CHAPTER 3 [The Laws Mandated by the Principle that the Blessings Recited Over the Primary Food Cover Secondary Foods] (1–17)

פרק ג [דִּין עִקָּר פּוֹטֵר הַטְּפֵלָה וּבוֹ י"ז הֲלָכוֹת]

1 [The following rules apply when] two types of foods that do not have similar blessings are combined and mixed together: If one of them is the primary component and the second was mixed in solely to improve it and prepare it to be eaten, the blessing recited over the principal food covers the secondary one. [This rule applies] both in relation to the blessing recited before partaking of the foods, and that recited afterwards.

If both foods are of primary import, [i.e., one is equally interested in partaking of both of them,] the one that comprises most of the mixture is considered the principal and the lesser one is considered secondary, and subsumed within the greater component.1

א א ב ג תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת שְׁנֵי מִינִין שֶׁהֵן מְעֹרָבִין יַחַדד וְאֵין בִּרְכוֹתֵיהֶם שָׁווֹת, אִם הָאֶחָד הוּא עִקָּר וְהַשֵּׁנִי אֵין נוֹתְנִין בּוֹ כִּי אִם לְתַקְּנוֹ וּלְהַכְשִׁירוֹה – הֲרֵי הָעִקָּר פּוֹטֵר אֶת הַטָּפֵל בְּבִרְכָתוֹ,ו בֵּין מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה בֵּין מִבְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה.ז

וְאִם שְׁנֵיהֶם עִקָּר, אִם אֶחָד מֵהֶם הוּא הָרֹב – הֲרֵי זֶה נֶחְשָׁב עִקָּר, וְהַמִּעוּט נֶחְשָׁב טָפֵל וּבָטֵל לְגַבֵּי הָרֹב.ח

2 Since it is called “sustaining food” (mazon), any [of the five] species of grain is always considered the principal element [of a mixture].2 Even if the most substantial ingredient in a cooked dish is honey or other [foods of that type], and one of the five species of grain is the lesser ingredient, it [nevertheless] is considered the principal. The blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah are recited [on the cooked dish as a whole. This law applies] even if [one is primarily interested in partaking of] the honey or the other types of food [included in the dish] and the grain is only [included in the recipe] to lend flavor and make the dish palatable,3 provided the actual substance of grain is part of the mixture.4 If, however, only the flavor of the grain is present, the blessing Borei minei mezonos should not be recited over [the mixture].

Other authorities maintain that one should not recite the blessing Al hamichyah on a mixture that includes one of the five species of grain unless the mixture contains [enough grain so that] an olive-sized portion of grain would be eaten bik’dei achilas p’ras.5 Weight should be given to their words and [when a food has less than this amount of grain,] it should be eaten both with another olive-sized portion [of food] after which the blessing Al hamichyah should certainly be recited, and with an olive-sized portion [of food] after which the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos should certainly be recited, as explained above (at the end of ch. 1, [law 19].)

ב מִין דָּגָן הוֹאִיל וְנִקְרָא מָזוֹן,ט הוּא חָשׁוּב עִקָּר לְעוֹלָם,י שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ רֹב הַתַּבְשִׁיל דְּבַשׁ אוֹ מִינִים אֲחֵרִים וּמִעוּטוֹ מֵאֶחָד מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִין,יא אֲפִלּוּ עִקָּרוֹ מֵחֲמַת הַדְּבַשׁ אוֹ מִינִים אֲחֵרִים וְהַדָּגָן אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְהַטְעִימוֹ וּלְהַכְשִׁירוֹיב – הוּא נַעֲשֶׂה עִקָּר,יג וּמְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּבְרָכָה אַחַת "מֵעֵין ג'".יד וְהוּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַמָּשׁוּת הַדָּגָן בְּמַה שֶּׁאוֹכֵל, אֲבָל אִם אֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא טַעְמוֹ בִּלְבַד – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת".טו

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםטז שֶׁאֵין לְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו "מֵעֵין ג'"יז עַל תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת ה' מִינֵי דָּגָן, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בְּתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת כַּזַּיִת דָּגָן בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס.יח וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶםיט לֶאֱכֹל עוֹד כַּזַּיִת שֶׁבִּרְכָתוֹ הָאַחֲרוֹנָה הִיא "עַל הַמִּחְיָה" בְּוַדַּאי, וְעוֹד כַּזַּיִת שֶׁבִּרְכָתוֹ הִיא "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" בְּוַדַּאי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה (סוֹף פֶּרֶק א'כ).

