CHAPTER 1 [The Laws Governing Blessings Before and After All Types of Food] (1–21)

פרק א [דִּינֵי בְּרָכוֹת רִאשׁוֹנוֹת וְאַחֲרוֹנוֹת עַל כָּל הַמִּינִים בִּכְלָלב וּבוֹ כ"א הֲלָכוֹת ג]

1 It is a positive Scriptural commandment1 to bless G‑d after eating sustaining food, as it is written:2 “When you have eaten and are satiated, you shall bless G‑d.” According to Rabbinic Law, one should always recite a blessing before he eats or drinks. Anyone who benefits from this world without reciting a blessing is like one who benefits from consecrated articles, as it is written:3 “The earth and all that it contains are G‑d’s.”

א א ב ג מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָהד לְבָרֵךְה אַחַר אֲכִילַת מָזוֹן,ו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרז "וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבֵרַכְתָּ אֶת ה'".ח

וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםט לְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵי כָּל אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה.י וְכָל הַנֶּהֱנֶה מִן הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָהיא – כְּאִלּוּ נֶהֱנֶה מִקָּדְשֵׁי שָׁמַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַריב "לַה' הָאָרֶץ וּמְלֹאָהּ וְגוֹ'".יג

2 The blessing recited over any particular [type of] food or drink is inclusive of several types of [similar foods].4 For example, the blessing Borei pri haadamah ([blessing G‑d] “…Who created the fruit of the earth”) is recited over all types of produce that grow from the earth.5 [The blessing] Borei pri haetz ([blessing G‑d] “…Who created the fruit of the trees”),is recited over all fruit [that grows on] trees.6 [The blessing] Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recitedover all other foods and drinks. Only wine and bread [are not covered by general blessings. The Sages] set wine apart from the category of fruits [that grow on] trees [and ordained that] the blessing Borei pri hagafen be recited for it. They [similarly] set bread apart from the category of produce [that] grows from the ground, requiring the blessing HaMotzi lechem min haaretz be recited for it.

ב עַל כָּל אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין מְבָרְכִין בְּרָכָה כּוֹלֶלֶת לְכַמָּה מִינִים:יד "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" לְכָל מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ,טו וּ"בוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ" לְכָל פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן,טז וְ"שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" לִשְׁאָר כָּל אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין.יז חוּץ מִן הַיַּיִן וְהַפַּת,יח שֶׁהַיַּיִן הוֹצִיאוּ מִכְּלַל פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",יט וְהַפַּת הוֹצִיאוּ מִכְּלַל פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ".כ

3 Any food made from grain which was not made into bread, e.g., cooked foods made from flour or porridge, is nevertheless considered important, even though it is not referred to as lechem (“bread”). [Such food] is called mazon (“sustaining food”), and the blessing Borei minei mezonos should be recited over it.

If one recited the blessing Borei minei mezonos over bread, he fulfilled his obligation; there are authorities who disagree.7 Whenever there is uncertainty regarding a blessing of Rabbinic origin, we rule leniently,8 as will be explained (in ch. 2, [law 10]).

ג וְכָל שֶׁהוּא מִמִּין דָּגָןכא וְלֹא עֲשָׂאָן פַּת, כְּגוֹן מִינֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין שֶׁל קֶמַח אוֹ דַּיְסָא,כב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נִקְרָאִים לֶחֶם,כג מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם חֲשִׁיבוּת שֶׁנִּקְרָאִ[ים] מָזוֹן,כד וּמְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת".כה

בֵּרַךְ עַל הַפַּת "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" – יָצָא.כו וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים.כז וּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל,כח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר (בְּפֶרֶק ב'כט).

