SECTION 476 The Custom [that Applies Regarding] Eating Roasted [Meat] on Pesach Night (1-7)

סימן תעו מִנְהַג אֲכִילַת צָלִי בְּלֵיל פֶּסַח וּבוֹ ז' סְעִיפִים:

1 In a place where it is customary to eat roasted [meat] on Pesach night, one may eat it. [However,] in a place where it is customary not to eat [it on Pesach night, because eating roasted meat was forbidden] as a decree lest it be said that [the meat] is [from] the Pesach sacrifice, it is forbidden for people to deviate from the [local] custom.1

Moreover, even the descendants [of such people] are not permitted to deviate from their ancestors’ custom.2 Even [a newcomer] who comes to this place from a place where it is customary to eat [roasted meat on this night] is forbidden to eat [roasted meat on this night]. See sec. 468[:9].3 In these regions,4 it is customary not to eat [roasted meat on this night].

א מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לֶאֱכֹל בָּשָׂר צָלִי בְּלֵיל פֶּסַח – אוֹכְלִין. מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל,א מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ פֶּסַח הוּאב – אָסוּר לָהֶם לְשַׁנּוֹת מִנְהָגָם.1 וְאַף בְּנֵיהֶם אַחֲרֵיהֶם אֵינָן רַשָּׁאִין לְשַׁנּוֹת מִנְהַג אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם.ג,2 וְאַף מִי שֶׁבָּא לָדוּר שָׁם מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לֶאֱכֹל – אָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל, עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"ח.ד,3 וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ4 נָהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל:ה

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2 In all places, on this night, it is forbidden to eat goat kids that are mekulasin.5(The term mekulas means “dressed for battle,” i.e., while [the animal] is being roasted, its legs and its intestines hang above its head or at its sides, like an armed warrior whose iron helmet is on his head and his weaponry at his side). [The intent is] a goat kid or a lamb roasted whole (“its head with its legs and with its innards”),6 without any of its limbs missing. [This is forbidden] because it resembles the roasting of the Pesach sacrifice, which was roasted whole (with its legs and its intestines hanging outside of it). [One who eats the meat of a goat kid or lamb roasted in this manner] would appear as one who is eating the Pesach sacrifice outside [Jerusalem].

When, however, one roasts [a goat or a sheep] after it has been cut into pieces, or even if [its body is primarily intact], but one limb was cut off from its body before it was roasted7 – or one limb from its body was cooked while [its body was intact] and then he roasted the entire [body of the animal] while it was whole8 – this does not resemble the roasting of the Pesach sacrifice. Hence, it is permitted [to eat a goat or lamb prepared in this manner] in a place where it is customary to eat roasted meat on this night.

ב וּבְכָל מָקוֹם אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל בְּלַיְלָה זֶה גְּדָיִים הַמְקֻלָּסִיןו,5 (פֵּרוּשׁ "מְקֻלָּס" הוּא לְשׁוֹן מְזֻיָּן,ז שֶׁכְּרָעָיוח וּבְנֵי מֵעָיו בִּשְׁעַת צְלִיָּתוֹט הֵן תְּלוּיִן לְמַעְלָה מֵרֹאשׁוֹי אוֹ מִצִּדּוֹא כְּגִבּוֹר מְזֻיָּן שֶׁכּוֹבַע נְחֹשֶׁת לְמַעְלָה מֵרֹאשׁוֹיב וּכְלֵי זֵינוֹ בְּצִדּוֹיג), דְּהַיְנוּ גְּדִי אוֹ כֶּבֶשׂ צָלוּי כֻּלּוֹ כְּאֶחָדיד ("רֹאשׁוֹ עַל כְּרָעָיו וְעַל קִרְבּוֹ"טו,6), וְלֹא נֶחְסַר מִמֶּנּוּ שׁוּם אֵבֶר,טז שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה דּוֹמֶה לִצְלִיַּת הַפֶּסַח,יז שֶׁהָיָה נִצְלֶה כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׁלֵם כֻּלּוֹ כְּאֶחָד (וּכְרָעָיו וּבְנֵי מֵעָיו תְּלוּיִן חוּצָה לוֹיח), וִיהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּאוֹכֵל פֶּסַח בַּחוּץ.יט אֲבָל אִם צָלִָה אוֹתוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְחֻתָּךְ,כ אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר אֶלָּא שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ אֵבֶר אֶחָד מִגּוּפוֹ קֹדֶם הַצְּלִיָּה,כא,7 אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁלַק בּוֹ אֵבֶר אֶחָד כְּשֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּרכב וְאַחַר כָּךְ צָלִָה אוֹתוֹ כֻּלּוֹ כְּאֶחָד,8 הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לִצְלִיַּת הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לֶאֱכֹל צָלִי בְּלַיְלָה זֶה:כג