3 When does the above — that a small amount of grain is considered the principal — apply? When it is included in the mixture to add flavor. If, however, the grain is mixed in only to color the food or to bind it and to make it firmer (by thickening it somewhat), then the [grain] is secondary to the cooked dish as a whole.6

ג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁהַדָּגָן מוּעָט נֶחְשָׁב עִקָּר? כְּשֶׁנּוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ לִתֵּן טַעַם בְּתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת, אֲבָל אִם אֵין נוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לִצְבֹּעַ אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל, אוֹ כְּדֵי לְדַבְּקוֹ וּלְהַקְפּוֹתוֹ (שֶׁיְּהֵא עָב קְצָת) – הֲרֵי הוּא טָפֵל לַתַּבְשִׁיל.כא

4 When does the above7 apply? When one has absolutely no intention to eat the grain itself. If, however, one is also interested in eating the grain, even though it is not the principal and his primary intent is to eat the other ingredients in the recipe, the flour is nevertheless considered the principal ingredient [in the dish and the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah should be recited on it. For example, one made] a sweet [loaf] from flour kneaded with honey (called lekach). The honey is the primary ingredient [in the mixture] and the person’s fundamental intent when eating the [loaf] is to enjoy its sweetness. Thus, partaking of the flour is not so important to him. Even so, the flour is considered the [food’s] principal ingredient, and the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah should be recited on it.

Nevertheless, [in such cases,] the blessings HaMotzi and Grace [are not recited over this pastry] since the main intention when preparing and baking the pastry is not [to eat it] for sustenance or as a meal, but rather to take pleasure and enjoyment from its sweetness. The sustaining aspect of the flour is secondary and not the principal intent in the preparation and baking. An exception to this rule: one eats an amount [of pastry] sufficient to constitute the basis of a meal, as has been explained (in ch. 2, [law 7]).

ד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?כב שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּוְּנִין כְּלָל לַאֲכִילַת הַדָּגָן, אֲבָל אִם מִתְכַּוְּנִין גַּם כֵּן לַאֲכִילָתוֹ,כג אַף שֶׁאֵינָהּ עִקָּר, אֶלָּא עִקַּר הַכַּוָּנָה לַאֲכִילַת שְׁאָר הַמִּינִים, כְּגוֹן מִינֵי מְתִיקָה מִקֶּמַח נִלּוֹשׁ בִּדְבַשׁ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין לעקיך), וְהַדְּבַשׁ הוּא הָרֹב וְהָעִקָּר בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ לְעִדּוּן וְתַעֲנוּג מֵהַמְּתִיקוּת, וַאֲכִילַת הַקֶּמַח אֵינוֹ עִקָּר כָּל כָּךְכד – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן נֶחְשָׁב הַקֶּמַח עִקָּר לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת"כה וּ"מֵעֵין ג'".כו אֲבָל לֹא לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, הוֹאִיל וְעִקַּר עֲשִׂיַּת וַאֲפִיַּת פַּת זוֹ אֵינָהּ לְמָזוֹן וְלִסְעוּדָה אֶלָּא לְעִדּוּן וְתַעֲנוּג מֵהַמְּתִיקוּת, וּמְזוֹן הַקֶּמַח הוּא טָפֵל וְלֹא עִקַּר עֲשִׂיָּתָהּ וַאֲפִיָּתָהּ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אָכַל כְּשִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר (בְּפֶרֶק ב'כז).