4 One who recited the blessing Borei pri haadamah on fruits from a tree fulfills his obligation, but one who recited the blessing Borei pri haetz on produce that grew from the earth does not.9 If one recited the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro over any food — even bread and wine —he fulfilled his obligation.10 Therefore, if one is in doubt whether a specific type of produce grew on a tree or from the earth, he should recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah.11 If one does not know at all what type of food it is, he should recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro. The same rule applies [when] there is a difference of opinion among the halachic authorities regarding which blessing to recite [over a specific food].12

ד בֵּרַךְ עַל פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" – יָצָא.ל אֲבָל אִם בֵּרַךְ עַל פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ" – לֹא יָצָא.לא וְעַל כֻּלָּם אִם בֵּרַךְ "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" – יָצָא,לב אֲפִלּוּ עַל פַּת וְיַיִן.לג לְפִיכָךְ, כָּל פְּרִי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק לוֹ אִם [הוּא] פְּרִי הָעֵץ אוֹ פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָהלד – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה".לה

וְאִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ כְּלָל מַה הוּאלו – מְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ".לז וְכֵן כְּשֶׁנִּסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ מִצַּד הַדִּין מֵחֲמַת מַחֲלֹקֶת הַפּוֹסְקִים.לח

5 All of the above applies to a person who is in doubt [regarding which blessing to recite] after he has studied or after the fact, [i.e., after he recited the blessing]. Initially, however, one is forbidden to fulfill one’s obligation by reciting the blessing Shehakol. Instead, one must recite the appropriate blessing over every [type of] food. If he is uneducated, he should go to a learned person, who will teach him the laws of blessings. 13

ה וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד לוֹ סָפֵק אַחַר שֶׁלָּמַד,לט אוֹ בְּדִיעֲבַד,מ אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לוֹ לָצֵאת בְּבִרְכַּת "שֶׁהַכֹּל", אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל דָּבָר בְּרָכָה הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לוֹ.מא וְאִם הוּא עַם הָאָרֶץמב – יֵלֵךְ אֵצֶל חָכָם וִילַמְּדֶנּוּ הִלְכוֹת בְּרָכוֹת.מג

6 If both produce from trees and [produce that grew from] the earth were in front of a person, and he first recited the blessing on the [produce that grew from] the earth, he must recite a second blessing on the produce from the trees. Such fruit is covered by the blessing Borei pri haadamah only when one recites the blessing on it, and not when that blessing was recited on [produce that grew from] the earth.

When does the above apply? When one recited the blessing without a specific intent. If, however, he specifically intended to cover [the produce that grew] on trees as well, he fulfills his obligation [when reciting Borei pri haadamah. This ruling applies] even when the fruit from the trees was not yet in front of him when he recited the blessing, but was [only] brought to him afterwards.14

There are authorities who differ with this ruling and maintain that even if one intended to include a fruit from a tree that was in front of him [when he recited] the blessing Borei pri haadamah, he did not fulfilled his obligation and must recite the blessing Borei pri haetz. [According to this opinion, the Rabbis] ruled that one only fulfills his obligation by reciting the blessing Borei pri haadamah on a fruit from a tree after the fact, [i.e.] when it is impossible to rectify [the situation] by reciting the correct blessing for it, i.e., in a situation that would cause the blessing Borei pri haadamah to have been recited in vain. When, however, the blessing would not be in vain [as in this case where the blessing is actually recited over something that grew from the earth], then it is considered “before the event,” and one must recite the blessing [specifically] instituted by the Rabbis [for fruit that grew on a tree].

Therefore, in practice, one should be careful never to intend to include a fruit that grew on a tree with the blessing Borei pri haadamah, so that reciting the blessing [Borei pri haetz on it] will conform with all the [halachic] opinions.

ו הָיוּ לְפָנָיו פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה וּפְרִי הָעֵץ וּבֵרַךְ תְּחִלָּה עַל פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָהמד – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל פְּרִי הָעֵץ, כִּי לֹא נִפְטַר בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עָלָיו,מה וְלֹא כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה.מו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּמְבָרֵךְ סְתָם, אֲבָל אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לִפְטֹר בְּבִרְכָתוֹ גַּם פְּרִי הָעֵץ – יָצָא,מז וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה פְּרִי הָעֵץ עֲדַיִן לְפָנָיו כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ אֶלָּא שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו.מח

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִיםמט שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ נִתְכַּוֵּן לִפְטֹר בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" אֶת פְּרִי הָעֵץ הַמֻּנָּח לְפָנָיו – לֹא יָצָא, וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ". וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁאִם בֵּרַךְ עַל פְּרִי הָעֵץ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" יָצָא, אֶלָּא בְּדִיעֲבַד, כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְתַקֵּן לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ כָּרָאוּי בְּרָכָה הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לוֹ, שֶׁאִם כֵּן תְּהֵא בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" לְבַטָּלָה, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵינָהּ לְבַטָּלָה – הֲרֵי זֶה כִּלְכַתְּחִילָּה, וְצָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כְּתִקּוּן חֲכָמִים.

