CHAPTER 2 The Detailed Laws Governing the Blessing [Over Bread] (1–15)

פרק ב [פְּרָטֵי דִּינֵי בִּרְכַּת הַפַּת וּבוֹ ט"ו הֲלָכוֹת]

1 According to Scriptural Law, one is required to recite the Grace after Meals only after eating bread to the extent that he is satiated, as [can be inferred from] the verse:1 “When you have eaten and are satiated, you shall bless….” Our Sages, [however, ruled stringently, and] ordained that the Grace after Meals be recited even after partaking of [merely] an olive-sized portion [i.e. a k’zayis of bread].2

They only applied this ordinance to those types of loaves upon which people ordinarily base a meal.3 However, the blessing HaMotzi and the Grace after Meals are not recited over those types of loaves — to be described — on which people do not ordinarily base a meal. Instead, the blessing Borei minei mezonos is recited before [partaking of them] and the blessing Al hamichyah [is recited] afterwards.

An exception is made when one eats an amount of these loaves sufficient to constitute the basis of a meal, i.e., the amount of ordinary bread upon which most people base a fixed meal, i.e., breakfast or dinner. Similarly, when one eats an equivalent amount of these other types of loaves, they are considered as the basis of a meal. Hence, [even] when a person eats such an amount of these loaves casually, without being satisfied, his circumstance is disregarded in view of that of people at large [and he is required to recite Grace after Meals].

א א ב ג בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאָכַל פַּת כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה,ד כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּבה "וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבֵרַכְתָּ".ו וַחֲכָמִים תִּקְּנוּ לְבָרֵךְ אֲפִלּוּ עַל כַּזַּיִת.ז

וְלֹא תִּקְּנוּח אֶלָּא בְּלֶחֶם שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עָלָיו, אֲבָל מִינֵי לְחָמִים שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שֶׁאֵין רְגִילִין לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶם – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא"ט וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֶלָּא לִפְנֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת"י וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם "מֵעֵין ג'",יא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אוֹכֵל מֵהֶם כְּשִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה,יב דְּהַיְנוּ, כְּשִׁעוּר שֶׁרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם קוֹבְעִים סְעוּדַת קֶבַע – שֶׁהִיא סְעוּדַת עֶרֶב וּבֹקֶריג – עַל שִׁעוּר כָּזֶה מִסְּתָם לֶחֶם גָּמוּר, וְגַם מִלְּחָמִים אֵלּוּ כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלִין שִׁעוּר כָּזֶה לִפְעָמִיםיד – אֲזַי הֵם קוֹבְעִים סְעוּדָה עָלָיו, וְלָכֵן אַף מִי שֶׁאוֹכְלוֹ סְעוּדַת עֲרַאי וְלֹא שָׂבֵעַ מִשִּׁעוּר זֶהטו – בָּטְלָה דַּעְתּוֹ.טז

2 There are many opinions regarding the amount [of bread defined as “sufficient to constitute the basis of a meal”]. With regard to actual practice, one should do as follows: Anyone who eats an amount [of such baked goods] between the equivalent of six average eggs4 (k’beitzos) and (but not including) half an isaron,5 but is not satisfied by this amount, should first recite the blessing HaMotzi on an olive-sized portion of ordinary bread and recite Graceafter Meals [afterwards]. In this way, he fulfills his obligation according to all authorities. If one eats half an isaron [or more], regardless of whether he is satisfied or not, his own circumstance is disregarded in light of that of most people6 and he must recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace after Meals over [these baked goods] alone.

If one eats less than six egg-sized portions [of such baked goods] without being satisfied, he should recite the blessing Borei minei mezonos [beforehand] and the blessing Al hamichyah afterwards. If he is satisfied [by eating such an amount], he should wash his hands and recite the blessing HaMotzi beforehand and Grace after Meals afterwards over [these baked goods] alone, provided he eats at least an amount equivalent to four egg-sized portions.7 [However,] if he [eats] less than this [amount] and is satisfied from it, he should recite a blessing on an olive-sized portion of ordinary bread first. After [his meal, he should recite] Grace.

ב וּבְשִׁעוּר זֶה רַבּוּ בּוֹ הַדֵּעוֹת.יז וּלְמַעֲשֶׂה יֵשׁ לִנְהֹג, כָּל שֶׁאוֹכֵל מִכְּשֵׁשׁ בֵּיצִיםיח בֵּינוֹנִיּוֹת וּלְמַעְלָה עַד חֲצִי עִשָּׂרוֹןיט וְלֹא עַד בִּכְלָל, אִם הוּא לֹא שָׂבֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּ – יְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל כַּזַּיִת לֶחֶם אַחֵר תְּחִלָּה וִיבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, לָצֵאת לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל. וּבַחֲצִי עִשָּׂרוֹן – בָּטְלָה דַּעְתּוֹ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, וּמְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עָלָיו לְבַדּוֹ.

וְאִם אוֹכֵל פָּחוֹת מִכְּשֵׁשׁ בֵּיצִים וְהוּא לֹא שָׂבֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּ – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'". וְאִם שָׂבֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּכ – יִטֹּל יָדָיוכא וִיבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עָלָיו לְבַדּוֹ.

וְהוּא שֶׁאָכַל כְּשִׁעוּר ד' בֵּיצִים,כב אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן,כג אִם הוּא שָׂבֵעַ מִשִּׁעוּר זֶהכד – יְבָרֵךְ עַל כַּזַּיִת לֶחֶם אַחֵר תְּחִלָּה "הַמּוֹצִיא", וְאַחַר כָּךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.

3 [Even] if one is satisfied from such [a baked good] only when he eats it with an accompanying food that is filling — for example, [he eats such a baked good] with meat, fish or the like, to the extent that he is satisfied — it is as though he is satisfied from [this baked good] alone, since the accompanying dishes are secondary to it. Thus, he is obligated to recite Grace after Meals according to Scriptural Law.8 If one eats four egg-sized portions of this type of baked product with such accompanying dishes and is satisfied, he should recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace. [If he is satisfied] by less than this amount, he should recite the blessing HaMotzi on ordinary bread first.9

ג וְאִם אֵינוֹ שָׂבֵעַ מִמִּין לֶחֶם זֶה לְבַדּוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁאוֹכְלוֹ עִם לִפְתָּן הַמַּשְׂבִּיעַ,כה כְּגוֹן שֶׁמְּלַפְּתוֹ בְּבָשָׂר אוֹ דָּגִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם עַד שֶׁשָּׂבַעכו – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ שָׂבַע מִמֶּנּוּ לְבַדּוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהַלִּפְתָּן טְפֵלָה לוֹ,כז וְנִתְחַיֵּב בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִן הַתּוֹרָה.כח וּלְפִיכָךְ, הָאוֹכֵל כְּד' בֵּיצִיםכט מִמִּין לֶחֶם זֶה עִם לִפְתָּן כָּזֶה עַד שֶׁשָּׂבַעל – מְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, וּבְפָחוֹת מִכֵּן – מְבָרֵךְ עַל לֶחֶם אַחֵר תְּחִלָּה.לא