3 Even the meat of a calf or a fowl – [i.e., species] from which a Pesach sacrifice may not be brought – or from any other species that requires ritual slaughter may not be eaten while roasted in a place where it is customary not to eat [roasted meat.9 The rationale is that] people at large may err [and not distinguish] between one type of roasted meat and another, and will allow even roasted meat from lambs or goats [to be eaten], since all are varieties of meat. By contrast, [foods] that do not require ritual slaughter, for example, fish and eggs, are permitted to be eaten roasted [on Pesach night], because they do not resemble meat at all10 and [no one] will err regarding them.

ג אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׂר עֵגֶל וְעוֹף שֶׁאֵין הַפֶּסַח בָּא מֵהֶם, וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר הַטָּעוּן שְׁחִיטָה – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ צָלִי בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל,כד,9 לְפִי שֶׁהָעוֹלָם יִטְעוּ בֵּין צָלִי לְצָלִיכה וְיָבוֹאוּ לְהַתִּיר גַּם בָּשָׂר צָלוּי מִכְּבָשִׂים וְעִזִּים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַכֹּל מִין בָּשָׂר, אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ טָעוּן שְׁחִיטָה, כְּגוֹן דָּגִים וּבֵיצִים – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָם צְלוּיִים,כו לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן דּוֹמִין כְּלָל לְבָשָׂר10 וְלֹא יִטְעוּ בָּהֶם:

4 In a place where it is customary not to eat roasted meat [on Pesach] night, pot roast (i.e., meat roasted in a pot without any water or other liquids, but rather in its own juices) should be forbidden,11 because of the impression that might be created. True, [a pot roast] does not resemble the roasting of the Pesach sacrifice, because a Pesach sacrifice roasted in a pot is not acceptable. [Nevertheless, in such a place it should be forbidden] lest [an observer] err and permit meat roasted over a fire. For this reason, [this prohibition applies] even if [the meat] was first cooked in water and then roasted in a pot. Nevertheless, leniency may be granted for a person [if] he is [even] only slightly ill [and was advised by doctors to eat roasted meat], since there are authorities who permit pot roast.

However, if one roasts meat – even over a fire – and then cooked it, [the meat] is permitted,12 because the cooking cancels out the roasting. A Pesach sacrifice [prepared in this manner] is unacceptable.11

ד צְלִי קֵדָרכז (פֵּרוּשׁכח שֶׁנִּצְלָה בִּקְדֵרָה בְּלֹא מַיִם וְשׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה, אֶלָּא מִתְבַּשֵּׁל בַּמֹּהַל הַיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ), אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לִצְלִיַּת הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁהַפֶּסַח שֶׁנִּצְלָה בִּקְדֵרָה פָּסוּל,כט אַף עַל פִּי כֵן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל צָלִי – יֵשׁ לְאָסְרוֹ11 מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן, שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעוּ לְהַתִּיר גַּם צְלִי אֵשׁ. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם בִּשְּׁלוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה בְּמַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ עֲשָׂאוֹ צְלִי קֵדָר – יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר מִטַּעַם זֶה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה קְצָת יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בָּזֶה,ל כִּי יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּירלא צְלִי קֵדָר. אֲבָל אִם צְלָאוֹ אֲפִלּוּ צְלִי אֵשׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ בִּשְּׁלוֹ – מֻתָּר,לב,12 לְפִי שֶׁהַבִּשּׁוּל מְבַטֵּל אֶת הַצְּלִיָּה, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בְּפֶסַח פָּסוּל:לג,11

5 One must take care not to eat or drink excessively at the meal [served at the Seder] so that he will not eat the afikoman [when already] bloated,13 i.e., [he will not eat the afikoman] when he has no desire to eat at all, for then [the person] is not fulfilling the mitzvah in an optimum manner.14 True, the afikoman commemorates the Pesach sacrifice and the Pesach sacrifice was eaten when one was sated, i.e., after one had already [eaten to the point of] satiation. For this reason, the afikoman is eaten after having eaten the entire meal, as will be stated in sec. 477[:1, 3]. Nevertheless, one must have some desire to eat. If, however, one has no desire at all [to eat], but [nonetheless] eats, this is considered as eating when bloated and [in such an instance,] the mitzvah is not being fulfilled in an optimum manner. Nevertheless, one does fulfill his obligation when eating [the afikoman] in such a manner.

If, however, one is sated to the extent that he is disgusted by eating because he has already eaten so much, even if he would compel himself to eat, he would not fulfill his obligation when eating in this manner, because overeating in this manner is not considered eating at all,15 as will be explained in sec. 612[:6].16

ה יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל וְלֹא לִשְׁתּוֹת בִּסְעוּדָה זוֹ הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי,לד שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן בַּאֲכִילָה גַּסָּה,לה,13 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ תָּאֵב כְּלָל לֶאֱכֹל,לו שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה [מִצְוָה] מִן הַמֻּבְחָר,14 שֶׁאַף שֶׁהָאֲפִיקוֹמָן הוּא זֵכֶר לַפֶּסַח וְהַפֶּסַח הָיָה נֶאֱכָל עַל הַשֹּׂבַע, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהוּא שָׂבֵעַ כְּבָר, וְלָכֵן אוֹכְלִין הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן אַחַר גְּמַר כָּל הַסְּעוּדָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ז,לז מִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא לוֹ קְצָת תַּאֲוָה לֶאֱכֹל,לח אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְאַוֶּה כְּלָל וְאוֹכֵל – הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲכִילָה גַּסָּה, וְאֵין זוֹ מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר. אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ.לט

אֲבָל אִם שָׂבַע כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ קָצָה בַּאֲכִילָה מֵרֹב שָׂבְעוֹ, אַף שֶׁדּוֹחֵק אֶת עַצְמוֹ לֶאֱכֹל – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ, שֶׁאֲכִילָה גַּסָּה כָּזוֹ אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת אֲכִילָה כְּלָל,מ,15 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תרי"ב:מא,16

6 In some places, it is customary to eat eggs at this meal to recall the mourning over the destruction of the Beis HaMikdash, for in the era of [the Beis HaMikdash], the Pesach sacrifice was offered and eaten on this night.17 Therefore, at present, when there is no Pesach sacrifice, we mourn over it. For this reason, the egg is eaten on the second night as well.

ו נוֹהֲגִין בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת לֶאֱכֹל בֵּיצִים בַּסְּעוּדָה זֵכֶר לַאֲבֵלוּתמב חֻרְבַּן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁכְּשֶׁהָיָה קַיָּם הָיוּ מַקְרִיבִין פֶּסַחמג וְאוֹכְלִין בְּלַיְלָה זֶה,17 וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין לָנוּ פֶּסַחמד לָכֵן מִתְאַבְּלִין עַכְשָׁו עַל זֶה.מה וּמִזֶּה הַטַּעַם אוֹכְלִין בֵּיצִים גַּם בַּלַּיְלָה הַשֵּׁנִי:מו

7 There are some who follow the custom of not eating any food dipped [in liquid] on this night except the two [prescribed] dips: [a)] the first dipping before reciting the Haggadah, and [b)] the dipping of the maror in the charoses.18[This custom was instituted] so that it will be evident that these two dippings are being performed for the sake of a mitzvah.

ז יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל בְּלַיְלָה זֶה שׁוּם טִבּוּל רַק שְׁנֵי טִבּוּלִים אֵלּוּ,מז דְּהַיְנוּ טִבּוּל הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁקֹּדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה, וְטִבּוּל הַמָּרוֹר בַּחֲרֹסֶת,18 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִכָּרמח שֶׁשְּׁנֵי טִבּוּלִים אֵלּוּ הֵם לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה: