SECTION 479 [The Recitation of] the Grace after Meals over the Third Cup [of Wine] (1-9)

סימן תעט בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי וּבוֹ ט' סְעִיפִים:

1 After eating the afikoman, one must blend1 the third cup [of wine] so that the Grace after Meals can be recited over it. Even the authorities who maintain that the Grace after Meals need not [be recited over] a cup [of wine throughout the year2 accept this ruling. The rationale is that] since the Sages ordained that one drink four cups [of wine] on this night, it is appropriate to perform a mitzvah with each one.3 On the third [cup of wine], one should recite Grace.

(If one does not [drink the cups of wine] in this manner, he does not fulfill his obligation [to drink] four cups [of wine], as explained in sec. 472[:16].)

א אַחַר אֲכִילַת הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן צָרִיךְ לִמְזֹג1 כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.א וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםב שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵינָהּ טְעוּנָה כּוֹס,2 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הוֹאִיל וְתִקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים לִשְׁתּוֹת ד' כּוֹסוֹת בְּלַיְלָה זֶה – יֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה בְּכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד,ג,3 וְעַל הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יְבָרֵךְ עַל מְזוֹנוֹ.

(וְאִם לֹא עָשָׂה כֵן – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת ד' כּוֹסוֹת,ד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"בה):

2 One must be careful that this cup [of wine] be clean from the remnants of [wine from] other cups, i.e., the remnants of wine in which bread, [i.e., matzah,] was soaked. If [the cup] is not clean, it must be rinsed and washed or wiped thoroughly, as stated in sec. 183[:2].4

Even a person who is not careful about making sure that the cup is clean throughout the year, (because according to the fundamentals of the law, the Grace after Meals need not [be recited over] a cup [of wine],)5 must nevertheless be careful about [observing this practice] on this night.

ב כּוֹס זֶה צָרִיךְ לְדַקְדֵּק בּוֹ אִם הוּא נָקִיו מִשִּׁיּוּרֵי כּוֹסוֹת,ז דְּהַיְנוּ שִׁיּוּרֵי יַיִן שֶׁשָּׁרָה בּוֹ פַּת,ח שֶׁאִם אֵינוֹ נָקִי צָרִיךְ שְׁטִיפָה וַהֲדָחָהט אוֹ לְקַנְּחוֹ יָפֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ג.י,4

וְאַף מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִזְהָר בָּזֶה כָּל הַשָּׁנָה (לְפִי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵין צָרִיךְ כּוֹס מֵעִקַּר הַדִּיןיא,5), מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּלַיְלָה זֶה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר:יב

3 After drinking this cup [of wine], one is forbidden to drink wine or any other intoxicating beverage6 until [he drinks] the fourth cup, lest he become intoxicated, fall asleep, and be prevented from reading the conclusion of the Hallel. One should even refrain from drinking non-intoxicating beverages for the reason explained in sec. 478[:1],7 with the exception of water and the like,8 as explained in sec. 481[:1].

ג אַחַר שֶׁשָּׁתָה כּוֹס זֶה אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִןיג אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה הַמְשַׁכֵּריד,6 עַד כּוֹס הָרְבִיעִי, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁתַּכֵּרטו וְיִשַׁן וְיִמָּנַע מִקְּרִיאַת גְּמַר הַהַלֵּל.טז וְאַף מִמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְשַׁכֵּר יֵשׁ לִמְנֹעַ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ח,יז,7 חוּץ מִמַּיִם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם,8 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תפ"א:יח

4 One may, however, drink the entire third cup [of wine]9 even if it contains much more than a reviis.10 Even if one makes several interruptions while drinking this cup, and even when he tarried longer than k’dei achilas p’ras11from the time he began drinking it until the time he concluded drinking, it is [nevertheless] considered [that he drank] one cup [of wine].12 Nevertheless, if the cup contains an exceedingly large amount [of wine], [the person] should not drink it in its entirety, lest he become intoxicated.

ד אֲבָל כּוֹס זֶה הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ כֻּלּוֹ9 אֲפִלּוּ מַחֲזִיק הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מֵרְבִיעִית,יט,10 וַאֲפִלּוּ מַפְסִיק הַרְבֵּה פְּעָמִים בְּאֶמְצַע שְׁתִיַּת הַכּוֹס, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַכֹּל נֶחְשָׁב לְכוֹס אֶחָד,כ,12 אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹהֶה מִתְּחִלַּת שְׁתִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַד סוֹף שְׁתִיָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס.כא,11

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הַכּוֹס מַחֲזִיק הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי – לֹא יִשְׁתֶּנּוּ כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתַּכֵּר:כב

5 Even [when one is drinking] from a small cup, if he drank the greater part of a reviis or more from it13 and he had in mind not to drink any more from it, should he change his mind and desire to drink more from it, it is forbidden for him to drink from it (or from another cup [of wine]). [The rationale is that] since [the person] would have to recite a [new] blessing before drinking [the additional wine that] he [now] desires to drink, he will appear to be adding to [the number of] cups [of wine] ordained by our Sages.14

[This ruling applies] even if [he is] not [drinking] wine, but another beverage that is “the wine of the region,”15 as explained in sec. 473[:13].

ה וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּכוֹס קָטָן, אִם שָׁתָה מִמֶּנּוּ רֹב רְבִיעִיתכג אוֹ יוֹתֵר13 וְהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד מִמֶּנּוּכד וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד מִמֶּנּוּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַל מַה שֶּׁרוֹצֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת – אָסוּר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ (אוֹ מִכּוֹס אַחֵר) אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ יַיִן אֶלָּא שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁהוּא חֲמַר מְדִינָה,15 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים,14 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ג:כה

6 [After reciting Grace and drinking the third cup of wine,] it is a mitzvah to seek out a quorum of three (a zimun)16 for the recitation of the Hallel, so that they can recite Hodu [as a group],17 i.e., one person will say to the two others who are together with him, Hodu la’A-donai… (“Thankfully acknowledge G‑d…”), and they will respond Hodu la’A-donai….18The same applies with regard to [the phrases beginning] Ana A-donai (“Please, G‑d…”),19 as explained in sec. 422.20 See the rationale [explained there].

The person of greatest stature among them should say Hodu and the two of lesser stature should respond to him. [However,] the person of greater stature may grant permission to one of lesser stature [to lead these refrains].

Even if the two others ate in another home and they already recited the Hallel for themselves, they may join together [to form] a quorum of three for Hallel.21

Nevertheless, a person who does not have two others eating together with him in [his] home need not seek out men from another home [to reach a quorum of] three. It is sufficient for him [to join together] with his wife and children of educable age22 who will respond to him. True, as an initial preference, the optimum manner of performing the mitzvah is to recite [the phrases beginning] Hodu and Ana with three men who have reached [bar-]mitzvah age. Nevertheless, it is not necessary to be so careful about the matter as to take the trouble of finding [two other men] and bringing them from another home. Instead, it is sufficient [to recite the Hallel] together with one’s wife and children of educable age.

One may give a child permission to recite [the phrases beginning] Ana, and he [and the others] will respond to him. However, [the adult] should not respond Hodu following a child. Instead, he should begin and the child should respond to him. [The rationale is that] Hodu marks the beginning of a chapter [of Tehillim]. When the child begins, and [the adult] responds to him, it appears as if the child is [serving as the] agent [of the adult], and may a curse alight upon one who degrades His Maker by appointing such agents to [serve] Him.23

Nevertheless, if a child recites [the subsequent phrases,] Yomar na Yisrael (“Let Yisrael proclaim…”), Yomru na Beis Aharon (“Let the House of Aharon proclaim…”) and Yomru na yirei A-donai (“Let those who fear G‑d proclaim…”) and [an adult] responds Hodu la’A-donai to him, [the adult] does not fulfill his obligation even after the fact, unless he repeats these [three] verses to himself as well. [The adult] does not, however, fulfill his obligation by hearing [these verses] recited by a child, because the child is exempt from all the mitzvos of the Torah.24 [The child] is only obligated [to fulfill the mitzvos] according to (Rabbinic Law),25 to train him in the observance of the mitzvos.26

ו מִצְוָה לַחֲזֹר אַחַר זִמּוּןכו,16 לַאֲמִירַת הַהַלֵּלכז כְּדֵי לוֹמַר "הוֹדוּ" בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה,17 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהָאֶחָד יֹאמַר לַשְּׁנַיִם שֶׁעִמּוֹ "הוֹדוּ לַה' וְגוֹ'"כח וְהֵם יַעֲנוּ אַחֲרָיו "הוֹדוּ לַה' וְגוֹ'",18 וְכֵן בְּ"אָנָּא ה' וְגוֹ'",19 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תכ"ב,כט,20 עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם. וְהַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן הוּא אוֹמֵר "הוֹדוּ" וְהַשְּׁנַיִם הַקְּטַנִּים מִמֶּנּוּ עוֹנִים אַחֲרָיו.ל וְיָכוֹל הַגָּדוֹל לִתֵּן רְשׁוּת לַקָּטָן.לא

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אוֹתָן הַשְּׁנַיִם אָכְלוּ בְּבַיִת אַחֵרלב וּכְבָר קָרְאוּ אֶת הַהַלֵּל לְעַצְמָן – מִצְטָרְפִין לְזִמּוּן לְהַלֵּל.21

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִי שֶׁאֵין שְׁנַיִם אוֹכְלִין עִמּוֹ בַּבַּיִת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר אַחַר שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים מִבַּיִת אַחֵר, אֶלָּא דַּי בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וּבָנָיו שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לְחִנּוּךְ22 שֶׁיַּעֲנוּ אַחֲרָיו.לג וְאַף שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לוֹמַר "הוֹדוּ" וְ"אָנָּא" בְּג' אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לִכְלַל מִצְוֹת,לד מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַקְפִּיד כָּל כָּךְ בִּשְׁבִיל זֶהלה לִטְרֹחַ אַחֲרֵיהֶם וְלַהֲבִיאָם מִבַּיִת אַחֵר, אֶלָּא דַּי בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וּבָנָיו שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לְחִנּוּךְ.

וְיָכוֹל לִתֵּן רְשׁוּת לְקָטָן לוֹמַר "אָנָּא וְגוֹ'" וְהוּא יַעֲנֶה אַחֲרָיו.לו אֲבָל "הוֹדוּ" לֹא יַעֲנֶה אַחַר הַקָּטָן, אֶלָּא יַתְחִיל הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ וְהַקָּטָן יַעֲנֶה אַחֲרָיו, לְפִי שֶׁ"הוֹדוּ" הוּא תְּחִלַּת הַפֶּרֶק וּכְשֶׁהַקָּטָן מַתְחִיל וְהוּא עוֹנֶה אַחֲרָיו – נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ הַקָּטָן הוּא שְׁלוּחוֹ,לז וְתָבֹא לוֹ מְאֵרָהלח שֶׁמְּבַזֶּה אֶת קוֹנוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שְׁלוּחִים כָּאֵלּוּ.לט,23ּ

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, "יֹאמַר נָא יִשְׂרָאֵל" וְ"יֹאמְרוּ נָא בֵית אַהֲרֹן" וְ"יֹאמְרוּ נָא יִרְאֵי ה'", אִם אֲמָרָם הַקָּטָן וְהוּא עוֹנֶה אַחֲרָיו "הוֹדוּ לַה' וְגוֹ'" – אַף בְּדִיעֲבַד לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חָזַר וְאָמַר גַּם כֵּן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ "יֹאמַר נָא וְגוֹ'",מ אֲבָל אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בְּמַה שֶּׁשָּׁמַע מֵהַקָּטָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַקָּטָן הוּא פָּטוּרמא מִכָּל הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה24 וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בָּהֶם אֶלָּא (מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים)25 כְּדֵי לְחַנְּכוֹ בְּמִצְוֹת:מב,26

7 [A man] may, however, grant permission to his wife to say Hodu, Yomar na, and Yomru na…. He will respond Hodu and fulfill his obligation by hearing her recitation of [these verses]. Although in all [other instances], women are free from the obligation to recite Hallel,27as stated in sec. 422,28 they are obligated [to recite] this Hallel. [The rationale is that] there is no difference between [the obligations incumbent upon women] and [those incumbent upon] men with regard to all the practices observed on this night, as explained in sec. 472[:25].

ז אֲבָל יָכוֹל לִתֵּן רְשׁוּת לְאִשְׁתּוֹ לוֹמַר "הוֹדוּ"מג וְ"יֹאמַר נָא" וְ"יֹאמְרוּ נָא", וְהוּא יַעֲנֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ "הוֹדוּ", וְיֵצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּמַה שֶּׁשּׁוֹמֵעַ מִמֶּנָּה "יֹאמַר נָא" וְ"יֹאמְרוּ נָא וְגוֹ'", שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת מִכָּל הַלֵּל,מד,27 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תכ"במה,28 – בְּהַלֵּל זֶה חַיָּבוֹת,מו וְאֵין שׁוּם חִלּוּק בֵּינֵיהֶן לַאֲנָשִׁים בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֵג בְּלַיְלָה זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ב:מז

8 All the above29 refers to the verse Hodu in this Hallel. There is, however, no requirement to recite Hodu in the great Hallel30with a quorum of three. Similarly, it is not necessary to seek out a quorum of three to recite Grace. [Indeed,] those who are accustomed to leave their homes and go to the homes of their friends to recite Grace with a quorum of three are [following] a custom of the uneducated. Moreover, doing so involves a prohibition if they leave their homes after eating the afikoman. [The rationale is that] it is forbidden for them to eat anything in the home to which they go.31 How then can they recite Grace there? Grace must be recited in the place where one completes eating.32 Nor may they eat the afikoman again in the home where they went, for the afikoman may not be eaten in two places, even when the person did not eat an olive-sized portion in his first place.33

Instead, [such individuals have two halachically acceptable options]:

[a)] If they desire, they should go [to the other home] before eating the afikoman, eat the afikoman there, and recite Grace34 and Hallel there with a quorum of three; or

[b)] they should eat the afikoman and recite Grace in their homes and then go to [the other home] if they desire to recite Hallel35with a quorum of three men.

ח וְכָל זֶה29 בְּ"הוֹדוּ" שֶׁבְּהַלֵּל זֶה, אֲבָל לְ"הוֹדוּ" שֶׁבְּהַלֵּל הַגָּדוֹל30 אֵין צָרִיךְ זִמּוּן כְּלָל.מח וְכֵן לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר אַחַר זִמּוּן.מט

וְהַנּוֹהֲגִין לָצֵאת מִבָּתֵּיהֶם לְבֵית חַבְרֵיהֶם לְבָרֵךְ שָׁם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּזִמּוּן – הוּא מִנְהַג בּוּרוּת.נ וְגַם יֵשׁ אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר אִם יוֹצְאִין מִבָּתֵּיהֶן אַחַר אֲכִילַת אֲפִיקוֹמָן,נא שֶׁאָסוּר לָהֶם לִטְעֹם כְּלוּםנב בַּבַּיִת שֶׁהָלְכוּ לְשָׁם,31 וְאִם כֵּן הַאֵיךְ יְבָרְכוּ שָׁם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן? הֲלֹא בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בִּמְקוֹם גְּמַר הָאֲכִילָה.נג,32 וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן בַּבַּיִת שֶׁהָלְכוּ לְשָׁם, שֶׁאֵין אוֹכְלִין אֲפִיקוֹמָן בְּב' מְקוֹמוֹתנד אֲפִלּוּ לֹא אָכַל בַּמָּקוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן כְּזַיִת.נה,33

אֶלָּא אִם הֵם רוֹצִים יֵלְכוּ לְשָׁם קֹדֶם אֲכִילַת אֲפִיקוֹמָן, וְיֹאכְלוּ שָׁם הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן, וִיבָרְכוּ שָׁם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן34 וְהַלֵּל בְּזִמּוּן.נו

אוֹ יֹאכְלוּ הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן וִיבָרְכוּ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּבֵיתָם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵלְכוּ לְשָׁם אִם יִרְצוּ לוֹמַר הַלֵּלנז,35 בְּזִמּוּן שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים:

9 It is customary that the host who recites the Haggadah should [also] recite Grace36 on this night even if there is a guest.37 [This is derived from the exegesis of] the verse,38 “He of a generous eye will be blessed.” [יְבוֹרָך, “will be blessed,” is written as יְבֹרָך,] without a vav. Thus, it could be read as יְבָרֵך, “He shall bless.” On this basis, our Sages taught:39 “This [verse teaches] that [the privilege of] reciting the Grace after Meals should only be granted to a person with a generous eye. On this night, the host who recites the Haggadah is deemed as having a generous eye, for he declares:40 “All who are hungry, come and eat.”

Nevertheless, [if the host desires] he may grant another person permission to recite the Grace.

ט נָהֲגוּ שֶׁבַּעַל הַבַּיִת הָאוֹמֵר הַהַגָּדָה הוּא מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן36 בְּלַיְלָה זֶהנח אַף אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם אוֹרֵחַ,נט,37 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרס,38 (וְ)"טוֹב עַיִן הוּא יְבֹרָךְ" חָסֵר וָא"ו, כְּלוֹמַר "יְבָרֵךְ", וְלָמְדוּ חֲכָמִיםסא,39 מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין נוֹתְנִין לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁהוּא "טוֹב עַיִן",סב וּבְלַיְלָה זֶה נִקְרָא בַּעַל הַבַּיִת הָאוֹמֵר הַהַגָּדָה "טוֹב עַיִן", שֶׁאוֹמֵר40 "כֹּל דִּכְפִין יֵיתֵי וְיֵכוֹל".סג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יָכוֹל לִתֵּן רְשׁוּת לְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֵר:סד