing before partaking of those foods.5

There are other authorities, however, who maintain that there is no difference between eating and drinking [in this regard]. Even when eating — and even when one sat down to eat a meal in a fixed setting — if one diverted his attention from eating more and then he changed his mind and decided to eat [more] bread or other foods that are served because of the meal, he is required to recite a second blessing.6 It is desirable to give weight to their words and not to return to eat at all. One should not, however, return and eat again and recite a [second] blessing, because it may be a blessing [recited] in vain.

ג וְכָל זֶה בַּאֲכִילָה, אֲבָל בִּשְׁתִיָּהטו אִם גָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ.טז וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא גָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ, אִם אָמַר "תְּנוּ כּוֹס וּנְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן",יז וְכֵן אִם אָמַר "בּוֹאוּ וּנְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן"יח – הֲרֵי זֶה סִלּוּק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת מִשְּׁתִיָּה. וְאִם נִמְלַךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה.יט אֲבָל אִם נִמְלַךְ לַחֲזֹר לַאֲכִילָתוֹ – אוֹכֵל בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה.כ וְאִם מֵחֲמַת אֲכִילָה זוֹ נִגְרַר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת – שׁוֹתֶה גַּם כֵּן בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה.כא אֲבָל אִם נִמְלַךְכב לַחֲזֹר לִסְעוּדָתוֹ וְצָמֵא לִשְׁתּוֹת מֵחֲמַת אֲכִילָה רִאשׁוֹנָה – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ.כג אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה.כד וְכֵן אִם נִמְלַךְ לֶאֱכֹל שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת סְעוּדָה, אַף שֶׁאֵין בְּדַעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכֹל פַּת כְּלָל – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם.כה

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכו שֶׁאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין אֲכִילָה לִשְׁתִיָּה, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּסְעוּדַת קֶבַע, אִם הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִלֶּאֱכֹל עוֹד,כז וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לֶאֱכֹל פַּת אוֹ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ.כח

וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם, שֶׁלֹּא לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל כְּלָל. אֲבָל לֹא יֹאכַל וִיבָרֵךְ, מִשּׁוּם חֲשַׁשׁ בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה.כט

4 All authorities agree that if a person took a cup of wine in hand to recite Grace, even if he did not wash his hands [before Grace], nor did he say: “Bring a cup [of wine so that] we can recite Grace,” he is considered to have withdrawn [from the meal] and diverted his attention from eating entirely. [Therefore,] he must recite a blessing before [eating or drinking anything else] according to all opinions.

[Moreover, in this instance,] he must also recite a blessing after partaking of any foods served because of the meal, before reciting Grace. [Eating these foods] is considered [partaking of] another meal, because he had diverted his attention from partaking of bread [again].7

ד אֲבָל אִם נָטַל הַכּוֹס בְּיָדוֹ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָטַל יָדָיו, וְגַם לֹא אָמַר מִתְּחִלָּה "תְּנוּ כּוֹס וּנְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן" – הֲרֵי זֶה סִלּוּק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת לְגַמְרֵיל לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, אֲפִלּוּ מֵאֲכִילָה, וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל. וְגַם בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָהלא קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁכִּסְעוּדָה אַחֶרֶת הִיא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁסִּלֵּק דַּעְתּוֹ מֵהַפַּת.לב

5 If one washed his hands before Grace,8 even though he did not pick up the cup of wine [to recite Grace], he is considered to have withdrawn [from the meal] and diverted his attention [from eating] entirely. He must recite Grace [at this time], according to all opinions.

Even if he is willing to recite another blessing [before eating], he does not have license to eat or drink again, because that would constitute an interruption between the washing and reciting Grace. [He may resume eating] only if he is willing to wash his hands again directly before reciting Grace.9

ה וְאִם נָטַל יָדָיו מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָטַל הַכּוֹס – הֲרֵי זֶה סִלּוּק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת לְגַמְרֵי,לג וְצָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְלד לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.

וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּבְרָכָה אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לֶאֱכֹל וְלֹא לִשְׁתּוֹת, מִשּׁוּם הֶפְסֵק בֵּין מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִים לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,לה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רוֹצֶה לַחֲזֹר וְלִטֹּל מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִים אַחַר כָּךְ סָמוּךְ לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.לו

6 Whenever a person’s diversion of attention requires him to recite the blessing HaMotzi again, he must also wash his hands in the manner appropriate for eating bread. Washing one’s hands for Grace does not [enable a person to partake of bread], even if he washed in the appropriate manner [for partaking of bread], since [he did not wash] with the intent to eat bread.10

ו וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" מִשּׁוּם הֶסַּח הַדַּעַת – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִטֹּל יָדָיו כָּרָאוּי לַאֲכִילַת פַּת.לז וּמַיִם הָאַחֲרוֹנִים אֵיןלח עוֹלִין לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ נְטָלָן כָּרָאוּי לַאֲכִילַת פַּת,לט הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן בָּהֶם לַאֲכִילַת פַּת.מ