לְפִיכָךְ, לְמַעֲשֶׂה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהִתְכַּוֵּן לְעוֹלָםנ לִפְטֹר פְּרִי הָעֵץ בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה", כְּדֵי לְבָרֵךְ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.נא

7 The blessing Borei nefashos rabbos should be recited after partaking of all food and drink15 with the following exceptions:

a) bread, after which Grace after Meals is recited;

b) foods from the seven species for which [the Torah] praises Eretz Yisrael,16 namely: wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates. After [eating one of these species] one recites the one blessing that encapsulates three.17 [This blessing is recited] after wine [since it is made] from grapes [which is one of the seven species]. Spelt is considered a sub-species of wheat, and oats and rye are considered as sub-species of barley. These [five, wheat, spelt, barley, oats and rye,] are generally referred to as grain [dagan] without any further specification.

ז עַל כָּל אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין מְבָרְכִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת",נב חוּץ מִן הַפַּת שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין אַחֲרֶיהָ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,נג וְחוּץ מִז' הַמִּינִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּבְּחָה בָּהֶם אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֵם: חִטָּה וּשְׂעוֹרָה וְגֶפֶן וּתְאֵנָה וְרִמּוֹן וְזַיִת וּתְמָרָה,נד שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין אַחֲרֵיהֶם בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג' בְּרָכוֹת,נה וְכֵן עַל הַיַּיִן הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַגֶּפֶן.נו

וְכֻסְּמִין מִין חִטָּה, וְשִׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָל וְשִׁיפוֹן מִין שְׂעוֹרָה,נז וְהֵםנח הַנִּקְרָאִים דָּגָן סְתָם בְּכָל מָקוֹם.נט

8 The blessing Borei minei mezonos and the one blessing that encapsulates three [Al hamichyah, “on sustaining food,”]are only recited on grain products when one eats them in a form in which they are usually eaten: for example, in a cooked dish made from flour; or when the grain itself has been split into two, three, or more [parts] and cooked in water or other liquids; this is generally called porridge. Alternatively, [these blessings are recited] even when the grains have only been husked, but not split, and it is customary to eat them when cooked in this manner, e.g., barley groats.

There are other authorities who maintain [that Borei minei mezonos is only recited] if the shells of the grain’s kernels have dissolved and the kernels have become stuck together through lengthy cooking. [According to this opinion,] if the kernels are whole, i.e., they have not been husked and their shells have not been crushed, one should recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah before eating and the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos afterwards. One should not recite the blessing Al hamichyah, for Eretz Yisrael was not praised for such food.

Other authorities are in doubt as to whether one should recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos or the blessing Al hamichyah after [eating grain cooked in this manner].18As a result of this doubt, they maintain that one should not eat an amount of grain that [requires a blessing afterwards] that was cooked in this manner except as part of a meal. [In which instance, the grain will be covered by Grace.]

As an initial preference, it is appropriate to give weight to this [last] opinion. If it happened, however, that one ate [grain cooked in this manner] outside a meal, one should recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos afterwards.

ח אֵין מְבָרְכִין "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" עַל הַדָּגָן וְלֹא לְאַחֲרָיו "מֵעֵין ג'" אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלוֹ בְּדֶרֶךְ אֲכִילָתוֹ,ס כְּגוֹן תַּבְשִׁיל הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִקֶּמַח,סא אוֹ דָּגָן עַצְמוֹ שֶׁנֶּחֱלַקסב לִשְׁנַיִם אוֹ לִשְׁלֹשָׁה וְיוֹתֵרסג וְנִתְבַּשֵּׁל בַּמַּיִם אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים,סד וְזוֹ הִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת דַּיְסָא בְּכָל מָקוֹם,סה אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נֶחֱלַק רַק שֶׁהוּסְרָה קְלִפָּתוֹ וְדַרְכּוֹ לְהֵאָכֵל כָּךְ מְבֻשָּׁל, כְּגוֹן הָרִיפוֹת שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים.סו וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסז עַד שֶׁיִּתְמַעֲכוּ וְיִדָּבְקוּ הַגַּרְעִינִים זֶה לָזֶה מֵרֹב הַבִּשּׁוּל.