4 If one initially had in mind to simply eat a snack [of these baked goods] and [therefore] recited the blessing Borei minei mezonos, but then changed his mind and decided to eat more, to the extent that he would be satisfied and it would constitute a proper meal, he should remove any doubt [regarding which blessings he is obligated to recite by doing the following]: First, he should recite the blessing Al hamichyah on what he has already eaten. Then he should wait a short while, wash his hands and recite the blessing HaMotzi. He should then eat to the point of satisfaction, and recite Grace after Meals.10

[He should recite Grace after Meals] even though he is not satisfied from [the baked goods he ate after reciting HaMotzi] alone, but [is] only [satisfied] by combining [those baked goods] with what he ate previously, over which he has already recited the blessing Al hamichyah. He must, however, eat an amount equivalent to at least four egg-sized portions [after reciting HaMotzi].

ד וְאִם מִתְּחִלָּה הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכֹל אֲכִילַת עֲרַאי וּבֵרַךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לֶאֱכֹל עוֹדלב כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה וּקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָהלג – נָכוֹן לָצֵאת יְדֵי כָּל סָפֵק וּלְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "מֵעֵין ג'" עַל מַה שֶּׁכְּבָר אָכַל,לד וְיִשְׁהֶה מְעַט,לה וְיִטֹּל יָדָיו וִיבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא", וְיֹאכַל עַד כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה, וִיבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,לו אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׂבֵעַ מֵאֲכִילָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה לְבַדָּהּ אֶלָּא בְּצֵרוּף אֲכִילָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָהלז שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּרַךְ אַחֲרֶיהָ "מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ".לח וְהוּא שֶׁאָכַל בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה כְּד' בֵּיצִים לְפָחוֹת.לט

5 These are the types of baked goods upon which people generally do not base their meals: pas haba bekisanin,11 lachmoniyos, and t’rukenin.12

Lachmoniyos are thin, soft pastry made from a soft blend of flour and water.13 [This mixture] is not thick, like the dough of ordinary bread which can be kneaded and rolled with one’s hands, but is rather like the dough of sponge-cake, which cannot be rolled by hand. [This dough] is baked in an oven or in a frying-panwithout liquid. True, it is [considered as] ordinary bread regarding [the requirement of separating] challah and [the mitzvah of eating] matzah. Nevertheless, since most people do not ordinarily base a meal on it, [the Sages] did not ordain that the blessings HaMotzi and Grace after Meals be recited over it. [Instead, they ruled that] the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah [be recited] unless one eats an amount that would constitute the basis of a meal.

ה וְאֵלּוּ הֵם מִינֵי לְחָמִים שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶם:מ לַחְמָנִיּוֹת,מא וּטְרוּקָנִין,מב וּפַת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין.מג

לַחְמָנִיּוֹת, הֵם מִינֵי לְחָמִים דַּקִּיםמד וְרַכִּים, שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּלִילַת הַקֶּמַח בַּמַּיִם בְּלִילָה רַכָּה, וְלֹא עָבָה כְּעִסַּת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר הַנִּלּוֹשָׁה וּמִתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת בַּיָּדַיִם, אֶלָּא כְּעִסַּת סֻפְגָּנִיןמה שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְגַלְגְּלָהּ בַּיָּדַיִם,מו וַאֲפָאָהּ בַּתַּנּוּר אוֹ בְּמַחֲבַת בְּלִי מַשְׁקֶה.מז וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לֶחֶם גָּמוּר לְעִנְיַן חַלָּהמח וּמַצָּה,מט אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הוֹאִיל וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ עָלָיו סְעוּדָהנ – לֹא תִּקְּנוּ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֶלָּא "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'", עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּשִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה.

6 Similar [laws apply to] t’rukenin. [That term refers to baked goods] that are made from a particularly thin mixture of flour and water, but which having been poured into a cavity or hollow in a cooking range or oven, thickens somewhat after being baked.14 Alternatively, [the term refers to crepes, i.e., a baked product made from] pouring a large amount of such a mixture into a frying-pan and letting it bake until it becomes somewhat thick; ([these products are] called blinesh15 [in Yiddish]).

If, however, one did not pour [the mixture] into a hollow, but rather on the floor of the cooking range or oven, where it spread to the extent that it became very thin after baking — this [resulting product] is called trisa— it is not at all included in the halachic [category] of bread regarding [the obligation to separate] challah. Therefore, only the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah are recited on it — even when one bases his meal on it. Similarly, if one poured a little of this particularly thin mixture into a broad frying-pan and it spread over the bottom of the frying-pan, [yielding a product that] even after being baked was very thin (called blintzes [in Yiddish]), [the products are not included in the halachic category of bread]. Basing a meal on them does not upgrade [the blessings to be recited over them to HaMotzi and Grace after Meals] just as [basing a meal] on trisa [does not upgrade the blessings recited on it to HaMotzi and Grace after Meals].

There are authorities who differ and maintain that one should recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace over an amount of trisa that constitutes the basis of a meal as one does with t’rukenin. Deference should be given to their opinion, and one should not eat an amount [of trisa] that forms the basis of a meal unless one first recites the blessing HaMotzi on ordinary bread.

There are other authorities who, based on the above,16 are more stringent and maintain that the Sages required [that one must partake of] an amount of t’rukenin that constitutes the basis of a meal to be obligated to recite HaMotzi and Grace only when the dough from which the mixture [is made] is particularly soft. [Different laws apply when] the dough is not that soft — even though it is impossible to roll by hand and it can only be beaten with a spoon in a bowl — and is baked in an oven or in a frying-pan without liquid until it becomes somewhat thick after baking; in contrast to trisa, it is not very thin. [Such a baked good] is [considered] like ordinary bread and requires the blessings HaMotzi and Grace even [when one only eats] an olive-sized portion.

Similarly, [they maintain that] when [the Sages] required that [one partake of an amount that constitutes] the basis of a meal [to be obligated to recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace] for lachmoniyos, that [only] applied to [lachmoniyos made from] a particularly thin mixture or even those not made from a particularly soft mixture, but which were made into very thin wafers after baking, like trisa. It is desirable to give weight to their words and to refrain from eating such [lachmoniyos] except as part of a meal [that includes bread].

ו וְכֵן טְרוּקָנִין, שֶׁבּוֹלְלִין קֶמַח בַּמַּיִם בְּלִילָה רַכָּה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי,נא אֶלָּא שֶׁשּׁוֹפְכִין לְתוֹךְ גֻּמָּא וְחָלָל שֶׁבַּכִּירָהנב אוֹ תַּנּוּר עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה עָב קְצָת אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה,נג וְכֵן אִם שָׁפַךְ הַרְבֵּה לְתוֹךְ הַמַּחֲבַתנד עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה עָב קְצָת אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּהנה (שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּלִינעֶס).

אֲבָל אִם לֹא שָׁפַךְ לְתוֹךְ גֻּמָּא אֶלָּא עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע הַכִּירָה וְהַתַּנּוּר וּמִתְפַּשֵּׁט שָׁם עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה דַּק מְאֹד אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה, וְהִיא נִקְרֵאת טְרִיתָאנו – אֵין עָלֶיהָ תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם כְּלָל לְעִנְיַן חַלָּה,נז וְאֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'", אֲפִלּוּ קָבַע סְעוּדָתוֹ עָלֶיהָ.נח וְכֵן אִם שָׁפַךְ מְעַט מִבְּלִילָה רַכָּה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי לְתוֹךְ מַחֲבַת רְחָבָה וּמִתְפַּשֶּׁטֶת שָׁם עַל שׁוּלֵי הַמַּחֲבַת וְנַעֲשָׂה דַּק מְאֹד גַּם אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה (שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּלִינְצֶעסנט) – אֵין קְבִיעוּת מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהֶן כְּמוֹ בִּטְרִיתָא.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיםס וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁטְּרִיתָא מְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּשִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה כְּמוֹ בִּטְרוּקָנִין. וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם, שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה כִּי אִם שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל לֶחֶם גָּמוּר תְּחִלָּה.סא

וְיֵשׁ מַחְמִירִים עוֹדסב לְפִי זֶהסג לוֹמַר, שֶׁלֹּא נָתְנוּ חֲכָמִיםסד שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בִּטְרוּקָנִיןסה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁבְּלִילַת הָעִסָּה רַכָּה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵינָהּ רַכָּה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי, אַף שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְגַלְגְּלָהּ בְּיָדַיִםסו אֶלָּא טוֹרְפוֹ בַּכַּף בִּקְעָרָה,סז וַאֲפָאוֹ בַּתַּנּוּר אוֹ בְּמַחֲבַת בְּלִי מַשְׁקֶה,סח וְנַעֲשָׂה עָבֶה קְצָת אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה וְלֹא דַּק מְאֹד כִּטְרִיתָאסט – לֶחֶם גָּמוּר הוּא, וּמְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּכַזַּיִת.ע וְכֵן מַה שֶּׁנָּתְנוּ שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה בְּלַחְמָנִיּוֹתעא הוּא בִּבְלִילָה רַכָּה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי, אוֹ שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ רְקִיקִין דַּקִּין מְאֹד אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה כִּטְרִיתָא וְאַף אִם אֵין הַבְּלִילָה רַכָּה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי. וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם, שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹלעב כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה.עג

7 [There are different opinions regarding how to define the term] pas haba bekisanin. Some authorities explain [that it refers to a product made from] dough which has been kneaded with milk, butter, honey, oil, wine or any fruit juice or with [raw] eggs or fat.17 [It is not considered as ordinary bread] because it is not made for the purpose of serving as the basis of a meal, since most people will [only] eat a small amount of such baked products and will only base a meal on bread which has been kneaded solely with water.

If some water was mixed into such a dough, the status of the product depends on the larger component [of the liquid used]. Similarly, [they maintain] that when ordinary dough was kneaded with water, but at the time of kneading, was spiced to the extent that most people would not eat that much of it and make it the basis of a meal because of the quantity of spices used [is considered pas haba bekisanin].

Other authorities differ and maintain that one should recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace over such loaves. [Their reasoning is that such loaves] do not resemble lachmoniyos and t’rukenin. [The rationale for the distinction is that] most people will not base a meal on [lachmoniyos or t’rukenin] because the change in the [consistency of the] mixture of the dough causes their status to be downgraded [from that of bread]. For a [baked product coming from] such a thin mixture [of flour and water] does not satisfy hunger like ordinary bread.

Instead, [these authorities maintain that the term] pas haba bekisanin refers to ordinary bread in which a pocket is made that is filled with honey, sugar, almonds, nuts, or other types of fruits and spices before the product is baked.18 The filling is the principal part, since [these products] are not made for sustenance and satiation, but for enjoyment and pleasure; the sustenance [provided by] the pastry is a secondary factor. [Indeed,] it would have been appropriate to recite the blessing on the filling and to cover the dough [with this blessing].19 Nevertheless, since the pastry is made from the five species [of grain] whose [products] are referred to as mazon [i.e. “sustaining food”], it does not become secondary to the filling, provided one is interested in eating it as well, as will be explained (in ch. 3). Accordingly, it is sufficient to recite the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah [on such products] and not HaMotzi and Grace after Meals, unless one eats an amount sufficient to constitute the basis of a meal. (In that instance, the pastry is of primary importance since it is satisfying hunger).

Pastry filled with poppy seeds, which is made on Purim in these regions, is [however] not in the category [of pas haba bekisanin] since it is not made principally for enjoyment and pleasure, but rather for sustenance and to satisfy [one’s hunger].

ז פַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין, יֵשׁ מְפָרְשִׁיםעד שֶׁהִיא עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּחָלָב, אוֹ בְּחֶמְאָה,עה אוֹ בִּדְבַשׁ, אוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶןעו וְיַיִן,עז אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מֵי פֵּרוֹת,עח אוֹ בְּמֵי בֵּיצִיםעט וְשֻׁמָּן,פ לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה לִקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, כִּי רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם כּוֹסְסִין מִמֶּנָּה מְעַט,פא וְאֵין קוֹבְעִין סְעוּדָה אֶלָּא עַל פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם לְבַדָּהּ.פב וְאִם עֵרֵב עִמָּהֶם מְעַט מַיִם בְּלִישָׁתָהּ – הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הָרֹב.פג וְכֵן עִסָּה גְּמוּרָה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם שֶׁעֵרֵב בָּהּ תַּבְלִין בְּלִישָׁתָהּ,פד עַד שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנָּה הַרְבֵּה וְלִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עָלֶיהָ מִפְּנֵי רִבּוּי הַתַּבְלִין.פה

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל פַּת זוֹ,פו כִּי אֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לְלַחְמָנִיּוֹת וּטְרוּקָנִין שֶׁאֵין רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם קוֹבְעִין סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶן מֵחֲמַת שִׁנּוּי בְּלִילָתָן לִגְרִיעוּתָא, שֶׁבְּלִילָה רַכָּה אֵינָהּ סוֹעֶדֶת הַלֵּבפז כָּל כָּךְ כְּלֶחֶם גָּמוּר.

אֶלָּא פַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִיןפח הִיא פַּת גְּמוּרָהפט הָעֲשׂוּיָה כְּמִין כִּיס, וּמְמַלְאִין אוֹתָהּ קֹדֶם אֲפִיָּתָהּצ בְּמִינֵי מְתִיקָה כְּמוֹ דְּבַשׁ וְצוּקֶר,צא אוֹ שְׁקֵדִיםצב וֶאֱגוֹזִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם מִשְּׁאָר מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת, אוֹ תַּבְלִין, וְהַמִּלּוּי הוּא הָעִקָּר,צג כִּי עִקַּר עֲשִׂיָּתָהּ אֵינָהּ לְמָזוֹן וּלְהַשְׂבִּיעַ אֶלָּא לְעִדּוּן וְתַעֲנוּג,צד וּמְזוֹן הָעִסָּה הוּא טָפֵל. וְהָיָה רָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמִּלּוּי וְלִפְטֹר הָעִסָּה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁהָעִסָּה הִיא מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים שֶׁהֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים מָזוֹןצה – אֵינָהּ נַעֲשֵׂית טְפֵלָה אֶל הַמִּלּוּיצו כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לַאֲכִילָתָהּ גַּם כֵּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר (בְּפֶרֶק ג'צז). וְלָכֵןצח דַּי לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וְ"עַל הַמִּחְיָה", אֲבָל לֹא "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָהצט (שֶׁאָז הָעִסָּה הִיא עִקָּר,ק שֶׁסּוֹעֶדֶת הַלֵּב).

וְאֵין בִּכְלַל זֶהקא עִסָּה הַמְמֻלֵּאת בְּשֻׁמְשְׁמִיןקב שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּפוּרִים בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, שֶׁאֵין עִקַּר עֲשִׂיָּתָםקג לְעִדּוּן וְתַעֲנוּג אֶלָּא לְמָזוֹן וּלְהַשְׂבִּיעַ.קד

8 When does the above apply? When the filling is of various sweet substances or fruit, which are eaten for enjoyment and pleasure rather than to sustain and satisfy [one’s hunger], and it is also not common for most people to eat them as an accompaniment to bread. If, however, the filling is made:

a) of foods that accompany bread and satiate [one’s hunger, e.g.,] meat, fish or cheese;

b) even [if the filling is made] of [foods] that do not satiate, but are eaten as accompaniment to bread [such as] vegetables; or,

c) even of foods which do not accompany bread at all, but are among the [foods] eaten to sustain and satisfy [hunger] and it is customary to base a meal on them,

the filling does not remove this kind of baked product from the halachic category of bread and the blessings HaMotzi and Grace — when one eats an olive-sized portion20 — are recited on it. [This rule applies] even if the person primarily intended to partake of this baked product for its filling and the crust is of secondary importance [to him]. This situation can be compared to that of a person who eats ordinary bread, but is primarily focused on the food that accompanies it or on the other items served as part of the meal, and considers the bread secondary to the accompanying foods and other items [being served]. [Nevertheless,] he should recite the blessing HaMotzi and Grace if he eats an olive-sized portion.

ח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַמִּלּוּי הוּא מִמִּינֵי מְתִיקָה, אוֹ מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת הַנֶּאֱכָלִין לְעִדּוּן וְתַעֲנוּג וְלֹא לְמָזוֹן וּלְהַשְׂבִּיעַ,קה וְגַם אֵין דֶּרֶךְ רֹב הָעוֹלָם לִלְפֹּת בָּהֶם הַפַּת,קו אֲבָל אִם הַמִּלּוּי הוּא מִבָּשָׂר וְדָגִים אוֹ גְּבִינָהקז שֶׁהֵם מִינֵי לִפְתָּן הַמַּשְׂבִּיעִין,קח אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מִינֵי יְרָקוֹתקט שֶׁאֵין מַשְׂבִּיעִין וּמְלַפְּתִין בָּהֶם הַפַּת, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ לִפְתָּן כְּלָל אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מִדְּבָרִים הַנֶּאֱכָלִים לְמָזוֹן וּלְהַשְׂבִּיעַ וְדֶרֶךְ לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶםקי – אֵין הַמִּלּוּי מוֹצִיא הַפַּת מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר,קיא וּמְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּכַזַּיִת,קיב אַף אִם עִקַּר כַּוָּנָתוֹ בַּאֲכִילַת פַּת זוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הַמִּלּוּי שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ וְהַפַּת טְפֵלָה בְּכַוָּנָתוֹ.קיג וּכְמוֹ הַסּוֹעֵד לֶחֶם גָּמוּר וְעִקַּר כַּוָּנָתוֹ עַל הַלִּפְתָּן אוֹ עַל שְׁאֵרֵי דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה וְאוֹכֵל הַפַּת בְּתוֹרַת טְפֵלָה לְהַלִּפְתָּן וּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים, שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּכַזַּיִת.קיד

9 With regard to actual practice, the halachah is that on [pastry made from] dough that was kneaded with milk, other similar liquids, or fruit juice — [i.e., liquids] other than water — one may, according to the letter of the law, rely on the first opinion21 [in keeping with the principle] that when a doubt exists regarding matters of Rabbinic Law, one may follow the lenient ruling.22 However, a meticulous person23 should be stringent with himself and refrain from eating [such pastry] unless he first washed his hands and recited the blessing HaMotzi on other [ordinary] bread beforehand.

Only in the instance of [dough] kneaded with honey, where just a little flour is used and the honey is the majority [of the mixture and the pastry is eaten] primarily for the sake of enjoying and taking pleasure in its sweetness is there [unqualified] room for leniency. This is the prevailing practice in these regions with regard to [such dough, which is baked into honey cake that is] (called lekach). [In this instance,] the flour is considered the principal component only because [the cake] is considered mazon [i.e. sustaining food], and it makes the mixture fit to be eaten,24 as will be explained (in ch. 3).