7 If the meal’s host said: “Let us recite Grace,” all the participants in the meal are forbidden to drink [further] without reciting a blessing, provided that they remained silent, [indicating] their consent to his words. If, however, one of the guests or one of the members of the household, suggested reciting Grace, even the person who made the statement may retract [his statement] and drink together with the host. [The rationale is that the guest or household member] knows that the matter is not dependent on him, but on the host. Since the host did not divert his attention [from drinking], even [the one who suggested reciting Grace] is considered as having agreed with his host [and consented to continue to] drink with him.11

ז אִם בַּעַל הַסְּעוּדָה אָמַר "נְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן" – כָּל הַמְּסֻבִּין אֲסוּרִים לִשְׁתּוֹתמא בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, וְהוּא שֶׁשָּׁתְקוּ וְהִסְכִּימוּ לִדְבָרָיו.מב אֲבָל אִם אֶחָד מֵהָאוֹרְחִים אוֹ מִבְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ אָמַר כֵּן – אַף הָאוֹמֵר עַצְמוֹ יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹתמג עִם בַּעַל הַבַּיִת,מד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר תָּלוּי בּוֹ אֶלָּא בְּבַעַל הַבַּיִת, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבַּעַל הַבַּיִת לֹא עָשָׂה הֶסַּח הַדַּעַת, אַף הוּא דַּעְתּוֹ סוֹמֶכֶת עַל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לִשְׁתּוֹת עִמּוֹ.מה

8 Similarly, guests invited to a host’s home to partake of various fruits are required only to recite the blessing over the first [piece of fruit brought to them] even though [other fruits] are continuously brought to them. Although they were unaware how much fruit would be brought to them when they recited the blessing, since they relied on their host who invited them, [retroactively, they are considered to have had in mind to include everything that he would serve them].

If, however, an uninvited person who did not sit down to eat with them, entered their setting for a brief period and all the assembled offer him cups [of drink] or various fruits, he is required to recite a [separate] blessing over every [fruit or cup of drink] that is offered him — if [the cups] are offered to him after he recited the blessing on the original cup — even if he was given a second cup before he finished drinking the first.

At present, the custom is that when a person enters a feast where people have sat down to drink, [the participants] routinely offer him many cups of drink. Hence, he is only required to recite a blessing on the first cup.12

ח וְכֵן הַקְּרוּאִים בְּבֵית בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לֶאֱכֹל מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּבִיאִין לָהֶם בָּזֶה אַחַר זֶה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אֶלָּא עַל הָרִאשׁוֹן, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת הַבְּרָכָה לֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִים כַּמָּה יָבִיאוּ לָהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדַּעְתָּן עַל בַּעַל הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁזִּמְּנָם.מו

אֲבָל אִם בָּא אֲלֵיהֶם אִישׁ אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא זִמְּנוּהוּ, וְאֵינוֹ קוֹבֵעַ עַצְמוֹ עִמָּהֶם,מז אֶלָּא נִכְנָס אֶצְלָם לְפִי שָׁעָה, וְכָל אֶחָד מֵהַמְּסֻבִּין מוֹשִׁיט לוֹ כּוֹסמח אוֹ מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, אִם מוֹשִׁיטִין לוֹ אַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּרַךְ עַל הַכּוֹס שֶׁלְּפָנָיו,מט וַאֲפִלּוּ עֲדַיִן לֹא שָׁתָה כֻּלּוֹ.נ

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁהַמִּנְהָג הוּא כֵּן שֶׁמּוֹשִׁיטִין כּוֹסוֹת הַרְבֵּה לְמִי שֶׁנִּכְנָס לִמְסִבָּה הַקְּבוּעִים לִשְׁתִיָּה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אֶלָּא עַל כּוֹס הָרִאשׁוֹן.נא

9 One may not recite any blessing after eating — even Grace, which is a Scriptural obligation — unless the food in one’s digestive system has not [begun to be] digested. Similarly, what one eats at two [different times] may not be covered with one blessing13 unless he has not waited an amount of time between [eating] the two foods sufficient for the first [food] to be digested. If one did wait this long, he is required to recite another blessing [on the second food]. Similar laws apply with regard to one who wishes to cover beverages he drinks at two different times with one blessing and delays between them long enough for the first [beverage] to be digested.

How long is [the time it takes food or drink to be digested]? As long as one is not hungry [again] after eating the food he first ate or thirsty [again] after drinking beverage he first drank.14

ט אֵין מְבָרְכִין שׁוּם בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה,נב אֶלָּא בְּעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעַכֵּל הַמָּזוֹן בְּמֵעָיו.נג

וְכֵן אֵין ב' אֲכִילוֹת נִפְטָרִים בִּבְרָכָה אַחַתנד אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁלֹּא שָׁהָה בֵּינְתַיִם שִׁעוּר שֶׁיִּתְעַכֵּל הַמָּזוֹן בְּמֵעָיו, אֲבָל אִם שָׁהָה כָּל כָּךְ – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ.נה וְכֵן הָרוֹצֶה לִפְטֹר ב' שְׁתִיּוֹת בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת, וְשָׁהָה בֵּינְתַיִם כְּשִׁעוּר עִכּוּל.נו

וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרוֹ?נז כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָעֵב מֵאוֹתָהּ אֲכִילָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,נח אוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָמֵא מִשְּׁתִיָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.נט