אֲבָל אִם הוּא שָׁלֵם שֶׁלֹּא הוּסַר קְלִפָּתוֹ וְלֹא נִתְמַעֵךְ – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ אֶלָּא "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה",סח וּלְאַחֲרָיו "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת", וְלֹא "מֵעֵין ג'",סט כִּי לֹא נִשְׁתַּבְּחָה אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ. וְיֵשׁ מִסְתַּפְּקִים בָּזֶהע אִם לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" אוֹ "מֵעֵין ג'",עא וּמִסָּפֵק זֶה אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּשִׁעוּר כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה. וְנָכוֹן לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה.עב אֲבָל אִם אֵרַע שֶׁאָכַל שֶׁלֹּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – יְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת".עג

9 When flour from one of the five species of grain was boiled and mixed with water or other liquids so that the resulting mixture is soft and thin, and fit only for drinking — to the extent that it would not satisfy hunger at all — the blessing Shehakol should be recited over it. If, however, it is somewhat thicker, and it is fit to be eaten and would satisfy hunger — even though it is not thick enough to chew — the blessing Borei minei mezonos should be recited before partaking of it and the blessing Al hamichyah [should be recited] afterwards.

ט קֶמַח שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי דָּגָן שֶׁשְּׁלָקוֹ וְעֵרְבוֹ בַּמַּיִם אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים,עד אִם נַעֲשָׂה רַךְ וְקָלוּשׁ כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי אֶלָּא לִשְׁתִיָּהעה וְלֹא לִסְעֹד הַלֵּב כְּלָל – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו אֶלָּא "שֶׁהַכֹּל".עו אֲבָל אִם הוּא עָב קְצָת שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה וְלִסְעֹד הַלֵּב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָב לְגַמְרֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי לְלָעֳסוֹעז – מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת", וּלְאַחֲרָיו "מֵעֵין ג'".עח

10 Dochen [see law 11] is like all other kitniyos19 and the blessing Shehakol is recited on either bread or a cooked dish made from its flour. When, by contrast, orez [see law 11], has been cooked until it becomes one mass or was ground and made into bread, the blessing Borei minei mezonos should be recited before partaking of it, even though the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos should be recited afterwards.

There are some authorities who maintain that even if orez did not become one mass through cooking, the blessing Borei minei mezonos should be recited over it. Since the matter is left unresolved, it is appropriate to recite the blessing Shehakol when [partaking of grains of orez] that are intact. If one recited the blessing Borei pri haadamah, he fulfilled his requirement, since [the grains are] intact.

י דֹּחַן הֲרֵי הוּא כִּשְׁאָר מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת,עט וּמְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל", בֵּין עַל הַפַּתפ בֵּין עַל הַתַּבְשִׁיל הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִקִּמְחוֹ.פא

אֲבָל הָאֹרֶז, אִם בִּשְּׁלוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּתְמַעֵךְ, אוֹ שֶׁטְּחָנוֹ וְעָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ פַּת – מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת",פב אֲבָל לְאַחֲרָיו מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת".פג וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפד שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְמַעֵךְ בַּבִּשּׁוּל מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת". וּמִסָּפֵקפה רָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל" כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׁלֵם.פו וְאִם בֵּרַךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" – יָצָא, מֵאַחַר שֶׁהוּא שָׁלֵם.פז

11 It is customary to translate orez as rice and dochen as millet. There are, however, some authorities who translate orez as millet and dochen as rice. Hence, a G‑d-fearing person should eat (cooked) rice or millet, whether whole or in one mass, only as part of a meal. If he partakes of these grains outside the context of a meal, he should recite the blessing Shehakol on all [these types of food].

יא מִנְהַג הָעוֹלָם שֶׁמְּפָרְשִׁים אֹרֶז – ריי"ז, דֹּחַן – היר"ז.פח אֲבָל יֵשׁ מְפָרְשִׁיםפט אֹרֶז – היר"ז, דֹּחַן – ריי"ז.צ לְפִיכָךְ, יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם לֹא יֹאכַל בֵּין אֹרֶז בֵּין דֹּחַן (מְבֻשָּׁלצא), בֵּין שָׁלֵם בֵּין נִתְמַעֵךְ, כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה.צב וּכְשֶׁאוֹכֵל שֶׁלֹּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָהצג – יְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהַכֹּל" עַל כֻּלָּם.צד

12 In the Diaspora, the one blessing that encapsulates three that is recited over fruits of the seven species [for which Eretz Yisrael is praised] should be concluded, al haaretz v’al hapeiros (“for the land and for the fruits”). In Eretz Yisrael, [the blessing should be concluded] al haaretz v’al peiroseha (“for the land and for its fruits”).20 [The blessing is] even concluded [with the words] al haaretz v’al peiroseha [after eating] fruits [from the seven species that were grown in] Eretz Yisrael, which have been exported.

יב בִּבְרָכָה "מֵעֵין ג'" שֶׁל פֵּרוֹת מִז' הַמִּינִים חוֹתְמִין בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ "עַל הָאָרֶץ וְעַל הַפֵּרוֹת",צה וּבְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל "עַל הָאָרֶץ וְעַל פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ".צו וַאֲפִלּוּ פֵּרוֹת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיָּצְאוּ לְחוּץ לָאָרֶץ חוֹתְמִין לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם "עַל הָאָרֶץ וְעַל פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ".צז

13 If one ate fruit from the seven species and food made from grain, and also drank wine, he should include them all in one blessing recited afterwards. He should give precedence to the life-giving food [i.e. the grain products], then to the fruit of the vine [i.e. the wine], and then to the fruit of the trees. [Thus, after beginning the blessing, he should praise G‑d for] “the life-giving food and the provisions, the vine and the fruit of the vine, the trees and the fruit of the trees, for the produce of the fields, and for the desirable… land….” He concludes [the blessing]: “We thankfully acknowledge You for the land and the life-giving food, the fruit of the vine, and the fruit. Blessed are You, G‑d, for the land and for the life-giving food, the fruit of the vine, and the fruit.”

יג אָכַל פֵּרוֹת מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים וְאָכַל מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת וְשָׁתָה יַיִן – יִכְלֹל הַכֹּל בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת, וְיַקְדִּים הַמִּחְיָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַגֶּפֶן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ פְּרִי הָעֵץ,צח וְיֹאמַר כָּךְ: "עַל הַמִּחְיָה וְעַל הַכַּלְכָּלָה, [וְ]עַלצט הַגֶּפֶן וְעַל פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן, וְעַל הָעֵץ וְעַל פְּרִי הָעֵץ, וְעַל תְּנוּבַת הַשָּׂדֶה, וְעַל אֶרֶץ חֶמְדָּה כוּ'",ק וְחוֹתֵם: "וְנוֹדֶה לְךָ עַל הָאָרֶץקא וְעַל הַמִּחְיָה וְעַל פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן וְעַל הַפֵּרוֹת,קב בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' עַל הָאָרֶץ וְעַל הַמִּחְיָה וְעַל פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן וְהַפֵּרוֹת".קג

14 If one ate fruits from the seven species and [also ate] apples and the like, it is not necessary to recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos on the apples because they are included in the blessing Al haetz v’al pri haetz (“for the trees and the fruit of the trees”). If, however, one ate apples and drank wine it is necessary to recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos on the apples, even if one concluded [the blessing intended for the wine with] al haaretz v’al hapeiros.21

On the other hand, if one ate grapes or raisins and drank wine and recited the blessing Al hagefen v’al pri hagefen (“for the vine and the fruit of the vine”), the blessing Al haetz [need not be recited over the grapes and/or raisins], since they are also fruits of the vine.

יד אָכַל פֵּרוֹת מִז' הַמִּינִים וְאָכַל תַּפּוּחִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶםקד – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" עַל הַתַּפּוּחִים, לְפִי שֶׁהֵם בִּכְלַל בִּרְכַּת "עַל הָעֵץ וְעַל פְּרִי הָעֵץ".קה אֲבָל אִם אָכַל תַּפּוּחִים וְשָׁתָה יַיִן – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" עַל הַתַּפּוּחִים,קו וַאֲפִלּוּ חָתַם "עַל הָאָרֶץ וְעַל הַפֵּרוֹת".קז

אֲבָל אִם אָכַל עֲנָבִים אוֹ צִמּוּקִים וְשָׁתָה יַיִן וּבֵרַךְ "עַל הַגֶּפֶן וְעַל פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן" – נִפְטְרוּ מִבִּרְכַּת "עַל הָעֵץ", לְפִי שֶׁ[גַּ]ם הֵם "פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן".קח

15 When does the above apply? When one had in mind to cover [the grapes and raisins with the blessing recited after partaking of the wine]. If, however, one recited this blessing without specifically intending [to cover the grapes and raisins], it does not include them, since their designated blessing is not [Borei] pri hagafen but [Borei] pri haetz. Therefore, as an initial preference, one should not have in mind to cover them with the blessing Al hagefen. Rather he should explicitly include them [in the same blessing, saying al hagefen… v’al haetz], as explained [in law 13].

טו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?קט כְּשֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לְפָטְרָם, אֲבָל בִּסְתָם אֵינוֹ פּוֹטְרָם,קי הוֹאִיל וּבִרְכָתָם הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לָהֶם אֵינָהּ "פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן" אֶלָּא "פְּרִי הָעֵץ".קיא לְפִיכָךְ,קיב לְכַתְּחִלָּה לֹא יִתְכַּוֵּן לְפָטְרָם בְּבִרְכַּת "עַל הַגֶּפֶן", אֶלָּא יִכְלֹל אוֹתָם בְּפֵרוּשׁ,קיג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.קיד

16 So, too, in the blessing [recited] before partaking [of these foods], one should not have in mind to cover grapes or raisins with the blessing recited over the wine. Instead, one should recite the appropriate blessing over them. If one intended to cover them [with the blessing over the wine] or erred and recited the blessing Borei pri hagafen on grapes or raisins, he fulfilled his obligation.

טז וְכֵן בִּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, לֹא יִתְכַּוֵּן בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן לִפְטֹר גַּם הָעֲנָבִים אוֹ הַצִּמּוּקִים, אֶלָּא יְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּרָכָה הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לָהֶם.קטו וְאִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לְפָטְרָם,קטז אוֹ שֶׁטָּעָה וּבֵרַךְ עַל הָעֲנָבִים אוֹ הַצִּמּוּקִים "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן"קיז – יָצָא.

17 Grace after Meals does not cover foods over which the one blessing that encapsulates three should be recited. Accordingly, if one ate fruits from the seven species solely for pleasure before a meal, [and] not as an appetizer for the meal, (in which case they are covered by Grace, as will be explained in ch. 4), but forgot to recite a concluding blessing over them, and only remembered [this] after [reciting] Grace, he must recite the blessing Al haetz. Needless to say, fruits that are not of the seven species, and all other foods and drinks for which the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos is recited afterwards, are not covered by Grace.

Dates and wine are exceptions to this rule. After the fact, they are covered by the blessing Hazan in Grace, since they also satisfy hunger. Similarly, [if one ate] foods [made from] the five species of grain before the meal [and did not recite a concluding blessing before reciting Grace,] after the fact, [those foods] are covered by Graces. As an initial preference, however, if one remembers [his omission] before [reciting] Grace, he must recite the blessing Al hamichyah before [reciting] Grace. So too, the blessing Al haetz should be recited after eating dates and Al hagefen [should be recited] after drinking wine before the meal, if one does not partake of them to stimulate his appetite, as will be explained in ch. 4.

יז בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵינָהּ פּוֹטֶרֶת "מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ",קיח שֶׁאִם אָכַל פֵּרוֹת מִז' הַמִּינִיםקיט לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה לְהִתְעַנֵּג בִּלְבַד,קכ וְלֹא כְּדֵי לִפְתֹּחַ בְּנֵי מֵעַיִם לְהַמְשִׁיךְ הַלֵּב לַאֲכִילָה (שֶׁאָז הֵם נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק ד'קכא), וְשָׁכַח וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ לְאַחֲרֵיהֶםקכב וְלֹא נִזְכַּר עַד אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "עַל הָעֵץ כו'" (וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִין וּשְׁאָר אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּרָכָה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֵיהֶם הִיא "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת", שֶׁאֵינָן נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹןקכג).

חוּץ מִן הַתְּמָרִיםקכד וְהַיַּיִן,קכה שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים בְּדִיעֲבַדקכו בְּבִרְכַּת "הַזָּן" שֶׁבְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,קכז לְפִי שֶׁהֵם סוֹעֲדִים הַלֵּב גַּם כֵּן.קכח וְכֵן חֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי דָּגָן שֶׁאֲכָלָן לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה – נִפְטְרוּ בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּדִיעֲבַד.קכט אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אִם נִזְכַּר קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "עַל הַמִּחְיָה" קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,קל וְכֵן בִּרְכַּת "עַל הָעֵץ" עַל הַתְּמָרִים,קלא וְ"עַל הַגֶּפֶן" עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,קלב אִם אֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֵהוּ כְּדֵי לִגְרֹר וּלְהַמְשִׁיךְ הַלֵּב לַאֲכִילָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק ד'.קלג

18 The blessing Al hamichyah does not cover foods for which the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos must be recited. For example, if one ate porridge and also [ate] meat or fish. Even though the latter foods satisfy hunger to a degree, they are not included in the category of life-giving food [michyah]. Similarly, the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos does not cover foods for which the one blessing that encapsulates three must be recited.

יח בִּרְכַּת "עַל הַמִּחְיָה" אֵינָהּ פּוֹטֶרֶת בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת", כְּגוֹן אִם אָכַל דַּיְסָא וּבָשָׂר וְדָגִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּשְׂבִּיעִין קְצָתקלד – אֵינָן בִּכְלַל "מִחְיָה".קלה וְכֵן בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" אֵינָהּ פּוֹטֶרֶת "מֵעֵין ג'".קלו

19 Accordingly, when there is a doubt regarding whether the blessing to be recited after eating a food is the one blessing that encapsulates three or Borei nefashos rabbos, and the person wishes to eat it outside [the context of] a meal, he should eat [the food in question] together with a food for which one must recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos and with a food for which one must recite the one blessing that encapsulates three. For example, if one is not sure whether [he is required] to recite the blessing Al hamichyah or Borei nefashos rabbos after eating a cooked food, he should [also] eat a grain product and another food over which the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos is definitely recited. [After eating,] he should recite [the] blessings Al hamichyah and Borei nefashos rabbos. In this manner, he will include the cooked food, regardless [of what the correct blessing may be].

יט לְפִיכָךְ, כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁנִּסְתַּפֵּק בְּבִרְכָתוֹ אִם הוּא "מֵעֵין ג'" אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת", וְרוֹצֶה לְאָכְלוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – יֹאכַל עִמּוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁבִּרְכָתוֹ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" וְדָבָר שֶׁבִּרְכָתוֹ "מֵעֵין ג'" מֵאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין שֶׁמִּסְתַּפֵּק בּוֹ,קלז כְּגוֹן אִם מִסְתַּפֵּק בְּתַבְשִׁיל אִם רָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו "עַל הַמִּחְיָה" אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת"קלח – יֹאכַל מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת וְדָבָר אַחֵר שֶׁבִּרְכָתוֹ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" בְּוַדַּאי, וִיבָרֵךְ "עַל הַמִּחְיָה" וּ"בוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת", וּפוֹטֵר תַּבְשִׁיל זֶה מִמַּה נַּפְשָׁךְ.קלט

20 Similarly, when one is in doubt whether a fruit is from one of the seven species, he should eat another fruit which is certainly [one] of the seven species and recite the blessing Al haetz v’al pri haetz afterwards. In this way he will have fulfilled his obligation regarding the fruit concerning which the doubt exists, regardless of what [the appropriate blessing for it may be]. He need not [partake of another food that requires] the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos.22

Nevertheless, if one does not have another fruit [that is definitely from the seven species], he may not resolve [the doubt] by drinking wine and reciting the blessing Al hagefen or by eating cooked food from the five species [of grain] and reciting the blessing Al hamichyah and including Al haetz v’al pri haetz together with Al hagefen or with Al hamichyah because of the doubt. Accordingly, one should eat [such a fruit] only as part of a meal [ in which instance, his obligation to recite a blessing afterwards will be covered by Grace regardless.]

If, however, one did partake of the fruit in question, it is better to include it [in the blessing recited after wine or a grain product] because of the doubt.

כ וְאִם מִסְתַּפֵּק בִּפְרִי אִם הוּא מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים – יֹאכַל פְּרִי אַחֵר שֶׁהוּא מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים בְּוַדַּאי, וִיבָרֵךְ "עַל הָעֵץ וְעַל פְּרִי הָעֵץ" וְיָצָא גַּם עַל פְּרִי זֶה מִמַּה נַּפְשָׁךְ,קמ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְדָבָר אַחֵר לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת".קמא

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ פְּרִי אַחֵרקמב – אֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה יַיִן וִיבָרֵךְ "עַל הַגֶּפֶן", אוֹ לֶאֱכֹל תַּבְשִׁיל מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים וִיבָרֵךְ "עַל הַמִּחְיָה", וְלִכְלֹל "עַל הָעֵץ וְעַל פְּרִי הָעֵץ" בְּ"עַל הַגֶּפֶן" אוֹ בְּ"עַל הַמִּחְיָה" עַל הַסָּפֵק.קמג לְפִיכָךְ, לֹא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה. אֲבָל אִם כְּבָר אָכַל – מוּטָב לְכָלְלוֹ בַּבְּרָכָה עַל הַסָּפֵק.קמד

21 Since wine is the most prominent of all beverages, its blessing covers all other beverages.23 [This applies both to] the blessing recited before partaking of them, Shehakol nih’yah bidivaro, and the blessing recited afterwards [Borei nefashos rabbos].

[To explain:] If, when one recited the blessing Borei pri hagafen, the other beverages were in front of him, or he had in mind to drink them later — even though he did not have in mind explicitly to cover them [with the blessing Borei pri hagafen] — they are covered by that blessing.

[Similarly, other beverages] are covered by the blessing Al hagefen even when one was required to recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidivaro beforepartaking of them. For example, [the other beverages] were not in front of him when he recited the blessing Borei pri hagafen and he did not intend to [drink] them at that time [i.e. when he recited the blessing Borei pri hagafen].

If one drank less than a reviis of wine, in which instance, he is not required to recite a blessing afterwards, and [he] also drank a reviis of other beverages, he should recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos after [drinking]. [This applies] even when he did not recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidivaro before partaking of [the other beverages].24

כא הַיַּיִן, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא רֹאשׁ לְכָל הַמַּשְׁקִיןקמה – הֲרֵי הוּא פּוֹטֵר בְּבִרְכָתוֹ כָּל מִינֵי מַשְׁקִין,קמו בֵּין מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָהקמז שֶׁהִיא "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ",קמח אִם הָיוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין לְפָנָיו כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",קמט אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אָז דַּעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם לִשְׁתּוֹתָםקנ אַף שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ לְפָטְרָם בְּפֵרוּשׁקנא – נִפְטְרוּ מִמֵּילָא. וּבֵין מִבְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה,קנב נִפְטְרוּ בְּבִרְכַּת "עַל הַגֶּפֶן", וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהֻצְרַךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ",קנג כְּגוֹן שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ לְפָנָיו כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",קנד וְגַם לֹא הָיָה אָז דַּעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם.קנה

וְאִם שָׁתָה יַיִן פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר רְבִיעִית שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיוקנו וּמִשְּׁאָר מַשְׁקִין שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית – יְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת",קנז אַף אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא בֵּרַךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ".קנח