5 The blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah are recited over all kinds of sweets [intended] for pleasure and enjoyment that are made from a mixture of a small quantity of grain flour mixed together with sugar and a large amount of almond flour. [This rule applies] even though the blend of dough is thick and it is baked in an oven like ordinary bread unless one makes such sweets the basis of a meal.

ה וְכָלכח מִינֵי מְתִיקָה הַנַּעֲשִׂים לְעִדּוּן וְתַעֲנוּג מִבְּלִילַת קֶמַח דָּגָן מְעַט עִם צוּקֶר וְקֶמַח שְׁקֵדִים הַרְבֵּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּלִילָתָהּ עָבָה וְנֶאֱפֵית בְּתַנּוּר כְּלֶחֶם גָּמוּר – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'",כט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בִּקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה.

6 [Different rules apply,] however, to bread that was from a mixture of grain flour and flour from kitniyos.8Since [the bread] was baked to serve as the basis of a meal, the grain is [considered] the primary element. Therefore, one should always recite the blessing HaMotzi over it, even if it only contains a small amount of grain flour — i.e., even if one will east less than an olive-sized portion [of grain] in the time it would take to eat half a loaf. [The rationale is that] there is no lower limit for the amount of food that requires the recitation of a blessing before partaking of it. Even the slightest amount [requires a blessing], (as will be explained in ch. 8, [law 10]).

Needless to say, [these principles apply regarding] ordinary bread which was baked by itself without any filling, and is then eaten with other food. Even though [the person is primarily interested in eating] the [accompanying] food and that constitutes the greater part [of his meal], the bread is nevertheless considered the principal and the blessing HaMotzi should be recited over it.9 [The only exception is] when one has absolutely no desire or interest in deriving pleasure from eating the bread, as will be explained shortly.10

ו אֲבָל פַּת הַנַּעֲשֵׂית מִתַּעֲרֹבֶת קֶמַח דָּגָן בְּקֶמַח קִטְנִיּוֹת, מֵאַחַר שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית לִקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה מַמָּשׁ – הַדָּגָן עִקָּר, וּמְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא" לְעוֹלָם.ל וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם קֶמַח הַדָּגָן הוּא מוּעָט, פָּחוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס, שֶׁבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה אֵין לָהּ שִׁעוּר אֲפִלּוּ עַל כָּל שֶׁהוּאלא (כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק ח'לב).

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לֶחֶם גָּמוּר שֶׁנֶּאֱפֶה לְבַדּוֹ בְּלִי מִלּוּי שֶׁאוֹכְלוֹ עִם מַאֲכָל אַחֵר בְּיַחַד, אַף אִם הַמַּאֲכָל עִקָּר וְרֹב – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַלֶּחֶם נֶחְשָׁב עִקָּר, וּמְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא",לג אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵינוֹ תָּאֵב וּמִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל לֵהָנוֹת מֵאֲכִילָתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְפָנֵינוּ.לד

7 When pastry is filled with meat, fish, cheese, or fruit and the like, the filling is secondary to the crust, and is covered with the blessing recited on the crust, whether [the blessing recited is] HaMotzi or Borei minei mezonos, as explained above (in ch. 2, [laws 7-8]).11 [This rule applies] even if one eats the filling separately afterwards, and even if the filling is plentiful and his main purpose [when eating] this pastry is to eat the filling, because he also intends and desires to eat the crust.

He need not be stringent and take some of the filling from the dough [and] recite a blessing over it [separately. On the contrary, such a blessing] is a blessing recited in vain. Since he already recited a blessing on the principal, there is no need to recite a blessing on the secondary food.12

If, however, one eats the filling by itself without the pastry, he should recite the appropriate blessing, be it Shehakol, Borei pri haadamah, or Borei pri haetz.13

ז וְעִסָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מִלּוּי בָּשָׂר וְדָגִים וּגְבִינָה וּפֵרוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם – נַעֲשֶׂה הַמִּלּוּי טְפֵילָה לָעִסָּה וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הָעִסָּה,לה בֵּין שֶׁבִּרְכָתָהּ "הַמּוֹצִיא"לו בֵּין שֶׁבִּרְכָתָהּ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת",לז וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה (בְּפֶרֶק ב'לח), אֲפִלּוּ אוֹכֵל אַחַר כָּךְ הַמִּלּוּי לְבַדּוֹ,לט וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמִּלּוּי רַב מְאֹד וְעִקַּר הַכַּוָּנָה בְּעִסָּה זוֹ לַאֲכִילַת הַמִּלּוּי,מ מֵאַחַר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן וְתָאֵב גַּם כֵּן לַאֲכִילַת הָעִסָּה.מא

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַחְמִיר לִקָּח קְצָת הַמִּלּוּי מִן הָעִסָּה וּלְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, כִּי הִיא בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה,מב כֵּיוָן שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הָעִקָּר – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל הַטָּפֵל.מג

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל אֶלָּא הַמִּלּוּי לְבַדּוֹ בְּלֹא פַּת – מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בְּרָכָה הָרְאוּיָה לוֹ, "שֶׁהַכֹּל", אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה", אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ".מד

8 Moreover, [our Sages] ruled that wherever a principal food is accompanied by a secondary food, one should recite the blessing on the principal, and thus cover the secondary food. [This rule applies] even when the foods are not mixed together at all, [but are merely] eaten together. [If] one’s main purpose is to eat one of the types of food and the second is only eaten at this time because of the first — i.e., if one were not eating the first, he would not eat the second — the second [food] is covered by the blessing recited on the first food.14

[This ruling applies] even if [the second type of food] is bread, the most prestigious of all foods. For example, one desires to eat salted fish [or other salted foods] and eats it with bread so that it does not harm his throat. [The bread] is secondary to the fish and is covered with its blessing.15

[The above applies] provided the person is not hungry and has absolutely no desire to partake of the bread, and would not be eating it at all if not for the salted fish. If, however, he also wants [to eat] the bread, [in this instance,] even though he is eating it with the salted fish, the bread is not secondary to the salted fish, although he wants [to eat] the salted fish more [than the bread. Consequently,] he must recite the blessing HaMotzi over [the bread] and cover the salted fish with it. [The fish may be covered by the blessing HaMotzi] because it is a food that is commonly served because as part of a meal and which is [therefore] always covered by the blessing over bread, even though they are not served because of the bread.16

ח וְלֹא זוֹ בִּלְבַד אָמְרוּ, אֶלָּא כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא עִקָּר וְעִמּוֹ טְפֵלָה – מְבָרֵךְ עַל הָעִקָּר וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַטְּפֵלָה,מה אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָן מַאֲכָלִים מְעֹרָבִים זֶה עִם זֶה כְּלָל,מו אֶלָּא שֶׁאוֹכֵל שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחַדמז וְעִקַּר הָאֲכִילָה הוּא מִין אֶחָד וְהַשֵּׁנִי אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת הָרִאשׁוֹן,מח שֶׁאִם לֹא הָיָה אוֹכֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן לֹא הָיָה אוֹכֵל הַשֵּׁנִי עַתָּהמט – הֲרֵי הַשֵּׁנִי נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הָרִאשׁוֹן. וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא לֶחֶם שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּב מִכָּל הַמִּינִין,נ כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁחָפֵץ לֶאֱכֹל דָּג מָלִיחַ וּכְדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקֶנּוּ בִּגְרוֹנוֹ אוֹכֵל עִמּוֹ פַּת – הֲרֵי הִיא טְפֵלָה לַדָּג, וְנִפְטֶרֶת בְּבִרְכָתוֹ.נא

וְהוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָעֵב וְאֵינוֹ תָּאֵב כְּלָל לַאֲכִילַת הַפַּת, וְלֹא הָיָה אוֹכְלָהּ כְּלָל אִם לֹא הַמָּלִיחַ, אֲבָל אִם הוּא תָּאֵב גַּם לַאֲכִילַת פַּת,נב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹכְלָהּ עִם הַמָּלִיחַ – אֵינָהּ טְפֵלָה אֵלָיו,נג אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא תָּאֵב לְהַמָּלִיחַ יוֹתֵרנד – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַמָּלִיחַ, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מֵהַדְּבָרִים שֶׁדַּרְכָּם לָבוֹא מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה,נה שֶׁהֵם נִפְטָרִים לְעוֹלָם בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת אַף כְּשֶׁאֵינָן בָּאִים מֵחֲמָתָהּ.נו

9 Similar principles apply regarding one who, before a meal, eats bread soaked in an alcoholic beverage. True, his primary intention is to [consume] the alcoholic beverage, and he only soaks the bread in the alcohol and eats it because the alcoholic beverage is potent and difficult for him to drink by itself. Nevertheless, since he is eating the bread before his meal, it is clear that he also intends to satiate his heart [with the bread]. Accordingly, he must recite the blessing HaMotzi over the bread17 and [thereby] cover the alcoholic beverage [with that blessing].18

Similarly, with pas haba bekisanin (i.e., [the pastries] described in ch. 2, [laws 7-9]): If one soaked [such a pastry] in wine, a different alcoholic beverage, or any other liquid, there is no need to recite a blessing on the liquid absorbed in it, nor on the liquid which is on it. For example, [if] one dipped a pastry in honey and ate it [he does not have to recite a blessing on the honey absorbed by the pastry or on the honey on the pastry]. If, however, one only intends to partake of the alcoholic beverage, and merely because of its potency — and [consequently the] difficulty for him to drink it alone — does he soak the baked product in it [and eat it], since he has no desire to eat the baked product at all, e.g., he [just] concluded his meal, he recites the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro over it.19

ט וְכֵן מִי שֶׁאוֹכֵל לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה פַּת שְׁרוּיָה בְּיֵין שָׂרָף, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעִקַּר כַּוָּנָתוֹ בָּזֶה עַל הַיֵּין שָׂרָף, אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא חָזָק וְקָשֶׁה לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ לְבַדּוֹ שׁוֹרֶה בּוֹ פַּת וְאוֹכְלָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה – מִן הַסְּתָםנז כַּוָּנָתוֹ גַּם כֵּן לִסְעֹד הַלֵּב, וּלְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא", וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַיֵּין שָׂרָף הַבָּלוּעַ בּוֹ.נח

וְכֵן פַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין (עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה בְּפֶרֶק ב'נט), אִם שׁוֹרֶה אוֹתָהּ בְּיַיִן אוֹ יֵין שָׂרָף וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמַּשְׁקֶה הַבָּלוּעַ בָּהּ,ס וְלֹא עַל מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמְּטַבֵּל בִּדְבַשׁ וְאוֹכֵל.סא

אֲבָל אִם כַּוָּנָתוֹ עַל הַיֵּין שָׂרָף לְבַדּוֹ, אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא חָזָק וְקָשֶׁה עָלָיו לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ לְבַדּוֹ הוּא שׁוֹרֶה בּוֹ פַּת, וְאֵינוֹ תָּאֵב לוֹ כְּלָל, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא אַחַר הַסְּעוּדָהסב – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ "שֶׁהַכֹּל".סג

10 Even if one intends [to enjoy the bread] and desires the taste of bread which has been soaked in liquid, [but the bread was] not [soaked] to be eaten, but [rather] to be drunk, [the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is required]. For example, [if] bread was very finely crumbled and placed into hot beer to flavor it, the beer is considered the principal. [The rationale is that] there is no substance to the bread, nor [is it] considered a significant entity [in this state].20

י וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מִתְכַּוֵּן וּמִתְאַוֶּה לְטַעַם פַּת הַשְּׁרוּיָה בְּמַשְׁקֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה לַאֲכִילָה אֶלָּא לִשְׁתִיָּה,סד כְּגוֹן שֶׁמְּפוֹרֵר לֶחֶם דַּק דַּק וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ שֵׁכָר חַםסה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתֵּן בּוֹ טַעַם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בַּלֶּחֶם מַמָּשׁוּת וְדָבָר חָשׁוּב – הַשֵּׁכָר עִקָּר.סו

11 [The preceding rules] all apply with regard to bread or other food that one eats together with salted fish or an alcoholic beverage. It is, however, necessary to recite a blessing before and after what one eats subsequently by itself, unless it is secondary [to the salted fish or alcoholic drink] even when he eats it [by itself,]. For example, if one ate bread to offset the taste of [a strong alcoholic beverage] that he drank previously [he does not have to recite a blessing over the bread. In such an instance,] the bread is [still considered] secondary to the [alcoholic] beverage and there is no need to recite a blessing over it.21

יא וְכָל זֶה בְּפַת אוֹ מַאֲכָל אַחֵר שֶׁאוֹכֵל עִם הַמָּלִיחַ אוֹ עִם הַיֵּין שָׂרָף בְּיַחַד, אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁאוֹכֵל אַחַר כָּךְ לְבַדּוֹ – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו תְּחִלָּה וָסוֹף.סז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁגַּם בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ הוּא טָפֵל, כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁאוֹכֵל פַּת לְמַתֵּק הַשְּׁתִיָּה שֶׁשָּׁתָה כְּבָרסח – הֲרֵי הַפַּת טְפֵלָה לַמַּשְׁקֶה, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ.סט

12 Whenever bread is considered secondary with regard to the recitation of the blessing, it is also considered secondary with regard to the ritual washing of hands. Thus, there is no need to wash [before partaking of bread in such an instance]. Nevertheless, one should be careful to eat less than an egg-sized portion [in such circumstances].22

It is preferable to refrain from eating bread to offset the taste of a beverage. For who can distinguish whether he is partaking of it [merely] to offset the taste of the beverage or [also] to satisfy his appetite? In the latter instance, he would be required to recite the blessing HaMotzi.23

יב וְכָל פַּת שֶׁהִיא טְפֵלָה לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָהע – הִיא טְפֵלָה גַּם כֵּן לְעִנְיַן נְטִילַת יָדַיִם, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו.עא וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל כִּי אִם פָּחוֹת מִכַּבֵּיצָה.עב

אַךְ טוֹב לִמְנֹעַ מִלֶּאֱכֹל פַּת לְמַתֵּק הַשְּׁתִיָּה, כִּי מִי יוּכַל לְהַבְחִין אִם אוֹכְלָהּ לְמִתּוּק אוֹ לְמִלּוּי הַכֶּרֶס, שֶׁאָז צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא".עג

13 When does the above apply? When one wishes to eat in order to offset the taste of a strong alcoholic beverage that he already drank. [Different rules apply] if, by contrast, [before drinking,] one desires to eat for the sake of drinking. For example, if one wishes to drink in the morning and wants to eat a little so as not to drink on an empty stomach. Even though he is eating for the sake of drinking and the food is secondary to the drink, he must recite the appropriate blessing for that particular food, so that he will not derive benefit from this world without reciting a blessing.24 If one eats some bread before [drinking], he must wash his hands in accordance with the halachah.

יג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל לְמַתֵּק הַשְּׁתִיָּה שֶׁשָּׁתָה כְּבָר, אֲבָל אִם רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל בִּשְׁבִיל הַשְּׁתִיָּה לִפְנֵי הַשְּׁתִיָּה, כְּגוֹן הָרוֹצֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת בַּבֹּקֶר וְרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל מְעַט כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתֶּה אַלִּבָּא רֵיקָנָא, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲכִילָה זוֹ הִיא צֹרֶךְ הַשְּׁתִיָּה וּטְפֵלָה אֵלֶיהָעד – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ בְּרָכָה הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לָהּ,עה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵהָנֶה מֵהָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה.עו וְאִם אוֹכֵל מְעַט פַּתעז תְּחִלָּה – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו כַּהֲלָכָה.עח

14 It is pious conduct25 that even when one eats [something] to offset the taste of [a strong alcoholic] beverage that he drank, to eat a bit of [the food] before reciting the blessing Shehakol on the beverage. [This way] he can recite the appropriate blessing for that food [and not have it covered by the other blessing as a secondary food] unless its blessing is Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro.

[In this way,] he increases the number of blessings [he recites]. For a person should always add to the number of required blessings that he recites, while reducing the amount of blessings that are not required. [In this particular instance,] the blessing is required, because it is specific to the secondary food, [i.e., the bit of food eaten first,] and not to the primary food, [i.e., the beverage. Our Rabbis] instructed that one should reduce [the number of unrequired blessings he recites] only when he can cover both foods with a [single] blessing that is specific for both.26

יד וּמִדַּת חֲסִידוּת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּאוֹכֵל לְמַתֵּק הַשְּׁתִיָּה שֶׁשָּׁתָה כְּבָר,עט לִטְעֹם תְּחִלָּה מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט,פ כְּדֵי לְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו בְּרָכָה הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לוֹ,פא אִם אֵינָהּ "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ",פב קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ עַל הַמַּשְׁקֶה "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ", כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת בִּבְרָכוֹת,פג כִּי לְעוֹלָם יַרְבֶּה אָדָם בִּבְרָכוֹת הַצְּרִיכוֹתפד וִימַעֵט בְּשֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכוֹת,פה וְזוֹ הִיא בְּרָכָה הַצְּרִיכָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא מְיֻחֶדֶת לְהַטָּפֵל וְלֹא בִּרְכַּת הָעִקָּר,פו וְלֹא צִוּוּ לְמַעֵט אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיָּכוֹל לִפְטֹר שְׁנֵי דְּבָרִים בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לִשְׁנֵיהֶם.פז

15 When does the above apply? When the primary food is not relished more than the secondary food. If, however, the principal is relished more than the secondary food, it is necessary to recite a blessing on it first and cover the secondary food with it — even if the blessing on the principal food is Shehakol and the blessing on the secondary food is Borei pri haetz or Borei pri haadamah, which [ordinarily] take priority over the blessing Shehakol (as will be explained in ch. 10, [law 7]). [Nevertheless, in this instance, those blessings are not required since] he would not eat [the secondary food] at all were it not for the principal.

[Moreover,] even if, at the time he eats the secondary food with the principal, he relishes the secondary food — though [eaten] on its own he would not prefer it to the principal — he should not recite a blessing over it.27 Some authorities differ with this reasoning, [maintaining that in such an instance, one may recite the blessing for the secondary food first]. One may rely upon [these authorities] on Shabbos and holidays28 in order to fulfill the quota of 100 blessings [which should be recited every day].29

טו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?פח כְּשֶׁאֵין הָעִקָּר חָבִיב [עָלָיו] יוֹתֵר מֵהַטָּפֵל,פט אֲבָל אִם הָעִקָּר חָבִיב עָלָיו יוֹתֵר מֵהַטָּפֵלצ – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו תְּחִלָּה וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַטָּפֵל,צא וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם בִּרְכַּת הָעִקָּר הִיא "שֶׁהַכֹּל" וּבִרְכַּת הַטָּפֵל הִיא "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ" אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה"צב שֶׁהֵן קוֹדְמִים לְבִרְכַּת "שֶׁהַכֹּל"צג (כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק י'צד), כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אוֹכְלוֹ כְּלָל אִם לֹא הָעִקָּר.צה וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם עַכְשָׁו כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל הַטָּפֵל עִם הָעִקָּר הַטָּפֵל חָבִיב עָלָיו יוֹתֵר, אֶלָּא שֶׁכְּשֶׁאוֹכְלוֹ לְבַדּוֹ אֵינוֹ חָבִיב עָלָיו כְּמוֹ הָעִקָּר – אֵין לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו כְּלָל.צו

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים בָּזֶה.צז וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב, כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁלִים מִנְיַן מֵאָה בְּרָכוֹת.צח

16 A secondary food is never covered with the blessing of the principal, even if they are two types of food with identical blessings, unless the secondary item was in front of the person, or he explicitly had intended to [eat] it, when he recited the blessing over the principal. If, however, [the secondary food] was brought to him afterwards and he did not have it in mind [when he recited the blessing on the principal — i.e., the situation was such that] were it not a secondary food, he would have to recite a blessing over it (as described in ch. 9, [law 5,]) — the fact that it is secondary does not cause it to be covered by the blessing recited on the principal.

[This rule applies] both to the blessing recited before eating (berachah rishonah) — even when the same blessing is recited over both foods — and also to the blessing recited after eating (berachah achronah) when the blessings for these two foods are not the same unless one sat down in a fixed setting30 to partake of the primary food. [Moreover, this leniency applies] only with regard to a type of food that serves as the basis for a fixed setting, e.g., bread or wine, and similarly, beer and mead in these regions.

Nevertheless, if one partakes of bread or another food to offset the taste [of an alcoholic beverage] and this is his common practice on most occasions, it is considered as if he specifically intended to do so.31

טז לְעוֹלָם אֵין הַטָּפֵל נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הָעִקָּר, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם ב' מִינִים שֶׁבִּרְכוֹתֵיהֶן שָׁווֹת, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַטָּפֵל לְפָנָיו,צט אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו בְּבֵרוּרק בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הָעִקָּר, אֲבָל אִם אַחַר הַבְּרָכָה הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו וְלֹא הָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם לֹא הָיְתָה טְפֵלָה הָיָה צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ (וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק ט'קא) – אֵין טְפֵלָתוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם לְפָטְרוֹ בְּבִרְכַּת הָעִקָּר, לֹא מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּרְכוֹתֵיהֶם שָׁווֹת, וְלֹא מִבְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָהקב כְּשֶׁאֵין בִּרְכוֹתֵיהֶם הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת שָׁווֹת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קָבַע עַצְמוֹ עַל הָעִקָּר,קג וְהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁקְּבִיעוּת מוֹעֶלֶת בּוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ בְּכָךְ, כְּגוֹן פַּתקד וְיַיִן, וְכֵן שֵׁכָר וּדְבַשׁקה בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ.קו

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִי שֶׁאוֹכֵל פַּת אוֹ מַאֲכָל אַחֵר לְמַתֵּק הַשְּׁתִיָּה וְדַרְכּוֹ בְּכָךְ בְּרֹב הַפְּעָמִים – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו.קז

17 Any secondary food eaten after a primary food is covered by the blessing recited over the primary food only when it is eaten in the same place where one ate the primary food, without the person changing his location, [even] from room to room. [The] only [exception to this rule] is when the food is secondary to a food requiring that the blessing after it (berachah achronah) be recited in its place, (as will be explained in ch. 9, [law 14])32 or one sat down in a fixed setting to partake of the primary food in the manner described in ch. 9, [law 18]. Consult that source regarding all the details pertaining to this rule.

יז וְכָל טְפֵלָה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת אַחַר אֲכִילַת הָעִקָּר,קח אֵינָהּ נִפְטֶרֶת בְּבִרְכָתוֹ,קט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אוֹכְלָהּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאוֹכֵל הָעִקָּר, וְלֹא שִׁנָּה מְקוֹמוֹ בֵּינְתַיִם מֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר,קי אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִיא טְפֵלָה לְדָבָר הַטָּעוּן בְּרָכָה לְאַחֲרָיו בִּמְקוֹמוֹקיא (שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק ט'קיב), אוֹ שֶׁקָּבַע עַצְמוֹ עַל הָעִקָּר,קיג וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק ט',קיד עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה.