SECTION 474 A Blessing is not Recited on the Second Cup [of Wine] (1-3)

סימן תעד עַל כּוֹס שֵׁנִי אֵין מְבָרְכִין וּבוֹ ג' סְעִיפִים:

1 There are some who follow the custom not to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen on the second cup [of wine], because it was covered by [the blessing] Borei pri hagafen that was recited on the first cup. Similarly, [they maintain] that a blessing should not be recited on the fourth cup [of wine], because it was covered by the blessingthat was recited on the third cup.

[These authorities maintain that] even though one made a lengthy interruption [between the first and second cups of wine] with the recitation of the Haggadah and the Hallel, [nevertheless,] he did not divert his attention from drinking, since when he recited the blessing on the first cup [of wine], he knew that he would later drink a second cup. Similarly, when [the person] recited the blessing on the third cup [of wine], he knew that he would later drink the fourth cup. Also, when reciting the Haggadah, [the person] did not divert his attention from drinking, for, according to the fundamentals of the law, he could drink during the recitation of the Haggadah if he so desired.1

True, between the third [cup] and the fourth [cup], it is forbidden to drink.2 Nevertheless, since the cup is standing before [the person], and he intends to drink from it when he concludes the Haggadah, [it is not considered that] he diverted his attention from drinking. Therefore, he is not required to recite another blessing when drinking [the fourth cup].

[True, a person] is required to recite a blessing on the third cup [of wine] over which the Grace after Meals is recited, even though when he recited a blessing over the first cup [of wine], he intended to drink another three cups. [However, in that instance] the rationale [for reciting the additional blessing] is that [reciting] Grace marks the conclusion and the withdrawal from the meal that one ate.3 Thus, [Grace] is considered as an interruption and a diversion of attention from drinking, because [during its recitation] it is not possible for him to drink, since he cannot drink and speak4 at the same time.5 Reciting the Haggadah or the Hallel, by contrast, is not considered an interruption and a diversion of attention from drinking. [The rationale is that] even though one cannot drink and speak at the same time, [nevertheless,] what [the person] is now saying does not constitute a conclusion and withdrawal from [the drinking] that preceded it. (See sec. 178[:7].)

א יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִיןא שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל כּוֹס שֵׁנִי, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטַר בְּ"בוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן. וְכֵן לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס רְבִיעִי, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטַר בְּמַה שֶּׁבֵּרַךְ עַל כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִפְסִיק הַרְבֵּה בֵּינְתַיִם בַּאֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה וְהַלֵּל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין כָּאן הֶסַּח הַדַּעַת מִשְּׁתִיָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה עוֹד כּוֹס שֵׁנִי. וְכֵן כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה עוֹד כּוֹס רְבִיעִי. וְגַם בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁתִיָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה הָיָה יָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹת בְּאֶמְצַע הַהַגָּדָה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין.ב,1 וְאַף בֵּין שְׁלִישִׁי לִרְבִיעִי שֶׁאָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת,ג,2 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַכּוֹס עוֹמֵד לְפָנָיו וְדַעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ כְּשֶׁיְּסַיֵּם הַהַגָּדָה – הֲרֵי לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁתִיָּה, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל הַשְּׁתִיָּה.ד

וּמַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אַף עַל פִּי [שֶׁ]כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד ג' כּוֹסוֹת, הַטַּעַם הוּא: לְפִי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן הוּא גְּמַר וְסִלּוּק עַל הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁאָכַל3 – הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה כְּהֶפְסֵק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת מִשְּׁתִיָּה,ה כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁתּוֹת וּלְדַבֵּר4 כְּאֶחָד.ו,5 אֲבָל אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה וְהַהַלֵּל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּם כֵּן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת וּלְדַבֵּר כְּאֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת מִשְּׁתִיָּה, שֶׁאֲמִירָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ גְּמַר וְסִלּוּק עַל מַה שֶּׁקֹּדֶם לָכֵן (עַיֵּן סִימָן קע"חז):

2 In these regions,6 it is customary to also recite the blessing [Borei pri hagafen] on the second and fourth cups [of wine. The rationale is that] the Sages ordained that these four cups be drunk as an expression of freedom.7 Each one of them is an independent expression of freedom and a mitzvah in its own right.8 Therefore, none [of the four cups of wine] are combined with one another to be covered by a single blessing. Instead, a blessing must be recited over each one individually.

ב וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ6 נוֹהֲגִין לְבָרֵךְ גַּם עַל כּוֹס שֵׁנִי וּרְבִיעִי,ח לְפִי שֶׁד' כּוֹסוֹת אֵלּוּ תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים לִשְׁתּוֹתָם דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת,7 וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד הוּא חֵרוּת וּמִצְוָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ,ט וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לְהִפָּטֵר בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת,י אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ:8

3 All the above applies to the blessing recited before drinking [wine]. By contrast, the blessing recited after drinking wine should not be recited after any of the cups other than the last [one]. Even those authorities who maintain that [the recitation of] Hallel and the Haggadah are considered an interruption with regard to the blessing [recited] before drinking9 [agree] that they are not considered as an interruption with regard to the blessing recited after [drinking. Hence,] all of the cups [of wine] are covered by the blessing one recites after the last cup.

Even the Grace after Meals, which constitutes a conclusion and withdrawal from the meal [that one ate], and which is considered as an interruption and a diversion of attention with regard to the blessing [recited] before [drinking], nevertheless, [does not constitute an interruption with regard to the blessing recited after drinking].

[The rationale is that] diverting one’s attention [from eating or drinking] does not require a person to recite a blessing immediately after the food or the drink from which he diverted his attention. Instead, one may wait until he decides whether to eat or drink again and recite a blessing after the [final] eating or drinking, and that [blessing] will also cover [the initial eating and drinking], as explained in sec. 179[4-5].10

ג וְכָל זֶה לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, אֲבָל בְּרָכָה הָאַחֲרוֹנָה עַל הַיַּיִן – אֵין לְבָרֵךְ אַחַר שׁוּם כּוֹס, כִּי אִם אַחַר כּוֹס הָאַחֲרוֹן.יא וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהָאוֹמְרִיםיב שֶׁהַהַלֵּל וְהַהַגָּדָה חֲשׁוּבִים הֶפְסֵק לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה,9 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִים הֶפְסֵק,יג וְכָל הַכּוֹסוֹת נִפְטָרִין בִּבְרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ אַחַר כּוֹס הָאַחֲרוֹן.

וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁהוּא גְּמַר וְסִלּוּק עַל הַסְּעוּדָה וְחָשׁוּב כְּהֶפְסֵק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה,יד מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה אֵין הֶסַּח הַדַּעַת מַזְקִיק לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה מִיָּד אַחַר הָאֲכִילָה אוֹ הַשְּׁתִיָּה שֶׁהִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנָּה, אֶלָּא יָכוֹל לְהַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא נִמְלָךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל אוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת, וִיבָרֵךְ אַחַר אוֹתָהּ הָאֲכִילָה אוֹ שְׁתִיָּה וְיִפְטֹר גַּם אֶת זוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ט:טו,10