ט וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בְּעִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּחָלָב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִשְּׁאָר מַשְׁקִין אוֹ מֵי פֵּרוֹת חוּץ מִמַּיִםקטו – מִן הַדִּין יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁבְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל.קטז

אַךְ בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁקיז יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל בְּלֹא נְטִילַת יָדַיִם וְ"הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל לֶחֶם אַחֵר תְּחִלָּה.קיח רַק בְּנִלּוֹשָׁה בִּדְבַשׁ יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל,קיט אִם הַקֶּמַח מְעַט וְהַדְּבַשׁ הוּא הָרֹב וְהָעִקָּר לְעִדּוּן וְתַעֲנוּג הַמְּתִיקוּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין לעקיךקכ), אֶלָּא שֶׁהַקֶּמַח נֶחְשָׁב עִקָּרקכא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהוּא מִין מָזוֹן וְגַם מַכְשִׁיר הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת לַאֲכִילָהקכב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר (בְּפֶרֶק ג'קכג).

10 Whenever these types of pastry over which blessing Borei minei mezonos is recited are served on the table during a meal, but are not integral to the meal — i.e., they are not eaten for sustenance and to satisfy, but [are served] solely for enjoyment and pleasure or at the end of the meal as a dessert, to relieve the heaviness of the meal — they are not covered by the blessing HaMotzi that was recited on the bread. Instead, it is necessary to recite the blessing Borei minei mezonos over them. However, the blessing Al hamichyah should not be recited after partaking of them since they are covered by Grace.

Bread that was kneaded with milk or the like is an exception to this rule. One should never recite the blessing Borei minei mezonos over it [when it is eaten] during or at the end of the meal since some authorities maintain that the blessing HaMotzi should be recited over this bread, as with [any] ordinary bread. [According to this opinion,] it has already been covered by the blessing HaMotzi [that was recited over the ordinary bread at the beginning of the meal. Hence,] we follow the principle: Whenever there is a doubt whether a blessing is required, we rule leniently.

If, however, one eats any of these types of pastry — even pastry filled with fruit — during a meal for sustenance and satisfaction, it is not necessary to recite a blessing [on them, nor] even on the fruit [filling] since it is considered secondary to the pastry and is covered with it, through the blessing recited on the bread.

י כָּל מִינֵי לְחָמִים אֵלּוּקכד שֶׁבִּרְכָתָם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת",קכה אִם בָּאוּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָהקכו שֶׁלֹּא מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה,קכז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל לְשֵׁם מָזוֹן וּלְהַשְׂבִּיעַ אֶלָּא לְעִדּוּן וְתַעֲנוּג בִּלְבַד,קכח אוֹ בְּסוֹף הַסְּעוּדָה לְקִנּוּחַ לְהָקֵל מִכֹּבֶד הַמַּאֲכָלקכט – אֵין נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" שֶׁעַל הַפַּת, וְצָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת",קל אֲבָל לֹא לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם "מֵעֵין ג'",קלא לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.קלב

חוּץ מִפַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּחָלָב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ,קלג שֶׁאֵין לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אוֹ בְּסוֹפָהּ בְּכָל עִנְיָן,קלד מֵאַחַר שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקלה שֶׁבִּרְכָתָם "הַמּוֹצִיא" כְּלֶחֶם גָּמוּר, וְנִפְטֶרֶת כְּבָר בְּבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא", וּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל.

וְאִם אוֹכֵל מִלְּחָמִים אֵלּוּ תּוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה לְמָזוֹן וּלְהַשְׂבִּיעַ,קלו וַאֲפִלּוּ מִינֵי עִסָּה הַמְמֻלָּאִים בְּפֵרוֹת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אֲפִלּוּ עַל הַפֵּרוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁהֵם נֶחְשָׁבִים כִּטְפֵלָה אֶל הָעִסָּהקלז וְנִפְטָרִים עִמָּהּ בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת.קלח

11 Similarly, products made from a soft [blend of flour and water] that were fried in liquid, are covered by the blessing recited over the bread when they are eaten for the sake of sustenance, like all cooked foods [made from grain].25 If, however, one eats them as dessert or for pleasure, it is necessary to recite a blessing [over them] as is done for lachmoniyos and the like.

If one partakes of such foods outside a meal, the blessing Borei minei mezonos should be recited before partaking of them and the blessing Al hamichyah [should be recited] afterwards. [Nevertheless,] even if one is satiated by eating them, he ate an amount upon which others would base a meal, and he himself made them exclusively the basis of his meal, [he need only recite the above blessings.] All authorities agree that such products [do not warrant the blessings HaMotzi and Grace because they] never enter the halachic category of bread, since originally they were made from a soft blend [of flour and water] and were then fried in liquid.

The small amount of oil smeared in the frying-pan so that the dough will not burn [does] not [cause the food to be] considered [to have been fried in] liquid.26

יא וְכֵן מִינֵי עִסָּה שֶׁבְּלִילָתָן רַכָּהקלט וְנִטַּגְּנוּ בְּמַשְׁקֶהקמ – נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלִים לְמָזוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה.קמא אֲבָל אִם אוֹכְלָן לְקִנּוּחַ אוֹ לְתַעֲנוּג – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כְּמוֹ בְּלַחְמָנִיּוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם.קמב

וְאִם אוֹכְלָן שֶׁלֹּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – מְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם "מֵעֵין ג'", וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׂבַע מֵהֶם, וַאֲפִלּוּ אָכַל שִׁעוּר שֶׁאֲחֵרִים קוֹבְעִין עָלָיו סְעוּדָה וְגַם הוּא קָבַע סְעוּדָתוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם לְבַדָּם, לְפִי שֶׁמִּכֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה הָיְתָה בְּלִילָה רַכָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִטַּגְּנוּ בְּמַשְׁקֶה – אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם כְּלָלקמג לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.קמד

וּמְעַט שֶׁמֶן שֶׁמּוֹשְׁחִין הַמַּחֲבַת שֶׁלֹּא תִּשָּׂרֵף הָעִסָּה – אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת מַשְׁקֶה.קמה

12 [There are differing opinions,] however, with regard to [the blessings to be recited] on [products made] from a thick dough resembling the dough of ordinary bread, which can be rolled by hand [and] that was then fried in a frying-pan with oil, other liquids, or with fat.

Some authorities maintain that being fried in a frying-pan does not remove the dough from the halachic category of ordinary bread. Since there was only a small amount of liquid in the frying-pan and the dough was initially a thick mixture, it is as if it was baked in an oven. Hence, one should recite the blessing HaMotzi over it and, [if one eats] an olive-sized portion, [he should recite] Grace afterwards. Others differ and maintain that the laws applying to frying are the same as those which apply to cooking, as will be explained.

Fundamentally, the halachah follows [the latter opinion]. Nevertheless, if one [intends] to eat an amount that will satiate him, the question arises as to whether he is required to recite Grace according to Scriptural Law.27 Hence, he should be stringent and partake of such foods only within a meal [based] on ordinary bread.28

([To explain the issue mentioned above: According to Scriptural Law, the recitation of the blessing Al Ha­michyah fulfills the obligation to recite Grace, because it includes all the themes mentioned in Grace and requirement to recite three] blessings is [merely] a Rabbinic ordinance.29 Nevertheless, since it was Moshe Rabbeinu who instituted the blessing Hazan, [the first blessing of Grace after Meals,] as a separate blessing, [ordaining] that it begin “Blessed [are You]” and conclude “Blessed [are You],” one should act stringently regarding a doubt in relation to it, just as one would regarding a doubt involving a Scriptural [commandment].)

[The above ruling applies] even if [the dough] has a filling, as long as the filling is not [made] of fruits and the like, but rather [it is made of] of cheese and [the filled dough is] fried in butter (called flodin), or [the filling is made] of meat, and is fried in fat. According to the second opinion, however, one who bases his meal on fried [dough] alone should not recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace, but rather [he should recite the blessings] Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah.

All of the above [only] applies to fried [dough. When,] however, dough has been cooked in a pot, it is not included within the halachic category of bread at all, even according to the first opinion [cited] above. One should always recite the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah on products made from [such dough] even when they serve as the basis of a meal, and even when they consist of large pieces ([like those] called knaidlach or kreplach).30

Nevertheless, if [such a food] was subsequently baked in an oven or in a frying-pan without liquid, the halachic status of ordinary bread returns, even to pieces smaller than an olive-sized portion. One should recite the blessing HaMotzi before partaking of it and [if one eats] an olive sized portion, [he should recite] Grace [afterwards]. According to the first opinion that maintains that frying with a small amount of liquid has the same halachic status as baking, this rule would also apply if [after dough was cooked], it was subsequently fried in a frying-pan with a small amount of liquid.

Accordingly, in deference to the first opinion, dough products filled with cheese (called kreplach), which, in these regions, are cooked and afterwards fried in butter in a frying-pan — or even in a pot, only that the [amount of] butter is minute in relation to the quantity of dough and cheese — should not be eaten in a quantity sufficient to satiate, except within a meal. If, however, one puts a large amount of cream (called smetina) into the pot in which the dough is being fried, this is considered as an ordinary type of cooking. One should always recite the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah over [the resulting product]. Similarly, [these blessings are recited] if one fried such a product in a large frying-pan or pot with a large amount of butter, the way one cooks in water, even though one drained off the butter afterwards.

יב אֲבָל עִסָּה שֶׁבְּלִילָתָהּ עָבָה כְּעִסַּת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר הַמִּתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת בַּיָּדַיִם וְטִגְּנָהּ בְּמַחֲבַת בְּשֶׁמֶן אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין וְשׁוּמָן – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקמו שֶׁאֵין הַטִּגּוּן בְּמַחֲבַת מוֹצִיאָהּ מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר, הוֹאִיל וּמַשְׁקֶה שֶׁבַּמַּחֲבַת הוּא דָּבָר מוּעָטקמז וְהָעִסָּה הָיְתָה בְּלִילָתָהּ עָבָה תְּחִלָּה, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ נֶאֱפֵית בַּתַּנּוּר, וּמְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּכַזַּיִת.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיםקמח וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁדִּין הַטִּגּוּן כְּדִין הַבִּשּׁוּל,קמט וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.קנ וְכֵן עִקָּר.קנא

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אוֹכֵל כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָהקנב שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָהקנג (אַף שֶׁמִּנְיַן הַבְּרָכוֹת הוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קנד מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֵאַחַר שֶׁמֹּשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם תִּקֵּן בִּרְכַּת הַזָּןקנה בִּבְרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ לִפְתֹּחַ בְּ"בָרוּךְ" וְלַחְתֹּם בְּ"בָרוּךְ",קנו רָאוּי לְהַחְמִיר בִּסְפֵקָהּ כְּעֵין סָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָהקנז) – יֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁל לֶחֶם גָּמוּר.קנח

וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא מְמֻלֵּאת, כָּל שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְמֻלֵּאת בְּפֵרוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶםקנט אֶלָּא בִּגְבִינָה וּמְטֻגֶּנֶת בְּחֶמְאָה (שֶׁקּוֹרִין פלאדין), אוֹ בְּבָשָׂר וּמְטֻגֶּנֶת בְּשׁוּמָן.קס

אֲבָל הַקּוֹבֵעַ סְעוּדָה עַל מִינֵי טִגּוּן לְבַדָּםקסא – אֵין לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, כִּי אִם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'".קסב

וְכָל זֶה בְּטִגּוּן, אֲבָל עִסָּה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה בִּקְדֵרָה – אֵין עָלֶיהָ תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם כְּלָלקסג גַּם לִסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,קסד וּמְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'" לְעוֹלָם, אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן חֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹתקסה (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קניידליך אוֹ קרעפליך).קסו

אַךְ אִם חָזַר וַאֲפָאָהּ בְּתַנּוּר אוֹ בְּמַחֲבַת בְּלִי מַשְׁקֶה – חָזַר וְיָרַד עָלָיו תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר,קסז וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן חֲתִיכוֹת קְטַנּוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת, וּמְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא"קסח וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּכַזַּיִת.

וּלְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהַטִּגּוּן בִּמְעַט מַשְׁקֶה דִּינוֹ כַּאֲפִיָּה, הוּא הַדִּין אִם חָזַר וְטִגְּנָהּ בְּמַחֲבַת בְּמַשְׁקֶה מְעַט. וְלָכֵן מִינֵי עִסָּה מְמֻלָּאִים בִּגְבִינָה (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קרעפליך) שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלִין אוֹתָן בִּמְדִינָתֵנוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְטַגְּנִין בְּחֶמְאָה בְּמַחֲבַת אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְדֵרָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַחֶמְאָה הוּא דָּבָר מוּעָט לְפִי עֵרֶךְ רִבּוּי הָעִסָּה וְהַגְּבִינָה – אֵין לֶאֱכֹל מֵהֶם כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָהקסט כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, לָחֹשׁ לִסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קע

אֲבָל אִם מְשִׂימִים לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁנִּטַּגְּנִים בְּתוֹכָהּ הַרְבֵּה שֶׁמֶן הַצָּף עַל פְּנֵי הַחָלָב (שֶׁקּוֹרִין סמעטינע) – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִין בִּשּׁוּל גָּמוּר, וּמְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'" לְעוֹלָם. וְכֵן אִם טִגְּנָהּ בְּאִלְפָּס אוֹ בִּקְדֵרָה בְּחֶמְאָה הַרְבֵּה כְּעֵין בִּשּׁוּל בַּמַּיִם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ סִנֵּן מֵהֶם הַחֶמְאָה.

13 All the above relates to dough that was cooked before being baked. If, however, bread had [first] been baked [and then] was cooked in a pot, the cooking does not remove it from the halachic category of ordinary bread with regard to the blessings [to be recited over it], i.e., the blessings HaMotzi and Grace [if] an olive-sized portion [is eaten].31

[The above applies] provided that the bread did not dissolve while being cooked to the extent that none of the pieces [being eaten] remained the size of an olive-sized portion. For any piece [of bread] which remains as large as an olive-sized portion — even though it has lost the appearance of bread entirely due to extensive cooking — is not removed from the halachic category of bread with regard to its blessing.

If [the pieces that remain are] smaller than an olive-sized portion, [the cooking process causes them to be] removed from the halachic category of bread entirely. [This ruling applies] even if the [resulting food] is still recognizable as bread, for [halachically] this is not considered the appearance [of bread]. The blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah should be recited even if one based a meal on many [such] pieces which had disintegrated [somewhat] through cooking, without any of the [pieces which one ate] retaining the size of an olive-sized portion.

There are authorities who maintain that [the above ruling applies] even if the bread did not dissolve through cooking, but was crumbled into pieces smaller than an olive-sized portion [and was then cooked] — as is the custom with matzah on Pesach — even if the form of bread is still evident, for [halachically] this is not considered the appearance [of bread. Moreover, they maintain that the rule continues to apply] even if the pieces became attached through cooking and now each piece is the size of an olive.

[Because of the difference of opinion, we follow the principle that] whenever there is a doubt whether a blessing should be recited, we rule leniently. [Therefore, the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah should be recited.] Nevertheless, a meticulous person should conduct himself stringently and not partake of enough [of such pieces] to satiate himself as long as they [retain the] appearance of bread. Instead, he should recite the blessing HaMotzi on an olive-sized piece of ordinary bread [before partaking of them]. Whenever [bread has been] fried, one should always follow the more stringent opinion.

יג וְכָל זֶה בְּעִסָּה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה קֹדֶם אֲפִיָּתָהּ,קעא אֲבָל לֶחֶם אָפוּי שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּקְדֵרָה – אֵין הַבִּשּׁוּל מוֹצִיאוֹ מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּכַזַּיִת,קעבאֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִמְחָה הַלֶּחֶם בַּבִּשּׁוּלקעג עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאַר בַּפְּרוּסוֹת כַּזַּיִת בְּכָל אֶחָד,קעד כִּי כָּל פְּרוּסָה שֶׁנִּשְׁאָר בָּהּ כַּזַּיִתקעה – לֹא נִתְבַּטְּלָה עֲדַיִן מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בָּהּ תֹּאַר לֶחֶם כְּלָלקעו מֵחֲמַת רֹב הַבִּשּׁוּל, וְאִם לֹא נִשְׁאָר בָּהּ כַּזַּיִת – נִתְבַּטְּלָה מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם לְגַמְרֵי, וַאֲפִלּוּ נִרְאֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ תֹּאַר לֶחֶם – אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב תֹּאַר,קעז וּמְבָרְכִים עָלֶיהָ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'"קעח לְעוֹלָם, אֲפִלּוּ קָבַע סְעוּדָה עַל פְּרוּסוֹת הַרְבֵּה שֶׁנִּמְחוּ בְּבִשּׁוּל וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר כַּזַּיִת בְּכָל אַחַת.קעט

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקפ שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִמְחוּ בַּבִּשּׁוּל, אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה קֹדֶם הַבִּשּׁוּל פֵּרֵר הַפַּת לִפְרוּסוֹת קְטַנּוֹת פְּחוּתוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּמַצּוֹת בְּפֶסַח,קפא אֲפִלּוּ נִרְאֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן תֹּאַר לֶחֶם – לֹא נֶחְשָׁב תֹּאַר,קפב וַאֲפִלּוּ חָזְרוּ וְנִדְבְּקוּ עַל יְדֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל וְנַעֲשׂוּ כַּזַּיִת.קפג

וּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל.קפד וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל מֵהֶן כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָהקפה אִם יֵשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן תֹּאַר לֶחֶם,קפו כִּי אִם שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל כַּזַּיִת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר תְּחִלָּה.קפז וּבְטִגּוּן יֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר בְּכָל עִנְיָן.קפח

14 All of the above applies when [the bread] was cooked in a k’li rishon, [a pot that was cooked on a fire, whether it was still on the fire or had been removed from the fire].32 However, [halachically,] a k’li sheini, [a pot into which the contents of a k’li rishon were poured] does not cook food [placed inside of it]. Accordingly, if one put pieces of bread into a k’li sheini, even if they were smaller than an olive-sized portion, the blessing HaMotzi should be recited over them and afterwards, [if one partook of] an olive-sized portion, the Grace after Meals [should be recited. This ruling applies] provided [the pieces of bread] did not soak in [the liquid of the k’li sheini] to the extent that they dissolved and lost the appearance of baked bread, but instead, are still recognizable as bread rather than dough.

There is an unresolved halachic issue regarding whether liquid that is being poured from a k’li rishon has the halachic statusof liquid in a k’li rishon or that of liquid in a k’li sheini.33 Hence, when one poured [liquid] from a k’li rishon over pieces [of bread] that are smaller than an olive-sized portion [that had been placed] in a bowl, he should only partake of them within a meal [at which he eats bread. This restriction applies] only when the pieces of bread are still recognizable as bread.

If, however, they remained [in the liquid] long enough to dissolve somewhat, they [are considered to] have lost appearance of baked bread. Even when pieces [of bread] smaller than an olive-sized portion soaked in cold liquid for a long time and began to dissolve until they lost the appearance of bread and [began to] look like pieces of dough, the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah should be recited over them. [This ruling applies] even when one ate enough of them to constitute the basis of a meal.

Whenever the water turns white because these small pieces of bread have dissolved in it, they can be considered to have lost the appearance of bread. This ruling also applies to pieces of bread which were dried in an oven, (called pentz [in Yiddish],) and were then soaked in cold beer.

Nevertheless, when breadcrumbs have not undergone a change, even though they are ground as fine as flour and thus cannot be recognized as bread, since [fundamentally,] they still retain the appearance of bread,34 they are not removed from the halachic category of bread and one should recite the blessing HaMotzi over them.

יד וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן,קפט אֲבָל כְּלִי שֵׁנִי אֵינוֹ מְבַשֵּׁל,קצ וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם נָתַן לְתוֹכוֹ פֵּרוּרֵי לֶחֶם אֲפִלּוּ פְּחוּתִין מִכַּזַּיִתקצא – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא", וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּכַזַּיִת. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁנִּמּוֹחַ וְהָלַךְ תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם הָאָפוּי מֵהֶם, אֶלָּא עֲדַיִן נִכָּרִים שֶׁהֵם לֶחֶם אָפוּי וְלֹא עִסָּה.קצב

וְעֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן הוּא סָפֵק אִם נִדּוֹן כִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ כִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי,קצג וְלָכֵן אֵין לֶאֱכֹל פֵּרוּרִין פְּחוּתִין מִכַּזַּיִת שֶׁבִּקְעָרָה שֶׁעֵרָה עֲלֵיהֶם מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אִם יֵשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם תֹּאַר לֶחֶם.קצד אֲבָל אִם שָׁהוּ עַד שֶׁנִּמּוֹחוּ קְצָת – הָלַךְ מֵהֶם תֹּאַר לֶחֶם הָאָפוּי.קצה

וַאֲפִלּוּ פֵּרוּרִין פְּחוּתִין מִכַּזַּיִתקצו שֶׁנִּשְׁרוּ בְּצוֹנְנִין זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה וְנִמּוֹחוּ קְצָת עַד שֶׁהָלַךְ מֵהֶם תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶםקצז וְנִרְאִים כְּפֵרוּרֵי עִסָּה – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'" אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה.קצח וְכָל שֶׁהַמַּיִם מִתְלַבְּנִים מֵחֲמַת מִחוּי הַפֵּרוּרִים – כְּבָר הָלַךְ מֵהֶם תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם.קצט וְכֵן הַדִּין בַּחֲתִיכוֹת פַּת שֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ בַּתַּנּוּר (שֶׁקּוֹרִין פענץ) וְשׁוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשֵׁכָר צוֹנֵן.ר

וּפֵרוּרֵי לֶחֶם הָעוֹמְדִים בְּעֵינָם,רא אֲפִלּוּ הוּא פֵּרוּר דַּק כְּקֶמַחרב שֶׁאֵין נִרְאֶה בּוֹ תֹּאַר לֶחֶם לָעַיִן – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מַרְאֵהוּ עָמַד בּוֹ,רג וְלֹא נִתְבַּטֵּל מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם, וּמְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא".רד

15 The blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah should always35 be recited over pieces of bread that are smaller than an olive-sized portion that were joined together by honey or milk or soup, and, in the process, dissolved somewhat, becoming like dough and losing the appearance of baked bread. [The reason is that] from the outset, no one piece was the size of an olive-sized portion.36

Consequently, the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah are always recited [on the food] customarily prepared on Pesach by grinding matzos very finely,37 and then kneading the crumbs in hot water, fat and eggs, that dissolves the matzah somewhat, making it like dough when kneaded and made into balls (called knaidlach or chremslach) which do not have the appearance of baked bread.38

[This ruling applies] even if [the knaidlach] were not cooked in a pot afterwards, but were fried in a liquid, according to the authorities who maintain — and, as explained above,39 fundamentally, the halachah follows their view — that frying is not like baking.

If the crumbs did not lose the appearance of bread [or matzah] through kneading, but rather through being cooked [subsequently] in a pot, the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah should always be recited over them, even if each [of these knaidlach] is an olive-sized portion or larger. For [our Sages’] statement that an olive-sized portion of baked bread is not removed from the halachic category of bread when it is cooked, even when it has lost the appearance of bread, applies only when the original olive-sized portion remains intact from the time of baking, but not when it was crumbled and then joined together again through kneading.

If, [however, the knaidlach or the like] did not lose the appearance of bread through cooking, one should be stringent and not partake [of them] to the point of satisfaction except within a meal [including bread]. If [the knaidlach or the like were] fried, one should be stringent [to partake of them only within such a meal] in all instances, as explained above.40

טו פֵּרוּרֵי לֶחֶם פְּחוּתִים מִכַּזַּיִת שֶׁחִבְּרָם וְדִבְּקָם יַחַד עַל יְדֵי דְּבַשׁ אוֹ חָלָב אוֹ מָרָק,רה אִם עַל יְדֵי זֶה נִמּוֹחוּ קְצָת וְנַעֲשׂוּ כְּעִסָּהרו וְאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תֹּאַר לֶחֶם אָפוּירז – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'" לְעוֹלָם,רח מֵאַחַר שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה לֹא הָיָה כַּזַּיִת בְּכָל פֵּרוּר לְבַדּוֹ.רט

וְלָכֵן מַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִים בְּפֶסַח לִכְתֹּשׁ הַמַּצּוֹת לְפֵרוּרִין דַּקִּין מְאֹד וְחוֹזְרִין וְגוֹבְלִים אוֹתוֹ בְּמַיִם חַמִּין וּבְשֶׁמֶן וּמֵי בֵּיצִים,רי וְעַל יְדֵי זֶה נִמּוֹחוּ קְצָת וְנַעֲשׂוּ כְּעִסָּה כְּשֶׁלָּשִׁין וְעוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן כְּעִגּוּלִים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קניידליך אוֹ חרעמזליך), וְאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תֹּאַר לֶחֶם אָפוּי – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'"ריא לְעוֹלָם.ריב

וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ אַחַר כָּךְ בִּקְדֵרָה אֶלָּא טִגְּנָם בְּמַשְׁקֶה, לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁטִּגּוּן אֵינוֹ כַּאֲפִיָּה וְכֵן עִקָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.ריג

וְאִם לֹא הָלַךְ מֵהֶן תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם בְּלִישָׁתָן, וּבִשְּׁלָם בִּקְדֵרָה וְהָלַךְ מֵהֶן מֵחֲמַת הַבִּשּׁוּל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּכָל אֶחָד כַּזַּיִת וְיוֹתֵרריד – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּ"מֵעֵין ג'" לְעוֹלָם. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁכַּזַּיִת לֶחֶם אָפוּי אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם בְּבִשּׁוּל אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בּוֹ תֹּאַר לֶחֶם,רטו אֶלָּא בְּכַזַּיִת רִאשׁוֹן הַנִּשְׁאָר קַיָּם מִשְּׁעַת הָאֲפִיָּה, אֲבָל לֹא בְּנִתְפָּרֵר וְחָזַר וּמִתְחַבֵּר בַּלִּישָׁה.רטז

וְאִם לֹא הָלַךְ מֵהֶם תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם בַּבִּשּׁוּל – יֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה. וּבְטִגּוּן יֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר בְּכָל עִנְיָן,ריז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.ריח