SECTION 473 The Laws [Governing] the First Cup [of Wine] and the Order of the Pesach Seder until the Second Cup [of Wine] (1-53)

סימן תעג דִּינֵי כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן וְסֵדֶר הַפֶּסַח עַד כּוֹס שֵׁנִי וּבוֹ נ"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 The first cup [of the four cups of wine] should be blended1 and the Kiddush for the [festival] should be recited over it. If possible,it is desirable that the master of the house not blend the wine himself; instead, another person should blend it for him.2 [Thus, that person will appear] as his servant, highlighting [the themes of] freedom and sovereignty in commemoration of the Exodus from Egypt.

א מוֹזֵג1 כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן וְאוֹמֵר עָלָיו קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם.א וְאִם אֶפְשָׁר טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא יִמְזֹג הַבַּעַל הַבַּיִת בְּעַצְמוֹ, אֶלָּא אַחֵר יִמְזֹג לוֹ,2 שֶׁיְּהֵא לוֹ כִּמְשָׁרְתוֹ, כְּלוֹמַר דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת וּשְׂרָרוּת, זֵכֶר לִיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם:ב

2 After concluding [the blessing of] Kiddush, before drinking from the cup, one should recite the blessing Shehecheyanu.3If one forgot to recite the blessing before he drank, he should recite it afterwards, immediately upon remembering.

[Moreover,] even if [the person] remembered [his omission] the following day, he should [immediately] recite the blessing, even [if he remembers when he is] in the middle of the marketplace.4 If he remembered after the onset of the second day of the festival observed in the Diaspora, [he should not recite a blessing for the first day. His obligation] is satisfied by [the blessing] Sheheche­yanu that he will recite over the cup [of wine] after the Kiddush [on the second night].5

If one forgot to recite Shehecheyanu during the Kiddush for the second night, he is obligated to recite the blessing whenever he remembers throughout the duration of [all] the seven days of the holiday, i.e., until the conclusion of the final festive day of Pesach observed in the Diaspora. [This ruling applies] even if one recited this blessing on the first night [of the holiday].6

ב לְאַחַר גְּמַר הַקִּדּוּשׁג קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה הַכּוֹס – מְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ".3 וְאִם שָׁכַח לְבָרֵךְ קֹדֶם הַשְּׁתִיָּה – יְבָרֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ מִיָּד כְּשֶׁנִּזְכַּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ נִזְכַּר לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם – יְבָרֵךְ,ד וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶמְצַע הַשּׁוּק.ה,4 וְאִם נִזְכַּר לְאַחַר שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ הַיּוֹם יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת – הֲרֵי הוּא נִפְטַר בְּ"שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹסו לְאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ.5 וְאִם שָׁכַח לְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" בְּקִדּוּשׁ לֵיל שֵׁנִי, אֲפִלּוּ אִם בֵּרַךְ כְּבָר בְּלֵיל רִאשׁוֹן – חַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ אֵימָתַי שֶׁנִּזְכַּר בְּכָל שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הֶחָג,ז דְּהַיְנוּ עַד סוֹף יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת:ח,6

3 If one forgot to recite Kiddush at night, he may compensate [by reciting it] on the following day, as [is the law] regarding the Kiddush for Shabbos.7On the following day, he should recite the blessing borei pri hagafen [over a cup of wine] and then recite the blessing of Kiddush “…asher bachar banu….8

By contrast, a person who forgot to recite the Haggadah [at night] cannot compensate [by reciting it] during the day. [This ruling is derived from] the verse,9 “It is for the sake of this….”[The word “this” refers to visible symbols of redemption. As will be explained,]10 the verse teaches [that the obligation applies] only when matzah and maror are placed before you.” [Moreover, the matzah and the maror must be present when the person is] obligated [to partake of them], i.e., on the first night [of the festival]. From this time onward, eating matzah is [not a mitzvah, but is] left to the person’s discretion.11

ג אִם שָׁכַח לְקַדֵּשׁ בַּלַּיְלָה – יֵשׁ לוֹ תַּשְׁלוּמִין לְמָחָרט כְּמוֹ בְּקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת, י,7 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלְּמָחָר בַּיּוֹם יְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַקִּדּוּשׁ "אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בָּנוּ כוּ'".8

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁשָּׁכַח לוֹמַר הַהַגָּדָה – אֵין לוֹ תַּשְׁלוּמִיןיא בַּיּוֹם,יב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַריג,9 "בַּעֲבוּר זֶה וְגוֹ'", "בַּעֲבוּר זֶה" – לֹא אָמַרְתִּי10 אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר מֻנָּחִים לְפָנֶיךָיד לְשֵׁם חוֹבָה, דְּהַיְנוּ בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן,טו אֲבָל מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ אֲכִילַת מַצָּה הִיא רְשׁוּת:טז,11

4 One should not wash his hands [ritually] before [reciting] Kiddush unless [he knows that] his hands are not clean.12 [This directive should be followed] even by those who are accustomed to [ritually] wash their hands for the meal on all festivals and Shabbasos before Kiddush.

[The proponents of this practice] maintain that Kiddush is not considered an interruption between washing and the meal, since [Kiddush] is necessary for the meal, as explained in sec. 271[:23.13 Nevertheless,] even [according to this view, the practice is not appropriate] on Pesach night when an extended interruption is made after Kiddush with the recitation of the Haggadah. During that [recitation, one] will divert his attention from watching his hands [and keeping them clean].14 Therefore, even if [a person] would wash his hands before Kiddush, this washing would not be at all effective, and he would have to wash his hands again for the meal after [reciting] the Haggadah.15

True, this washing would be effective in that [the person] would not have to wash his hands again after Kiddush before partaking of the vegetable dipped in liquid,16 as will be explained,17 for whenever a food is dipped in liquid, [a person must] wash his hands without reciting a blessing, as stated in sec. 158[:3]. Nevertheless, it is preferable that one wash his hands after Kiddush [directly] before the dipping. [The rationale is that] if one will [ritually] wash [his hands] before Kiddush, it is possible that some of the common people will err and recite a blessing over this washing.18 They will think that this washing [of their hands] is the same as all other [hand] washings that are performed before Kiddush on festivals and Shabbasos, for which the blessing Al netilas yadayim is recited.

ד אֵין לִטֹּל הַיָּדַיִם קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁיז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵין יָדָיו נְקִיּוֹת.יח,12

וְאַף הַנּוֹהֲגִים בְּכָל יָמִים טוֹבִים וְשַׁבָּתוֹת לִטֹּל הַיָּדַיִם לַסְּעוּדָה קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁסּוֹבְרִין שֶׁהַקִּדּוּשׁ אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב הֶפְסֵק בֵּין נְטִילַת יָדַיִם לַסְּעוּדָה הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מִצָּרְכֵי הַסְּעוּדָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"א,יט,13 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּלֵיל פֶּסַח שֶׁמַּפְסִיקִין הַרְבֵּה אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁכ בַּאֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה וּבְתוֹךְ כָּךְ מַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁמִירַת יָדָיו,14 לְפִיכָךְ אַף אִם יִטֹּל יָדָיו קֹדֶם הַקִּדּוּשׁ – אֵין נְטִילָה זוֹ שָׁוָה כְּלוּם, וְיִצְטָרֵךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִטֹּל יָדָיו לַסְּעוּדָה אַחַר הַהַגָּדָה.כא,15

וְאַף שֶׁנְּטִילָה זוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִטֹּל יָדָיו אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ קֹדֶם אֲכִילַת יְרָקוֹת שֶׁמְּטַבֵּל אוֹתָם בְּמַשְׁקֶהכב,16 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,כג,17 וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁטִּבּוּלוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֶה צָרִיךְ נְטִילַת יָדַיִם בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קנ"ח,כד,17 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יוֹתֵר טוֹב שֶׁיִּטֹּל יָדָיו אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ קֹדֶם הַטִּבּוּל, שֶׁאִם יִטֹּל קֹדֶם הַקִּדּוּשׁ – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִטְעוּ מִקְצַת הֶהָמוֹן וִיבָרְכוּ עַל נְטִילָה זוֹ,18 לְפִי שֶׁיִּדְמֶה בְּעֵינֵיהֶם נְטִילָה זוֹ שָׁוָה לִשְׁאָר נְטִילוֹת שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין קֹדֶם הַקִּדּוּשׁ בְּכָל יָמִים טוֹבִים וְשַׁבָּתוֹת, שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם":כה

5 If [Pesach] falls on Shabbos, it is customary [for the head of the household] to recite [the passage] Vay’chulu before Kiddush19in order to fulfill the obligation20 of his sons and the members of his household who were not in the synagogue and did not hear [this passage] when it was recited by the congregation after [the Shemoneh Esreh].21

(See sec. 275[:10, which states that] it is permitted to recite the Haggadah [on Pesach that falls on Shabbos] by candlelight.)22

ה אִם חָל בְּשַׁבָּת נוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר "וַיְכֻלּוּ"כו קֹדֶם הַקִּדּוּשׁ,כז,19 כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא20 אֶת בָּנָיו וְאֶת בְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹכח שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ כְּשֶׁאָמְרוּ הַצִּבּוּר "וַיְכֻלּוּ" אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה.כט,21

(וְעַיֵּן בְּסִימָן ער"הל שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹמַר הַהַגָּדָה לְאוֹר הַנֵּר):22

6 If [Pesach] falls on Saturday night, Havdalah23must be recited after Kiddush.24If the person has a light,25 he should recite the blessing over it before [reciting] Havdalah, [but] after [reciting] Kiddush. After Havdalah, he should recite the blessing Shehecheyanu.24 Thus, the order of the blessings is YaKNaHaZ.26

(If one changed the order [of the blessings] and recited those [to be recited] later earlier and those [to be recited] earlier later, he has fulfilled his obligation and should not recite the blessings again [in the correct order].27 The [only] exception is if one recited Kiddush before the blessing over the wine. [In that instance, the person] must recite the blessing of Kiddush again because he followed the opinion of the School of Shammai rather than that of the School of Hillel,28 and whenever a person follows the instructions of the School of Shammai [instead of the instructions of the School of Hillel], he does not fulfill his obligation.)29 (See sec. 298.)30

Whenever a festival begins on Saturday night, the blessing over the [aromatic] spices is not recited [during Havdalah as is the ordinary practice.31 The rationale is that the reason] a blessing is recited over [aromatic] spices every Saturday night is to revive the soul which is aggrieved over the departure of the Shabbos32 because of the loss of the extra soul that was taken from it.33 [However, when] a festival [begins on Saturday night], there is no need for spices because the pleasure and joy [generated by] the festival revive the soul.

ו אִם חָל בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַבְדָּלָה23 לְאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ,24 וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ נֵרלא,25 יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיולב קֹדֶם הַהַבְדָּלָה לְאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ, וְאַחַר הַהַבְדָּלָה יְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ",24 נִמְצָא סֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת: יקנה"ז.לג,26

(וְאִם שִׁנָּה הַסֵּדֶר שֶׁהִקְדִּים הַמְאֻחָר וְאֵחֵר הַמֻּקְדָּם – יָצָא, וְלֹא יַחֲזֹר וִיבָרֵךְ,27 חוּץ מֵאִם הִקְדִּים הַקִּדּוּשׁ לְבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַקִּדּוּשׁלד לְפִי שֶׁעָשָׂה כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי כְּנֶגֶד דִּבְרֵי בֵּית הִלֵּל,לה,28 וְכָל הָעוֹשֶׂה כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹלו,29). (עַיֵּן סִימָן רח"צלז,30).

אֲבָל אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הַבְּשָׂמִים בְּכָל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב,לח,31 לְפִי שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל הַבְּשָׂמִים בְּכָל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת הוּא כְּדֵי לְהָשִׁיב אֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ שֶׁהִיא דּוֹאֶבֶת לִיצִיאַת הַנֶּפֶשׁלט הַשַּׁבָּת32 מֵחֲמַת נְשָׁמָה הַיְתֵרָה שֶׁנִּטְּלָה מִמֶּנּוּ,מ,33 וּבְיוֹם טוֹב אֵין צָרִיךְ לִבְשָׂמִים, שֶׁתַּעֲנוּג יוֹם טוֹב וְשִׂמְחָתוֹ מֵשִׁיב אֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ:מא

7 [The following laws apply] if one forgot to recite Havdalah [after Kiddush] and did not remember until after he began [reciting] the Haggadah: He should complete the Haggadah until after the blessing ga’al Yisrael. [After concluding that blessing, the person] should not drink the cup [of wine over which that blessing is recited] immediately. Instead, he should recite the blessing over the light and the [blessing of] Havdalah over [that cup of wine,] and then drink it.

True, two [different]34 mitzvos should not be performed over the same cup [of wine],35 as explained in sec. 271[:12-13].36 Nevertheless, in this instance, there is no alternative. Were [the person] to recite Havdalah on a cup [of wine] in the middle of [the recitation of] the Haggadah, he would have to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen on that cup [of wine] according to the custom in these regions, that the blessing recited over the first cup [of wine] does not exempt one from reciting a blessing on the second cup, as will be explained in sec. 474[:1-2].37 If so, [by reciting a blessing over the cup of wine over which Havdalah is recited,] the person will appear to be adding to the number of cups [of wine] the Sages ordained [to drink at the Seder].38

(The same law applies if [a person] remembers [that he failed to recite Havdalah] before [he begins] reciting the Haggadah, [i.e.,]immediately after drinking the first cup [of wine over which] Kiddush was recited, before partaking of the vegetable that is dipped.39 He should not immediately pour a second cup [of wine] to recite Havdalah on it so that he will not add to the [number of] cups [of wine] the Sages ordained [to drink at the Seder. Instead,] it is preferable that he taste the vegetable before [reciting] Havdalah40and [then] recite the entire Haggadah until after [the blessing] ga’al Yisrael. [After concluding that blessing,] he should recite the blessing over the light and the Havdalah, and then drink the cup [of wine].)41

If [the person] did not remember until he was in the midst of the meal, he must interrupt his meal immediately42 after he remembered and recite Havdalah over a cup [of wine]. He should not recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen unless he [specifically] had in mind not to drink additional wine during the meal when he recited Borei pri hagafen on the second cup [of wine].43 See sec. 299[:4]44 and sec. 174[:5,45 ]which deal with relevant matters].

(The same law applies if [a person] remembers [that he failed to recite Havdalah]immediately after drinking the second cup [of wine]. He should immediately46 pour a third cup [of wine] and recite Havdalah on it. He should not recite the blessing [Borei pri hagafen]unless he [specifically] had in mind not to drink other wine during the meal or before the meal when he recited [Borei pri hagafen]on the second cup.)43

If he did not remember [his omission of Havdalah] {47until after he finished his meal, i.e., [until] after he ate the afikoman, he should not recite Havdalah over a cup [of wine] before reciting the Grace after Meals, so that it will not appear as is if he is adding to the number of cups [of wine the Sages ordained to be drunk at the Seder].38 The Sages ordained that two cups be drunk after the meal and he would be drinking three. (By contrast, in the midst [of the meal, drinking a cup of wine] would not be [considered] adding [to the four cups], since [the Sages] did not ordain at all [that any of the four cups be drunk during the meal].)48 Instead, [in the above instance, a person] should wait until after [reciting] Grace after Meals and then recite the blessing over the light and the Havdalah, and then drink the cup [of wine over which] Grace [was recited].49

If [the person] did not remember} until after he drank the cup [of wine over which] Grace [was recited], he should wait until he completes reciting Hallel and the Haggadah. [Only] then should he recite Havdalah on [his] fourth cup of wine.50

(If [the person] did not remember until after he drank the fourth cup [of wine], he should recite Havdalah over a fifth cup because [at this point] there is no alternative.)51

ז אִם שָׁכַח לְהַבְדִּיל וְלֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁהִתְחִיל הַהַגָּדָה – יַשְׁלִים הַהַגָּדָה עַד לְאַחַר "גָּאַל יִשְׂרָאֵל"מב וְלֹא יִשְׁתֶּה הַכּוֹס מִיָּד, אֶלָּא יֹאמַר עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַנֵּר וְהַהַבְדָּלָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׁתֶּנּוּ.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין שְׁתֵּי מִצְוֹת34 עַל כּוֹס אֶחָדמג,35 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"א,מד,36 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן אִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר, שֶׁאִם יַבְדִּיל עַל הַכּוֹס בְּאֶמְצַע הַהַגָּדָה – יִצְטָרֵךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל כּוֹס הַהוּא, לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁבִּרְכַּת כּוֹס הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵינָהּ פּוֹטֶרֶת מִלְּבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹס הַשֵּׁנִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ד,מה37 וְאִם כֵּן יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל מִנְיַן הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים.מו,38

(וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם נִזְכַּר קֹדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה, מִיָּד לְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁתָה כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ, קֹדֶם שֶׁאָכַל הַיְרָקוֹת שֶׁל טִבּוּל39 – לֹא יִמְזֹג מִיָּד כּוֹס שֵׁנִי לְהַבְדִּיל עָלָיו, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מוֹסִיף עַל הַכּוֹסוֹת. וּמוּטָב לִטְעֹם הַיְרָקוֹת קֹדֶם הַהַבְדָּלָה,40 וְלוֹמַר כָּל הַהַגָּדָה עַד לְאַחַר "גָּאַל יִשְׂרָאֵל", וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹאמַר בִּרְכַּת הַנֵּר וְהַהַבְדָּלָה, וְיִשְׁתֶּה הַכּוֹס).41

וְאִם לֹא נִזְכַּר עַד תּוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק בְּאֶמְצַע אֲכִילָתוֹ מִיָּד שֶׁנִּזְכַּר42 וּלְהַבְדִּיל עַל הַכּוֹס, וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל כּוֹס הַשֵּׁנִי הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד יַיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,מז,43 עַיֵּן סִימָן רצ"טמח,44 וְקע"ד.מט,45

(וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם נִזְכַּר מִיָּד לְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁתָה כּוֹס הַשֵּׁנִי – צָרִיךְ לִמְזֹג מִיָּד46 כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי וְיַבְדִּיל עָלָיו, וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו,נ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל כּוֹס הַשֵּׁנִי הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד יַיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה וְלֹא קֹדֶם הַסְּעוּדָהנא,43).

וְאִם לֹא נִזְכַּר (47עַד לְאַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעוּדָה, דְּהַיְנוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁאָכַל אֲפִיקוֹמָן – לֹא יַבְדִּיל עַל הַכּוֹס קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא כְּמוֹסִיף עַל הַכּוֹסוֹת,38 שֶׁחֲכָמִים תִּקְּנוּ שְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת אַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה וְהוּא יִשְׁתֶּה שְׁלֹשָׁה (מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בָּאֶמְצַע שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ כְּלוּם – אֵין כָּאן הוֹסָפָהנב,48), אֶלָּא יַמְתִּין עַד לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁאָז יֹאמַר בִּרְכַּת הַנֵּר וְהַהַבְדָּלָה, וְיִשְׁתֶּה הַכּוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.49 וְאִם לֹא נִזְכַּר) עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁתָה כּוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – יַמְתִּין עַד לְאַחַר גְּמַר הַהַלֵּל וְהַהַגָּדָה, וְאָז יַבְדִּיל עַל כּוֹס הָרְבִיעִי.נג,50

(וְאִם לֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁתָה כּוֹס רְבִיעִי – יַבְדִּיל עַל כּוֹס חֲמִישִׁי,נד כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר51):

8 It is customary to stand when reciting Havdalah every Saturday night in deference to the king52 whom we are escorting. Nevertheless, when a festival falls on Saturday night, since Havdalah is recited during Kiddush, Havdalah should be recited while seated, as Kiddush is.53 See sec. 271[:19].

ח אַף שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לַעֲמֹד בִּשְׁעַת הַבְדָּלָה בְּכָל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת לִכְבוֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ52 שֶׁאָנוּ מְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ,נה מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּהַבְדָּלָה שֶׁבְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב, הוֹאִיל וְאוֹמְרִים אוֹתָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הַקִּדּוּשׁ – אוֹמְרִים אוֹתָהּ מְיֻשָּׁב כְּמוֹ הַקִּדּוּשׁ,נו,53 עַיֵּן סִימָן רע"א:נז

9 [When reciting] Havdalah when a festival falls on Saturday night, one should conclude [with] the blessing HaMavdil bein kodesh lekodesh [“…Who distinguishes between ]one[ holy [day] and another”].54 Since it is necessary to include a phrase that reflects the conclusion [of a blessing] before concluding it,55 [the Sages ordained56] to add the phrase, “You distinguished between the holiness of Shabbos and the holiness of the festival.” Thus, according to the fundamentals of the law, the text of Havdalah should read:

…Who distinguishes between the holy and the mundane, between light and darkness, between Israel and the nations. You distinguished between the holiness of Shabbos and the holiness of the festival. Blessed are You, G‑d, Who distinguishes between one holy [day] and another.

There is no need to [include the phrase], “between the seventh day and the six days of work,” because [this phrase] was included in the Havdalah [on Saturday night] only to reflect the conclusion [of a blessing] before concluding that blessing,55 as explained in sec. 296.57 When, however, a festival falls on Saturday night and [the blessing of Havdalah]concludes [“…Who distinguishes] between one holy [day] and another,” [the Sages] ordained to recite, “You distinguished between the holiness of Shabbos…” before the conclusion [of the blessing and thus,] it is no longer necessary to say, “between the seventh day….”

In these later generations,58 it has become the custom to [conclude the blessing]:

…between the seventh day [and the six days]…. You distinguished between the holiness of Shabbos and the holiness of the festival and You sanctified the seventh day [more than] the six days of work. You distinguished and sanctified Your nation Israel in Your holiness. Blessed are You, G‑d, Who distinguishes between [one] holy [day] and another.

The reason for [reciting this version] is that the Sages said59 that with regard to all [wording used] for Havdalah on all Saturday nights, on all the nights following festivals, and whenever a festival falls on Saturday night, that at the very least, one should not mention less than three distinctions – a) “between the holy and the mundane, b) between light and darkness, and c) between Israel and the nations.” [“Between the seventh day…” and “between the holiness of Shabbos…” are not [counted] among the three distinctions. [The rationale is that] they are being mentioned only so that there is [a phrase that] reflects the conclusion [of the blessing] before the conclusion of that blessing.

One who desires60 to mention more distinctions [made by G‑d] may add up to seven [distinctions], corresponding to the seven heavens.61 Therefore, when a festival falls on Saturday night, due to the obligations62 of the day, it became customary to add to the distinctions [mentioned], so that seven distinctions would be mentioned on [at least] one occasion.63 [The seven distinctions mentioned include] the three recited on every Saturday night and after every festival.64 The fourth is “between the seventh day….” [In this instance, this phrase] is counted since it is not being mentioned in proximity to the conclusion [of the blessing].

The fifth is “[You distinguished] between the holiness of Shabbos [and the holiness of the festivals] and You sanctified the seventh day from the six days of work.” [The latter phrase refers to] Chol HaMoed. [This entire clause is counted as] one distinction [because it states that] Shabbos is distinguished both from the festivals and from Chol HaMoed.

“You distinguished and sanctified [Your nation Israel in Your holiness” reflects] two distinctions – between kohanim and Levites [and] between Levites and Israelites. These two distinctions also reflect the conclusion [of the blessing], which is “[Who distinguishes] between one holy [day] and another.”65

ט בְּהַבְדָּלָה שֶׁבְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב צָרִיךְ לַחְתֹּם: "הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְקֹדֶשׁ".נח,54 וּלְפִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר מֵעֵין חֲתִימָה סָמוּךְ לַחֲתִימָה,נט,55 לְפִיכָךְ הוֹסִיפוּ לוֹמַר:56 "בֵּין קְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת לִקְדֻשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב הִבְדַּלְתָּ".ס נִמְצָא נֹסַח הַבְדָּלָה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין הוּא: "הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְחוֹל, בֵּין אוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ, בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל לָעַמִּים,סא בֵּין קְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת לִקְדֻשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב הִבְדַּלְתָּ, בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְקֹדֶשׁ".

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "בֵּין יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לְשֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה", שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּהַבְדָּלָה שֶׁבְּכָל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב אֵין אוֹמְרִים "בֵּין יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לְשֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה" אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֵעֵין חֲתִימָה סָמוּךְ לַחֲתִימָהסב,55 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רצ"ו,סג,57 וּבְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחוֹתְמִין "בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְקֹדֶשׁ" וְקָבְעוּ לוֹמַר "בֵּין קְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת וְכוּ'" סָמוּךְ לַחֲתִימָה – שׁוּב אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר: "בֵּין יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כוּ'".סד

וּבַדּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִיםסה,58 נָהֲגוּ לוֹמַר: "בֵּין יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כוּ' בֵּין קְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת לִקְדֻשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב הִבְדַּלְתָּ, וְאֶת יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה קִדַּשְׁתָּ, הִבְדַּלְתָּ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֶת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּקְדֻשָּׁתֶךָ,סו בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' הַמַּבְדִּיל כוּ'".

וְהַטַּעַם הוּא,סז לְפִי שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִיםסח,59 בְּהַבְדָּלוֹת שֶׁבְּכָל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב וּמִמּוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב: "הַפּוֹחֵת – לֹא יִפְחֹת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ הַבְדָּלוֹת", דְּהַיְנוּ "בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְחוֹל" אַחַת, "בֵּין אוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ" שְׁתַּיִם, "בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל לָעַמִּים" שָׁלֹשׁ, חוּץ מִן "בֵּין יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כוּ'", אוֹ "בֵּין קְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת כוּ'", שֶׁהֵן אֵינָן מִמִּנְיַן הַשָּׁלֹשׁ הַהַבְדָּלוֹת, שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים אוֹתָם אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֵעֵין הַחֲתִימָה סָמוּךְ לַחֲתִימָה, וּמִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה60 לְהוֹסִיף בְּהַבְדָּלוֹת יָכוֹל לְהוֹסִיף עַד שִׁבְעָה,סט כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעָה רְקִיעִים,ע,61 וּלְפִיכָךְ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב מֵחֲמַת חוֹבַת הַיּוֹםעא,62 נָהֲגוּ לְהוֹסִיף בְּהַבְדָּלוֹת כְּדֵי לוֹמַר פַּעַם אַחַת שִׁבְעָה הַבְדָּלוֹת,63 דְּהַיְנוּ שָׁלֹשׁ שֶׁבְּכָל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב,64 רְבִיעִית "בֵּין יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כוּ'",עב דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחֲתִימָה הוּא עוֹלֶה מִן הַמִּנְיָן, חֲמִישִׁית "בֵּין קְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת כוּ', וְאֶת יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה", דְּהַיְנוּ מֵחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד – "קִדַּשְׁתָּ", וְהַכֹּל הַבְדָּלָה אַחַת, שֶׁהַשַּׁבָּת מֻבְדָּל מִיּוֹם טוֹב וּמֵחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,עג "הִבְדַּלְתָּ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ כוּ'" – הֵן שְׁתֵּי הַבְדָּלוֹת, בֵּין כֹּהֲנִים לִלְוִיִּם בֵּין לְוִיִּם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּשְׁתֵּי הַבְדָּלוֹת אֵלּוּ הֵן מֵעֵין חֲתִימָה, שֶׁהִיא בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְקֹדֶשׁ:עד,65

10 One should not recite the blessing [usually] recited after [partaking of wine] after [drinking] the first cup. [This ruling applies] even if one drank a reviis or more,66 [and regardless of] whether he drank wine or other beverages that are “the wine of the region.”67 [The rationale is that] the cup of [wine over which] Kiddush [is recited] is necessary for the meal68 and is considered as [one of the foods] that come for the sake of the meal. [Such foods] do not require the recitation of a blessing after [partaking of them] because they are subordinate to the meal and are thus covered by the Grace recited after the meal, as explained in sec. 174[:8]69 and sec. 177[:1].70 Moreover, [this cup of wine] is covered by the blessing [recited] after the fourth cup [of wine]. Even if [the person] drank much [wine] in the interim [between the first cup and the fourth cup], it is of no consequence.

([The rationale is that] as long as [the wine] was not digested by the person, he may [still] recite the blessing [generally recited] after [partaking of wine], as stated in sec. 184[:1, 3], and as long as the stomach is open,71 [what he ate or drank previously] will not have been digested, as explained in that source.)72

י אַחַר כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן לֹא יְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָהעה אֲפִלּוּ שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית וְיוֹתֵר,66 בֵּין שֶׁהוּא יַיִן בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁהֵם חֲמַר מְדִינָה,עו,67 לְפִי שֶׁהַכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ הוּא מִצָּרְכֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,עז,68 וַהֲרֵי הוּא כַּדְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִים בְּרָכָה לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם, לְפִי שֶׁהֵם טְפֵלִים לַסְּעוּדָה וְנִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה,עח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"דעט,69 וְקע"ז.פ,70

וְעוֹד, שֶׁהוּא נִפְטָר בִּבְרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ אַחַר כּוֹס רְבִיעִי.פא וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשּׁוֹתֶהפב הַרְבֵּה בֵּינְתַיִם – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם (שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעַכֵּל בְּמֵעָיו יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ד,פג וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁהָאִצְטוֹמְכָא פְּתוּחָה71 לֶאֱכֹל אֵינוֹ מִתְעַכֵּל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם72):

11 According to the fundamentals of the law, if an individual desires to drink several cups [of wine] – whether immediately after Kiddush or whether in the middle of the [recitation of the] Haggadah, before beginning the blessing asher g’alanu –he has license to do so.73 Nevertheless, it is appropriate not to drink wine or any other intoxicating beverage before finishing the Haggadah and drinking the second cup of wine unless [he feels] a great need [to drink], lest he become intoxicated and be prevented from reading the Haggadah.74

Nevertheless, after one has drunk the second cup [of wine], he may drink [more] wine – either a lot or a little – even before the meal.73 True, it was explained in sec. 471[:2], that it is forbidden to drink a small amount of wine on the day before Pesach, because if one drinks a small amount of wine, it satiates the heart75 and he will not eat matzah at night with an appetite. Nevertheless, at this time, since [the person] already drank two cups [of wine – the cup] over which Kiddush [was recited and the cup] over which the Haggadah [was recited] – even if he drinks only a little more, when combined with these two cups, it is considered as if he drank a large amount [of wine, and drinking a large amount of wine] intensifies a person’s desire for food.76 By contrast, when one drinks a small amount [of wine] on the day before Pesach, that small amount is not combined with these two cups so that it would be considered that he drank a large amount [of wine], since there is ample time in the interim [for any of the initial effects of the wine to wear off].

יא אִם רוֹצֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת כַּמָּה כּוֹסוֹת,פד בֵּין מִיָּד לְאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ בֵּין בְּאֶמְצַע הַהַגָּדָהפה קֹדֶם שֶׁהִתְחִיל בִּרְכַּת "אֲשֶׁר גְּאָלָנוּ כוּ'"פו – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹפז מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין.73 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן רָאוּי לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִןפח וְלֹא שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה הַמְשַׁכֵּרפט קֹדֶם שֶׁסִּיֵּם הַהַגָּדָה וְשָׁתָה כּוֹס שֵׁנִי אִם לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתַּכֵּר וְיִמָּנַע מִקְּרִיאַת הַהַגָּדָה.74

אֲבָל לְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁתָה כּוֹס שֵׁנִי יָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן הֵן רַב הֵן מְעַט אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם הַסְּעוּדָה.73 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"א צ שֶׁאָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן מְעַט בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִפְּנֵי [שֶׁ]כְּשֶׁהוּא שׁוֹתֶה מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט הוּא סוֹעֵד אֶת הַלֵּב75 וְלֹא יֹאכַל בַּלַּיְלָה מַצָּה לְתֵאָבוֹן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַכְשָׁו שֶׁשּׁוֹתֶה ב' כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ וְשֶׁל הַהַגָּדָה, אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹתֶה עוֹד מְעַט – הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא הַרְבֵּה עִם שְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ וְגוֹרֵר אֶת תַּאֲוַת הַמַּאֲכָל.צא,76 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹתֶה מְעַט בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח – אֵין אוֹתוֹ הַמְעַט מִצְטָרֵף עִם שְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ לִהְיוֹת נִקְרָא הַרְבֵּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ שְׁהוּת הַרְבֵּה בֵּינְתַיִם:צב

12 All the above applies in an instance where [the person] would not be required to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen over [the wine] he desires to drink, for example, at the time he recited the blessing over the first or the second cup of wine, he had in mind to drink additional wine afterwards, either during the meal or beforehand.77 If, however, [the person] did not have in mind to drink more wine [when he recited the blessing], and changed his mind afterwards [and desires to] drink more [wine] (before the meal), [the rule is as follows:] Since he would have to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen over [the wine that he would drink now] as he would do for all four cups according to the custom in these regions,78 [by drinking this additional amount,] it [would] appear that he is adding to the number of cups [the Sages ordained to be drunk at the Seder].

יב וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל מַה שֶּׁרוֹצֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת,צג כְּגוֹן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל כּוֹס הָרִאשׁוֹן אוֹ הַשֵּׁנִי הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד יַיִןצד אַחַר כָּךְ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אוֹ קֹדֶם הַסְּעוּדָה.77 אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד יַיִן וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד (קֹדֶם הַסְּעוּדָה),צה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן"צו כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל ד' כּוֹסוֹתצז לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּצח,78 – הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל מִנְיַן הַכּוֹסוֹת:

13 Nevertheless, it is permitted to drink other beverages [while one is reciting the Haggadah], even when he would be required to recite a blessing over them,79 since he does not appear to be adding to the number of cups [the Sages ordained to be drunk at the Seder], since the four cups consist of wine [and these other beverages are not wine].

[However,] in places where other beverages are deemed “the wine of the region,”67 (even though [the person] is drinking wine for the four cups,80 nevertheless,) if the situation is such that he is required to recite a blessing on what he desires to drink, he is forbidden to drink other [beverages] unless the beverage is not [considered] “the wine of the region.”81

יג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין אַף שֶׁהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם,79 שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל הַכּוֹסוֹת, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַד' כּוֹסוֹת הֵן שֶׁל יַיִן.צט וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁשְּׁאָר מַשְׁקִין הֵם חֲמַר מְדִינָה67 (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹתֶה ד' כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן80 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן) אָסוּר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד כִּי אִם הַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ חֲמַר מְדִינָה אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל מַה שֶּׁרוֹצֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד:ק,81

14 After drinking the first cup [of wine], each and every person must eat a small amount82 of vegetables after dipping them,83 i.e., one should dip [his vegetables] in vinegar, salt water,84 or other dips. If he does not have [such dips], he should dip them in charoses.85

Why did the Sages ordain this practice? To arouse the children’s wonderment.86 They will see the deviation [from the ordinary practice] – that vegetables are being eaten after being dipped, [even though] throughout the year, [vegetables] are not eaten before the meal – and they will question this deviation [from the norm].

[Their questions are desirable] because it is a mitzvah [for the parent] to relate the Haggadah as a response to the questions asked of him [by the children],87 as [indicated by] the verse,88 “When your child will ask you… and you shall tell your child, ‘We were slaves….’ ”

יד אַחַר שֶׁשָּׁתוּ כּוֹס רִאשׁוֹן – צָרִיךְ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָדקא לֶאֱכֹל מְעַטקב,82 יְרָקוֹת בְּטִבּוּל,קג,83 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּטְבְּלֶנּוּ בְּחֹמֶץ אוֹ בְּמֵי מֶלַחקד,84 אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מִינֵי טִבּוּלִים.קה וְאִם אֵין לוֹ – יִטְבְּלֶנּוּ בַּחֲרֹסֶת.קו,85

וְלָמָּה תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים דָּבָר זֶה? כְּדֵי לְהַתְמִיהַּ אֶת הַתִּינוֹקוֹת,86 שֶׁיִּרְאוּ שִׁנּוּי שֶׁאוֹכְלִין יְרָקוֹת בְּטִבּוּל שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְאָכְלָם קֹדֶם הַסְּעוּדָה בְּכָל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ עַל שִׁנּוּי זֶה,קז שֶׁאֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה מִצְוָתָהּ לְאָמְרָהּ דֶּרֶךְ תְּשׁוּבָה עַל שְׁאֵלוֹת שֶׁשְּׁאָלוּהוּ,קח,87 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקט,88 "כִּי יִשְׁאָלְךָ בִנְךָ וְגוֹ', וְאָמַרְתָּ לְבִנְךָ עֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ וְגוֹ'":

15 Since [the vegetable is being] eaten solely to arouse wonderment among the children, it is therefore unnecessary [to eat] an olive-sized portion89 as [is required] whenever the Torah mentions eating,90 since anything less than [this amount] is not considered as eating. [Here, however, the situation is different, since eating] even the slightest amount is sufficient to arouse wonderment among the children.

(Even [a person] who is sitting alone [and performing the Seder] without any children to ask him is also obligated [to eat] this dipped [vegetable],91 because the Sages did not make any distinctions [regarding their ordinances].)92

טו וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֲכִילָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא לְהַתְמִיהַּ אֶת הַתִּינוֹקוֹת,קי לְפִיכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ כְּזַיִתקיא,89 כִּשְׁאָר אֲכִילוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה90 שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת אֲכִילָה בְּפָחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת,קיב אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ דַּי לְהַתְמִיהַּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת.קיג

(וְאַף מִי שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב יְחִידִי וְאֵין לְפָנָיו תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁיִּשְׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹקיד – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חַיָּב בְּטִבּוּל זֶה,קטו,91 שֶׁלֹּא חִלְּקוּ חֲכָמִים92):

16 It is customary to seek out the vegetable called karpas [(כרפס) for this practice]93 (ipach in Yiddish)94 because it serves as an acronym for [the Hebrew words] ס' פרך [meaning “sixty back-breaking labor,”] i.e., sixty myriads [600,000] performed back-breaking labor.

If one cannot obtain karpas, he should take any other type of vegetable that he desires95 as long as it is not [one of the types] of vegetable with which one could fulfill the obligation [to eat] maror.96 [The rationale is that] were one to eat [one of those vegetables] now, how could he [later], in the midst of the meal, recite the blessing [praising G‑d] “…Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to eat maror,”when he has already partaken of [maror] beforehand?95

טז וְנוֹהֲגִין לַחֲזֹר אַחַר יָרָק הַנִּקְרָא "כַּרְפַּס"93 (איפ"ך בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז94), לְפִי שֶׁהוּא נוֹטְרִיקוֹן "ס' פֶּרֶךְ", כְּלוֹמַר שִׁשִּׁים רִבּוֹא עָבְדוּ עֲבוֹדַת פֶּרֶךְ.קטז

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ כַּרְפַּס – יִקַּח יָרָק אַחֵר מֵאֵיזֶה מִין יָרָק שֶׁיִּרְצֶה.קיז,95 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה מֵהַיְרָקוֹת שֶׁיּוֹצְאִין בּוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר,96 שֶׁאִם יֹאכַל עַכְשָׁו מֵהֶן – אֵיךְ יַחֲזֹר וִיבָרֵךְ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר", כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר אָכַל מִמֶּנּוּ קֹדֶם לָכֵן:קיח,95

17 The vegetable must be of the type over which the blessing Borei pri haadamah is recited when it is eaten raw97 so that it will preclude the necessity of reciting [that blessing] on the maror that one will eat during the meal.98 Even though one intervenes with [the recitation of] the Haggadah between [eating the vegetableand eating the maror, that interruption] is not significant, for the reason to be explained in sec. 474[:1].99 Therefore, one should not recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos after [eating] this vegetable, even if he ate an olive-sized portion, so that he will not be required to recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah on the maror.

After [eating] the maror, one should also not recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos, even if he ate an olive-sized portion of the vegetable. [The rationale is that] since the maror was covered by the blessing Borei pri haadamah recited over the vegetable, the vegetable is covered by the blessing recited after eating the maror, i.e., the Grace after Meals.100 [The rationale is that] since the maror comes in the midst of the meal, it is considered as secondary to the meal and is therefore covered by the Grace after Meals, just like [any] other [produce] that is served during the meal, which does not require the recitation of a blessing after [partaking of] it, since it is covered by the Grace after Meals.101

If, [however,] it happened that one recited the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos after [eating] the vegetable, he should recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah over the maror.102Similarly, if one only possesses vegetables whose blessing is shehakol when they are eaten raw,97 he should recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah over the maror.

There are authorities who differ with all the above and maintain that since an extended interruption is made by reciting the Haggadah and the Hallel between eating the vegetable and eating the maror,103 the maror is not covered by the blessing Borei pri haadamah [recited] over the vegetable. [These authorities maintain that the reason] it is not necessary to recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah over the maror is that maror is one of the necessities of the meal, for [every Jew] is obligated to eat maror immediately after [eating] matzah. [Thus, the maror] is considered as one of the foods that come because of the meal that is served during the meal, and [therefore] do not require that a blessing be recited before [partaking of] them, since they are secondary to the bread and are covered by the blessing HaMotzi, as explained in sec. 177[:1. Accordingly,] since the maror is not included in the blessing Borei pri haadamah [that was recited] over the vegetable, [a person] is obligated to recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos after [eating] the vegetable104 if he ate an olive-sized portion [of it].

יז וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַיָּרָק מִמִּינֵי יְרָקוֹת שֶׁבִּרְכָתָן הִיא "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלָן חַיִּים,קיט,97 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפָּטֵר מִלְּבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" עַל הַמָּרוֹרקכ שֶׁיֹּאכַל בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה.98 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּפְסִיק בֵּינְתַיִם בַּהַגָּדָה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,קכא מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ד.קכב,99 וּלְפִיכָךְ, לֹא יְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" אַחַר יָרָק זֶהקכג אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת,קכד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" עַל הַמָּרוֹר.קכה וְאַחַר הַמָּרוֹר גַּם כֵּן אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל מֵהַיָּרָק כְּזַיִת, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַמָּרוֹר נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" שֶׁעַל הַיְרָקוֹת, לָכֵן גַּם הַיְרָקוֹת נִפְטָרִים בִּבְרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁל הַמָּרוֹר, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,100 שֶׁהַמָּרוֹר הוּא בָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה וְהוּא טָפֵל לַסְּעוּדָה וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,קכו כְּמוֹ שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת הַבָּאִים בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו, שֶׁהֵם נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.קכז,101 וְאִם אֵרַע שֶׁבֵּרַךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" אַחַר הַיְרָקוֹת – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" עַל הַמָּרוֹר.קכח,102 וְכֵן אִם אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא יְרָקוֹת שֶׁבִּרְכָתָן הִיא "שֶׁהַכֹּל" כְּשֶׁהֵם חַיִּים97 – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" עַל הַמָּרוֹר.קכט

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים עַל כָּל זֶהקל וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּפְסִיקִין הַרְבֵּה בֵּין אֲכִילַת הַיְרָקוֹת לַאֲכִילַת הַמָּרוֹר בַּהַגָּדָה וְהַלֵּל,103 לְפִיכָךְ אֵין הַמָּרוֹר נִפְטָר בְּ"בוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" שֶׁעַל הַיְרָקוֹת, וּמַה שֶּׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" עַל הַמָּרוֹר, הוּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהַמָּרוֹר הוּא מִצָּרְכֵי הַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁחַיָּב הוּא לֶאֱכֹל מָרוֹר אַחַר הַמַּצָּהקלא מִיָּד, וַהֲרֵי הֵם כַּדְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִים בְּרָכָה לִפְנֵיהֶם, שֶׁהֵם טְפֵלִים לַפַּת, וְנִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ז.קלב וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהַמָּרוֹר אֵינוֹ נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" שֶׁעַל הַיְרָקוֹת – חַיָּב הוּא לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" אַחַר הַיְרָקוֹתקלג,104 אִם אָכַל כְּזַיִת:

18 With regard to the halachah, weight should be given to both approaches. Therefore, one should not eat an entire olive-sized portion of the vegetable, so that he would not be required to recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos after [eating this vegetable], as dictated by the second opinion. However, if it happened that one did eat an olive-sized portion, he should not recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos, lest he be reciting a blessing in vain, as the first opinion maintains.

[Accordingly,] even if it happened that one recited the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos, and similarly, if one only has vegetables whose blessing is shehakol when they are [eaten] raw,97 he should not recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah over the maror lest he be reciting a blessing in vain, as the second opinion would maintain.

יח וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְב' הַסְּבָרוֹת. וְלָכֵן לֹא יֹאכַל מֵהַיְרָקוֹת כְּזַיִת שָׁלֵם, שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת"קלד לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.

וְאִם אֵרַע שֶׁאָכַל כְּזַיִת – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת",קלה שֶׁלֹּא יְבָרֵךְ לְבַטָּלָהקלו לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.

וְאִם אֵרַע שֶׁבֵּרַךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת", וְכֵן אִם אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא יְרָקוֹת שֶׁבִּרְכָתָן "שֶׁהַכֹּל" כְּשֶׁהֵן חַיִּים97 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא יְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" עַל הַמָּרוֹר,קלז שֶׁלֹּא יְבָרֵךְ לְבַטָּלָה לְפִי סְבָרָא הַב':

19 Before dipping the vegetable into vinegar, salt water, or the like, one must [ritually] wash his hands105 without [reciting] a blessing,106 for – as explained in sec. 158[:3] – whenever partaking of a food dipped in liquid, one must [ritually] wash [his hands]107 without reciting a blessing.108

(See sec. 321[:3. According to that source,] if Pesach falls on Shabbos, one may make salt water on Shabbos, provided he only makes a very small amount, [i.e.] only what is necessary for this dipping alone.109 Since it is difficult to be so precise, one should make the salt water on Friday. If one forgot, he may make a very small amount on Shabbos.)

יט קֹדֶם שֶׁמְּטַבֵּל הַיָּרָק בְּחֹמֶץ אוֹ בְּמֵי מֶלַח וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיוקלח,105 בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה,קלט,106 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קנ"ח,קמ שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁטִּבּוּלוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֶה צָרִיךְ נְטִילָה107 בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה.קמא,108

(וְעַיֵּן בְּסִימָן שכ"אקמב שֶׁאִם חָל פֶּסַח בְּשַׁבָּת – יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַמֵּי מֶלַח בְּשַׁבָּת,קמג וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה אֶלָּא מְעַטקמד מִזְּעֵיר מַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לְטִבּוּל זֶה בִּלְבַד.קמה,109 וּלְפִי שֶׁקָּשֶׁה הַדָּבָר לְצַמְצֵם כָּל כָּךְ, לָכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה הַמֵּי מֶלַח מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת.קמו וְאִם שָׁכַח – יַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת מְעַטקמז מִזְּעֵיר):

20 After the vegetable is eaten, one should bring the three matzos for the mitzvah110 [of eating matzah] in front of the person reciting the Haggadah111 so that he can recite the Haggadah while [the matzos] are present, as [alluded to by] the description112 [of matzah] as “the bread of affliction.” [Oni, “affliction,” shares the letters of the word oneh, “respond.” Thus,] the Sages113 interpreted [the description of matzah as lechem oni as meaning] “bread over which one responds with many words,” i.e., [the matzah over which] the Haggadah is recited.

Also, it is written:9 “You shall tell your children on that day, ‘It is for the sake of this….’” [Our Sages114 taught:] “This” refers to [visible symbols of redemption. Thus, the verse is teaching that the obligation applies] “only when matzah and maror are placed before you.” Therefore, maror must also be in front of a person when he recites the Haggadah.113 Moreover, [maror is necessary because during the Seder, the person] must say with regard to [the maror], “This maror….”

[The Sages also] ordained that charoses be present before [a person] when [he is] reciting the Haggadah113 to commemorate the mortar with which our ancestors were [forced to work while] enslaved in Egypt.115 And it also recalls the apple [trees], as will be explained.116 Therefore, [the charoses] should be on the table when describing the enslavement in Egypt.

In the era of the Beis HaMikdash, it was also necessary to bring the Pesach sacrifice [before the person] reciting the Haggadah.117 At present, when the Beis HaMikdash is destroyed, the Sages ordained that two cooked foods be on the table while the Haggadah is being recited:118 one commemorating the Pesach sacrifice and one commemorating the chagigah (“festive”)offering [that accompanied it].119

(It is customary that) one of these cooked foods be meat.120 The other may even be the broth in which the meat was cooked.120 Since the earlier generations, it has become customary to use a shank bone [of an animal], called the zeroa (forearm),121 as a remembrance that the Holy One, blessed be He, redeemed [the Jews] with an outstretched arm.122 The second [cooked food] should be an egg,123 because it is referred as bei’a in Aramaic. [Bei’a also means “desire,”] i.e. the Merciful One desired to redeem us with an upraised arm. According to the letter of the law, [the shank bone and the egg] may be prepared [by] either roasting or cooking.

כ אַחַר שֶׁאָכַל הַיְרָקוֹת יָבִיאוּקמח לִפְנֵי מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר הַהַגָּדָהקמט,111 ג' מַצּוֹתקנ שֶׁל מִצְוָהקנא,110 כְּדֵי לוֹמַר עֲלֵיהֶם הַהַגָּדָה,קנב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקנג,112 "לֶחֶם עֹנִי", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:קנד,113 "לֶחֶם שֶׁעוֹנִין עָלָיו דְּבָרִים הַרְבֵּה", דְּהַיְנוּ אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה.קנה וְעוֹד נֶאֱמַרקנו,9 "וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר בַּעֲבוּר זֶה וְגוֹ'", "בַּעֲבוּר זֶה" – לֹא אָמַרְתִּי אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר מֻנָּחִים לְפָנֶיךָ,קנז,114 לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא גַּם הַמָּרוֹר לְפָנָיוקנח בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה.קנט,113 וְעוֹד, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר עָלָיו "מָרוֹר זֶה כוּ'".קס

וְתִקְּנוּ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לְפָנָיו חֲרֹסֶתקסא בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה,113 שֶׁהַחֲרֹסֶת הוּא זֵכֶר לַטִּיטקסב שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּעְבְּדוּ בּוֹ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְּמִצְרַיִםקסג,115 וְזֵכֶר לַתַּפּוּחַקסד כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[יִּ]תְבָּאֵר,קסה,116 לְכָךְ צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּסַפֵּר שִׁעְבּוּד מִצְרַיִם.

וּבִזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּם – הָיָה צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא גַּם אֶת הַפֶּסַחקסו בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה.117 וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ – תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה שְׁנֵי מִינֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין,קסז,118 אֶחָד זֵכֶר לַפֶּסַח וְאֶחָד זֵכֶר לַחֲגִיגָה,קסח,119 וְאֶחָד מֵהַתַּבְשִׁילִין (נָהֲגוּ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה) בָּשָׂר,קסט,120 וְהַשֵּׁנִי יָכוֹל לִהְיוֹת אֲפִלּוּ הַמָּרָק שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ הַבָּשָׂר.קע,120

וּכְבָר נָהֲגוּ מִדּוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר יִהְיֶה מִפֶּרֶק הַנִּקְרָא "זְרוֹעַ",קעא,121 לִזְכֹּר שֶׁגְּאָלָם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה,קעב,122 וְהַשֵּׁנִי יִהְיֶה בֵּיצָה,קעג,123 לְפִי שֶׁהוּא "בֵּיעָא" בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי,קעד כְּלוֹמַר דְּבָעָא רַחֲמָנָא לְמִפְרַק יָתָנָא בִּדְרָעָא מְרָמְמָא.קעה

וְיָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹתָן בֵּין צְלוּיִין בֵּין מְבֻשָּׁלִיןקעו מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין:

21 It is customary for the meat to be roasted over coals in commemoration of the Pesach sacrifice that was roasted over fire.124 True, as an initial and preferred option, the Pesach sacrifice was roasted using a spit.125 Nevertheless, it is impossible to roast the meat using the same [type of] spit with which the Pesach sacrifice was roasted, for the Pesach sacrifice was roasted using a pomegranate spit, and seeking out a pomegranate spit involves great difficulty. Therefore, [the shank bone] should be roasted over coals, for a Pesach sacrifice that was roasted over coals is acceptable.126

The egg may be either roasted127 or cooked.128 It is eaten during the meal, as will be explained in sec. 476[:6].129

By contrast, it is not customary to eat the meat [from the Seder plate] on this night, even in places where it is customary to permit eating roasted meat on [this] night.130 Were one to partake of this meat that is being brought in commemoration of the Pesach sacrifice on this night, it would appear that he is eating sacrificial meat outside [its designated place].

For this reason, if one forgot to roast [the shank bone] on the day before Pesach, he should not roast it on the festival after nightfall, unless he intends to eat it during the day131 on the following day.132 If, however, [the person] intends to leave [the shank bone] until the following night, he is forbidden to roast it on the first night.133 Similarly, [should one] roast [a shank bone] on the second night, he should be careful to eat it during the day on the following day and not leave it for the [following] night.

כא וְנָהֲגוּ שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר יִהְיֶה צָלִיקעז עַל הַגֶּחָלִים,קעח זֵכֶר לַפֶּסַחקעט שֶׁהָיָה צְלִי אֵשׁ.קפ,124 וְאַף שֶׁהַפֶּסַח הָיָה נִצְלֶה בְּשַׁפּוּדקפא לְכַתְּחִלָּה,125 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִצְלוֹת הַבָּשָׂר בְּשַׁפּוּד שֶׁהַפֶּסַח נִצְלָה בּוֹ, שֶׁהַפֶּסַח לֹא הָיָה נִצְלָה אֶלָּא בְּשַׁפּוּד שֶׁל רִמּוֹן,קפב וְטֹרַח הוּא לַחֲזֹר אַחַר שַׁפּוּד שֶׁל רִמּוֹן,קפג לְפִיכָךְ צוֹלִין עַל גַּבֵּי גֶּחָלִים, שֶׁאַף הַפֶּסַח שֶׁנִּצְלָה עַל גַּבֵּי גֶּחָלִים – כָּשֵׁר.קפד,126

וְהַבֵּיצָה עוֹשִׂין בֵּין צְלוּיָה127 בֵּין מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת,קפה,128 וְאוֹכְלִין אוֹתָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָהקפו כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[יִּ]תְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ו.קפז,129

אֲבָל הַבָּשָׂר אֵין נוֹהֲגִין לְאָכְלוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּהקפח אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין הֶתֵּר בַּאֲכִילַת בָּשָׂר צָלִי בַּלַּיְלָה,קפט,130 מִכָּל מָקוֹם זֶה הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁמְּבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ זֵכֶר לַפֶּסַח, אִם יֹאכְלֶנּוּ בְּלַיְלָה זֶה – יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּאוֹכֵל קָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ.קצ

לְפִיכָךְ אִם שָׁכַח לִצְלוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב – לֹא יִצְלֶה בְּיוֹם טוֹב מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה,קצא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן דַּעְתּוֹ לְאָכְלוֹ לְמָחָר131 בַּיּוֹם.132 אֲבָל אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לְהַנִּיחוֹ לַלַּיְלָה הַשֵּׁנִי – אָסוּר לִצְלוֹתוֹ בְּלַיְלָה רִאשׁוֹן.קצב,133 וְכֵן יִזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁצוֹלֶה בַּלַּיְלָה הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁיֹּאכַל לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם, וְלֹא יֶנִּיחֵם עַד הַלַּיְלָה:

22 It is necessary to be careful that there is a small amount of meat wrapped around the shank bone, for a bone without meat is not considered cooked food.134

כב צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מְעַט בָּשָׂר כָּרוּךְ עַל הָעֶצֶם הַזְּרוֹעַ, שֶׁעֶצֶם בְּלֹא בָּשָׂר אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא תַּבְשִׁיל:קצג,134

23 When Pesach falls on Saturday night, it is, nevertheless, necessary to bring two cooked foods, one commemorating the Pesach sacrifice and one commemorating the chagigah offering.

True, [in the era of the Beis HaMikdash,] the chagigah offering was not eaten on that night, for it is impossible to slaughter it and offer it on Shabbos.135It is also impossible to offer it on Friday, because [such a sacrifice] may only be eaten for two days and one night, [i.e., the night] between the two days.136 However, since these [foods] are only being brought [to the table] as a commemoration, there is no concern that [one might think it is] the chagigah offering [that] was not [permitted to be] eaten on this night [in the era of the Beis HaMikdash]. On the contrary, one who is careful about this makes it appear that these foods are being regarded like actual sacrifices.

כג אִם חָל פֶּסַח בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, אַף שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה חֲגִיגָה נֶאֱכֶלֶת בְּלַיְלָה זֶה,קצד לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְשָׁחֲטָהּ וּלְהַקְרִיבָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת,קצה,135 וְגַם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַקְרִיבָהּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ נֶאֱכֶלֶת אֶלָּא לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים וְלַיְלָה אֶחָד שֶׁבֵּין הַשְּׁנֵי יָמִים,קצו,136 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא שְׁנֵי תַּבְשִׁילִים, אֶחָד זֵכֶר לַפֶּסַח וְאֶחָד זֵכֶר לַחֲגִיגָה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִין אֶלָּא לְזֵכֶר בְּעָלְמָא – אֵין לָחֹשׁ אִם לֹא הָיְתָה חֲגִיגָה נֶאֱכֶלֶת בְּלַיְלָה זֶה, וְאַדְּרַבָּה הַמְדַקְדֵּק בָּזֶה נִרְאֶה שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן כְּמִין קָדָשִׁים מַמָּשׁ:קצז

24 All of these items, i.e., the matzos, the maror, the charoses, and the two cooked foods, need only be brought before the person reciting the Haggadah,137 i.e., the master of the house. It is not necessary to bring them before the members of his household138 who fulfill their obligation [to commemorate the exodus from Egypt] by listening to the master of the house.139 (Indeed, it is proper for them [to fulfill their obligation in this manner] in keeping with [the injunction:]140 “The King’s glory is [evident] amidst a multitude of people,” as explained in sec. 8[:11].141)

[The above applies] both at the time [the members of the household] listen to the Haggadah and at the time of the meal. [Instead,] the master of the house should distribute matzah, maror, and charoses to each person. True, on a festival, it is necessary to break bread on two loaves.142 Nevertheless, since [those in attendance] fulfill their obligation [by listening to] the blessing of HaMotzi recited by the master of the house,143 they also fulfill their obligation for [breaking bread on] two loaves with his [loaves].144

כד כָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ, דְּהַיְנוּ הַמַּצּוֹת וְהַמָּרוֹר וְהַחֲרֹסֶת וּשְׁנֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא אֶלָּא לִפְנֵי מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר הַהַגָּדָה,קצח,137 דְּהַיְנוּ לִפְנֵי בַּעַל הַבַּיִת,קצט אֲבָל בְּנֵי הַבַּיִת שֶׁהֵן יוֹצְאִין בִּשְׁמִיעָה מִבַּעַל הַבַּיִתר,139 (שֶׁכֵּן נָכוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹתרא מִשּׁוּם140 "בְּרָב עָם הַדְרַת מֶלֶךְ"רב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ח'רג,141) – אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם,138 לֹא בִּשְׁעַת שְׁמִיעַת הַהַגָּדָה וְלֹא בִּשְׁעַת הַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁבַּעַל הַבַּיִת יְחַלֵּק מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר וַחֲרֹסֶת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד,רד שֶׁאַף שֶׁבְּיוֹם טוֹב צָרִיךְ לִבְצֹעַ עַל לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה,רה,142 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם יוֹצְאִין בְּבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת143 – הֵם יוֹצְאִים גַּם כֵּן בְּלֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת:רו,144

25 It is customary to bring all of these items before the master of the house immediately after Kiddush,145 before partaking of the vegetable146 (so that Kiddush will be recited in proximity to the beginning of the meal, i.e., [the time when] matzah and maror are brought [to the table]; see sec. 271[:17].)147

After partaking of the vegetable, one may remove any remnants of the vegetable and the vinegar or the salt water from the table.148

כה וְנָהֲגוּ לְהָבִיא כָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ לִפְנֵי בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מִיָּד אַחַר קִדּוּשׁ145 קֹדֶם אֲכִילַת הַיְרָקוֹתרז,146 (כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַקִּדּוּשׁ סָמוּךְ לְהַתְחָלַת הַסְּעוּדָה, דְּהַיְנוּ הֲבָאַת הַמַּצָּה וְהַמָּרוֹר, עַיֵּן סִימָן רע"ארח,147).

וּלְאַחַר שֶׁאָכְלוּ מֵהַיְרָקוֹת – יָכוֹל לְסַלֵּק מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֶת מַה שֶּׁנִּשְׁתַּיֵּר מֵהַיְרָקוֹתרט וְהַחֹמֶץ אוֹ מֵי הַמֶּלַח:רי,148

26 When the vegetables and the other objects are brought before [the person reciting the Haggadah], it is desirable that he arrange them on the [Seder] plate in a manner that will not require him to bypass any of the mitzvos,149 i.e., the vegetable should be closer to him than the matzah, the matzah closer than the maror and the charoses, and the maror and the charoses [should be closer to him] than the two cooked foods.

There are some who do not object to the charoses and the two cooked foods being closer to [the person reciting the Haggadah. The rationale is that] since [these items] are only brought to the table as a remembrance,150 concerns regarding bypassing the mitzvos do not apply to them. Similarly, [these authorities] do not have objections regarding the maror being closer to [the person reciting the Haggadah], since a person does not cherish it, nor is there a reason why the blessing recited over it [when partaking of it] should have precedence [over that of the other foods].151 Therefore, there is also no objection if one will have to bypass [the maror] and recite a blessing on the vegetable first, then on the matz­ah, and then on the maror.

Those who arrange all the items [mentioned] on the matzah152 because of an [esoteric] reason known to them, rely on this rationale. Thus, after they arrange the matzos on the Seder plate in their order – [the matzah designated as] kohen above,153 [the one designated as] levi below it, and [the one designated as] Yisrael below it154 – [the above items] are arranged on the [matzah designated as] kohen [as follows]: The forearm of a lamb [is placed] on the [upper] right, the egg on the [upper] left, and the maror slightly below them in the middle, in a [triangular] form like a segol (ֶ). Afterwards, the charoses is placed on the [lower] right, the karpas on the [lower] left, and the marorto be used for the korech [is placed] slightly below them in the middle, in the form of a second segol.155

כו כְּשֶׁמֵּבִיא לְפָנָיו הַיְרָקוֹת עִם כָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ – טוֹב שֶׁיְּסַדְּרֵם לְפָנָיו בַּקְּעָרָה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לַעֲבֹר עַל הַמִּצְוֹת,149 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהַיְרָקוֹת יִהְיוּ סְמוּכִים לוֹ יוֹתֵר מִן הַמַּצָּה,ריא וְהַמַּצָּה מִן הַמָּרוֹר וַחֲרֹסֶת, וְהַמָּרוֹר וְהַחֲרֹסֶת מִן שְׁנֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין.ריב

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵין מַקְפִּידִיןריג עַל הַחֲרֹסֶת וּשְׁנֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין אִם יִהְיוּ סְמוּכִים אֵלָיו, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאִין עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֶלָּא לְזֵכֶר בְּעָלְמָא150 – לֹא שַׁיָּךְ אֶצְלָם "אֵין מַעֲבִירִין עַל הַמִּצְוֹת".ריד וְגַם עַל הַמָּרוֹר אֵין מַקְפִּידִין אִם יִהְיֶה סָמוּךְ לוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָבִיב עַל הָאָדָם וְאֵין לוֹ דִּין קְדִימָה לְעִנְיַן בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין,151 לָכֵן גַּם כָּאן אֵין מַקְפִּידִין אִם יִצְטָרֵךְ לַעֲבֹר עָלָיו וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיְרָקוֹת בַּתְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ עַל הַמַּצָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ עַל הַמָּרוֹר.

וְעַל זֶה סוֹמְכִים הַנּוֹהֲגִים מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶםרטו לְסַדֵּר כָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּצָּה,רטז דְּהַיְנוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁסִּדְּרוּ הַמַּצּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָהריז,153 כְּסִדְרָן:ריח כֹּהֵן מִלְמַעְלָה,154 וְלֵוִי תַּחְתָּיו, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל תַּחְתָּיוריט,155 – מְסַדְּרִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַכֹּהֵן הַזְּרוֹעַ שֶׁל טָלֶהרכ מִיָּמִין, וְהַבֵּיצָה מִשְּׂמֹאל, וְהַמָּרוֹר לְמַטָּה מְעַט כְּנֶגֶד אֶמְצָעָם כְּעֵין סֶגּוֹ"ל, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַחֲרוֹסֶת מִיָּמִין, וְהַכַּרְפַּס מִשְּׂמֹאל, וְהַמָּרוֹר שֶׁל כְּרִיכָהרכא לְמַטָּה מְעַט כְּנֶגֶד אֶמְצָעָם כְּעֵין סֶגּוֹ"ל שֵׁנִי:152

27 A person may fulfill his obligation [to partake of] maror with the [following] vegetables:156 a) chazeres, which is called salat in German and salata in Spanish. Its name is latuga in Turkish, Italy, Germany, Spain, and Portugal, and in medical literature, latiga is identified as salat.157On Pesach, it is only found in warm regions. It is not the vegetable that is called zarzuch in Polish.158 b) olshin, referred to as endivi;159c) tamcha, referred to as chrain or martuch, merubia in the vernacular;160 d) charchavina which is called alkartzina in Arabic;161 and e) maror, which is called vermot in German or laanah [in Hebrew].162

The Torah uses the term maror without further specification. The Sages received [the tradition] that there are no vegetables that are referred to as maror without further description except for these five species.

כז אֵלּוּ יְרָקוֹת שֶׁאָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר:156 בַּחֲזֶרֶתרכב (שֶׁקּוֹרִין סאל"ט)רכג בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז, וּבְלָשׁוֹן סְפָרַד סאלאטא, וְשֵׁם הָעֶצֶם שֶׁלּוֹ הוּא לטוגא בְּתוֹגַרְמָ"א וְאִיטַלְיָא וְאַשְׁכְּנַז וּסְפָרַד וּפוֹרְטְגַאל, וּבְסִפְרֵי הָרְפוּאוֹת נִקְרָא לאטיגא סאלאט,157 וְאֵינוֹ מָצוּי בִּזְמַן הַפֶּסַח אֶלָּא בַּמְּדִינוֹת הַחַמּוֹת,רכד וְאֵינוֹ יָרָק הַנִּקְרָא זערזו"ך בִּלְשׁוֹן פּוֹלִיןרכה,158[)], בְּעֻלְשִׁיןרכו (שֶׁקּוֹרִין אנדיבירכז,159), בְּתַמְכָארכח (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קרין אוֹ מערטך,רכט וּבְלַעַז מרובייארל,160), בְּחַרְחֲבִינָארלא (שֶׁקּוֹרִין בַּעֲרָבִי אלקרצינארלב),161 וּבְמָרוֹררלג (שֶׁקּוֹרִין ווערמט בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז,רלד וְהוּא לַעֲנָהרלה,162), לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה מָרוֹר סְתָם, וְקִבְּלוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁאֵין שׁוּם מִין יָרָק מַר נִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם מָרוֹר סְתָם אֶלָּא ה' מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת אֵלּוּ:רלו

28 These five species may be combined together to reach the [prescribed] olive-sized portion.163 One may fulfill his obligation by [eating] the leaves or the stems [of these species],156 but not the roots. [In this context the term “roots” refers to] the small roots that branch off to either side.164 However, the main root from which the leaves grow is considered as part of the stem, even though it grows underground. Nevertheless, it is preferable to take the leaves and the stem that grow above the ground, for there are authorities who maintain that [any part of the plant] that grows underground is considered the root. Fundamentally, however, [the halachah] follows the first opinion.

כח חֲמִשָּׁה מִינִים הַלָּלוּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת לִכְזַיִת.רלז,163 וְיוֹצְאִים בָּהֶם בֵּין בֶּעָלִין בֵּין בִּקְלָחִים,רלח,156 אֲבָל לֹא בְּשָׁרָשִׁים,רלט דְּהַיְנוּ שָׁרָשִׁים הַקְּטַנִּים הַמִּתְפַּצְּלִים לְכָאן וּלְכָאן.164 אֲבָל הַשֹּׁרֶשׁ הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבּוֹ גְּדֵלִים הֶעָלִים אַף שֶׁהוּא טָמוּן בַּקַּרְקַע – הֲרֵי זֶה בִּכְלַל קֶלַח.רמ

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב יוֹתֵר לִטֹּל הֶעָלִים וְהַקֶּלַח הַיּוֹצֵא חוּץ לַקַּרְקַע,רמא לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרמב שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁהוּא טָמוּן בַּקַּרְקַע הוּא נִקְרָא שֹׁרֶשׁ. אֲבָל הָעִקָּר הוּא כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:רמג

29 One may fulfill his obligation with the leaves [of these species] only when they are fresh, but not when they are withered, and needless to say, not when they are dried out.165 (See sec. 648[:1].)166 One may, however, fulfill his obligation with stems whether fresh or dried out. Needless to say, withered [stems are acceptable.165 The rationale is that] since stems are thick, their bitter flavor will not dissipate even though they dried out.

However, one may not fulfill his obligation with a stem that is cooked,156 because the bitterness of its flavor dissipates through cooking.167 Kevishah, [soaking,] is equivalent to cooking.168 Thus, if [a stem from one of these species] soaked in strong brine or strong vinegar169 and remained there for the amount of time that the brine or vinegar would begin to boil if they were put over a fire,170 [it is considered as cooked]. Similarly, if [a stem] soaked for 24 hours even in cold water, one may not fulfill his obligation [to eat maror] with it.

Some of the common people are not careful [about this] and are accustomed to soaking maror for more than 24 hours in cold water to reduce its bitterness slightly. There is an authority who justifies their practice, explaining that although [food] that soaks in water for 24 hours is considered as kavush and is equivalent to having been cooked with regard to all the Torah’s prohibitions, with regard to maror, it is not considered as cookedunless it was soaked in vinegar or brine.

[The rationale is that] the flavor of the vinegar or the brine will change and nullify the bitter flavor of the maror soaked in it entirely. Water, by contrast, does not nullify the bitterness [of the maror]; it only reduces its bitterness slightly. As long as [the maror] has not been soaked in vinegar or brine, it will still retain some bitterness.

Furthermore, even with regard to all prohibited substances, there are authorities who maintain that the principle that kevishah is equivalent to cooking applies only when food has been soaked in vinegar or brine, but not in water. True, we rule stringently with regard to all prohibited substances. Nevertheless, one should not rule stringently with regard to maror since the stringency will lead to laxity in observance in places where romaine lettuce is not found and horseradish is eaten to fulfill the mitzvah of maror. Since [horseradish is] sharp, [people] are unable to eat an olive-sized portion of it. Therefore, they [are accustomed] to soak it in water for a day or two to reduce its bitterness slightly.

Nonetheless, [when soaking the maror,] it is desirable to remove it from the water within the 24 hours and then return it [to the water] again. [The rationale for doing this is that] since [the maror] does not soak for 24 hours uninterruptedly, all authorities agree that it is not considered as kavush.171

כט הֶעָלִין אֵין יוֹצְאִין בָּהֶן אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם לַחִין,רמד אֲבָל לֹא כְּמוּשִׁים,רמה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר יְבֵשִׁיםרמו,165 (עַיֵּן סִימָן תרמ"חרמז,166). אֲבָל הַקְּלָחִים יוֹצְאִין בָּהֶם בֵּין לַחִים בֵּין יְבֵשִׁים,רמח וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר כְּמוּשִׁים,רמט,165 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַקֶּלַח הוּא עָב – אֵין טַעַם מְרִירָתוֹ נִפְסָד עַל יְדֵי שֶׁמִּתְיַבֵּשׁ.רנ

אֲבָל אֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּקֶלַח מְבֻשָּׁל,רנא,156 לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְסָד טַעַם מְרִירָתוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל,רנב,167 וְהַכָּבוּשׁ הוּא כִּמְבֻשָּׁל,רנג,168 דְּהַיְנוּ אִם נִשְׁרָה בְּצִיררנד אוֹ בְּחֹמֶץרנה חָזָקרנו,169 וְשָׁהָה שָׁם בִּכְדֵי שֶׁאִם הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין הַצִּיר וְהַחֹמֶץ עַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר הָיוּ מַתְחִילִין לְהַרְתִּיחַ.רנז,170

וְכֵן אִם נִשְׁרָה מֵעֵת לְעֵת אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִיםרנח – אֵין יוֹצְאִין בּוֹ.

וּמִקְצַת הֶהָמוֹן אֵין נִזְהָרִין, וְנָהֲגוּ לִשְׁרוֹת הַמָּרוֹר יוֹתֵר מִמֵּעֵת לְעֵת בְּצוֹנֵן כְּדֵי לְהָפִיג מְרִירָתוֹ קְצָת. וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמְּיַשֵּׁב מִנְהָגָםרנט לוֹמַר שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַשָּׁרוּי בְּמַיִם מֵעֵת לְעֵת נִקְרָא כָּבוּשׁ, וַהֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְבֻשָּׁל לְעִנְיַן כָּל אִסּוּרִים שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן מָרוֹר אֵינוֹ כִּמְבֻשָּׁל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן כָּבוּשׁ בְּחֹמֶץ וְצִיר, לְפִי שֶׁטַּעַם הַחֹמֶץ אוֹ הַצִּיר מְשַׁנֶּה וּמְבַטֵּל טַעַם מְרִירוּת הַמָּרוֹר הַנִּכְבָּשׁ בָּהֶם לְגַמְרֵי, אֲבָל הַמַּיִם אֵין מְבַטְּלִין הַמְּרִירוּת אֶלָּא מְפִיגִין טַעֲמוֹ קְצָת, וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא נִכְבַּשׁ בְּחֹמֶץ וְצִיר עֲדַיִן יֵשׁ בּוֹ מְרִירוּת קְצָת. וְעוֹד, שֶׁאַף בְּכָל אִסּוּרִים יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרס שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ "כָּבוּשׁ כִּמְבֻשָּׁל" אֶלָּא כָּבוּשׁ בְּחֹמֶץ וְצִיר, וְלֹא בְּמַיִם. וְאַף שֶׁאָנוּ מַחֲמִירִין בְּכָל אִסּוּרִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן מָרוֹר אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר, שֶׁהִיא חֻמְרָא הַבָּאָה לִידֵי קֻלָּא, בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין חֲזֶרֶת מָצוּי וְאוֹכְלִין הַתַּמְכָא לְמִצְוַת מָרוֹר, וּמֵחֲמַת חֲרִיפוּתוֹ אֵין יְכוֹלִין לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת, וְלָכֵן שׁוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּמַיִם יוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם לְהָפִיג מְרִירָתוֹ קְצָת.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לְהוֹצִיא מֵהַמַּיִם תּוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת, וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִשְׁרֶנּוּ שָׁם, שֶׁכְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁרוּי בְּמַיִם כ"ד שָׁעוֹת רְצוּפִים – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא כָּבוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל:רסא,171

30 Although all these five species are called maror according to the Torah, according to Rabbinic Law, it is a mitzvah to seek out romaine lettuce,172 even if it is necessary to pay large sums of money to purchase it, as will be explained in sec. 656173 with regard to a beautiful esrog; consult that source.

True, [the leaves of] romaine lettuce are not bitter. Nevertheless, if [romaine lettuce] is left in the ground [for a long time], its stem becomes firm and very bitter.174 Accordingly, it is classified as maror. It is a mitzvah to seek out [romaine lettuce] even when it is sweet.

[The rationale is that its pattern of growth reflects the phases of the Egyptian exile.] For the mitzvah of maror serves as a remembrance of [how the] Egyptians embittered the lives of our ancestors with rigorous work (avodas perech). Initially, [the Egyptians] caused the Jews to work for them with a soft tongue (peh rach).175 They placated the [Jews] and gave them a wage. Ultimately, [the Egyptians] embittered [the Jews’] lives with hard work.176 Therefore, [this enslavement should be commemorated by] eating romaine lettuce which is initially sweet and soft, but ultimately, firm and bitter, i.e., its stem becomes firm like wood and bitter like wormwood.

ל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל ה' מִינִים אֵלּוּ נִקְרָאִים מָרוֹר בִּלְשׁוֹן תּוֹרָה,רסב מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִצְוָהרסג לַחֲזֹר אַחַר חֲזֶרֶתרסד,172 אֲפִלּוּ לִקְנוֹתוֹ בְּדָמִים יְקָרִים,רסה עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תר[נ]"ורסו,173 לְעִנְיַן אֶתְרוֹג הָדוּר, עַיֵּן שָׁם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחֲזֶרֶת אֵין בָּהּ מְרִירוּת,רסז מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁהִיא שׁוֹהָה בַּקַּרְקַע מִתְקַשֶּׁה הַקֶּלַח שֶׁלָּהּרסח וְנַעֲשֶׂה מַר מְאֹד,174 וּמִפְּנֵי כָּךְ הִיא נִקְרֵאת מָרוֹר.רסט

וּמִצְוָה לַחֲזֹר אַחֲרֶיהָ אַף כְּשֶׁהִיא מְתוּקָה,ער לְפִי שֶׁמִּצְוַת מָרוֹר הִיא זֵכֶר לְמַה שֶּׁמֵּרְרוּ הַמִּצְרִים אֶת חַיֵּי אֲבוֹתֵינוּרעא בַּעֲבוֹדַת פֶּרֶךְ,ערב וְהֵם נִשְׁתַּעְבְּדוּ בָּהֶם בִּתְחִלָּה בְּפֶה רַךְרעג,175 עַל יְדֵי פִּיּוּסִים, וְנָתְנוּ לָהֶם שָׂכָר,עדר וּלְבַסּוֹף מֵרְרוּ חַיֵּיהֶם בַּעֲבוֹדָה קָשָׁה,ערה,176 לָכֵן יֵשׁ לֶאֱכֹל הַחֲזֶרֶת שֶׁתְּחִלָּתָהּ מְתוּקָה וְרַכָּה וְסוֹפָהּ קָשֶׁה וָמַר,רעו דְּהַיְנוּ כְּשֶׁהַקֶּלַח שֶׁלָּהּ מִתְקַשֶּׁה כְּעֵץרעז וְנַעֲשֶׂה מַר כַּלַּעֲנָה:רעח

31 If one does not have romaine lettuce, he should seek out endives. If he does not have endives, he should seek out horseradish. If he does not have horseradish, he should seek out charchavina. If he does not have charchavina, he should take maror, i.e., wormwood.177

If one cannot even [obtain] wormwood, he should take any bitter vegetable that he desires, for there are authorities who maintain that any bitter vegetable that is fit to be eaten is called maror according to the Torah, provided:

[a] it has sap, (i.e., when it is cut and squeezed where it was cut, sap that is white like milk will be expressed); and

[b] its surface blanches, i.e., its leaves are not very green as are [the leaves of] leeks, onions, or other vegetables,178 but rather are whitish, tending to grey (bleichlich in Yiddish).179

Nevertheless, one should not recite the blessing [al achilas maror] over such vegetables, since primarily, the halachah follows the first opinion.

(If one does not have a vegetable that has sap and a blanched surface, it is desirable that he eat any vegetable that is slightly bitter, as a mere remembrance [of the bitterness of the servitude.180 In this instance,] it is not necessary [for the person to eat] an olive-sized portion. Similarly,) a person who is sick or dainty and cannot eat maror,181 should chew it slightly so that he will taste the bitterness in his mouth, as a mere remembrance. He should not, [however,] recite a blessing.

[The above] refers to a person who cannot eat [maror] at all. However, a person is obligated to force himself to observe the mitzvah of the Sages to eat an entire olive-size portion [of maror] even if it will cause him pain. The size of an olive-sized portion will be explained in sec. 486[:1]. Consult that source.182

לא וְאִם אֵין לוֹ חֲזֶרֶת – יַחֲזִיר אַחַר עֻלְשִׁין. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ עֻלְשִׁין – יַחֲזִיר אַחַר תַּמְכָא. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ תַּמְכָא – יַחֲזִיר אַחַר חַרְחֲבִינָא. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ חַרְחֲבִינָא177 – אֲזַי יִקַּח הַמָּרוֹר,רעט דְּהַיְנוּ לַעֲנָה.רפ

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מָרוֹר – יִקַּח אֵיזֶה יָרָק מַר שֶׁיִּרְצֶה,רפא לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרפב שֶׁכָּל יָרָק מַר שֶׁרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה נִקְרָא מָרוֹר בִּלְשׁוֹן תּוֹרָה. וְהוּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שָׂרָף (פֵּרוּשׁרפג כְּשֶׁמְּחַתְּכִין בּוֹ וְסוֹחֲטִין אוֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם חִתּוּכוֹ יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ מֹהַל לָבָן כְּחָלָב) וּפָנָיו מַכְסִיפִין,רפד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁעָלֶה שֶׁלּוֹ אֵינוֹ יָרֹק מְאֹדרפה כַּעֲלֵי הַכְּרֵשִׁים וּבְצָלִים וּשְׁאָר יְרָקוֹת,178 אֶלָּא נוֹטֶה קְצָת לְלֹבֶן הַנּוֹטֶה לְשַׁחֲרוּת שֶׁקּוֹרִין (בלייכלי"ך בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז).רפו,179 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם,רפז שֶׁהָעִקָּר הוּא כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.רפח

(וְאִם אֵין לוֹ יָרָק שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שָׂרָף וּפָנָיו מַכְסִיפִין – טוֹב שֶׁיֹּאכַל אֵיזֶה יָרָק אַחֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מְרִירוּת קְצָת לְזֵכֶר בְּעָלְמָא,רפט,180 – וְאֵין צָרִיךְ כְּזַיִת. וְכֵן) מִי שֶׁהוּא חוֹלֶה אוֹ אִסְטְנִיס וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱכֹל מָרוֹר181 – טוֹב שֶׁיִּלְעֹס מְעַט עַד שֶׁיַּרְגִּישׁ טַעַם מְרִירוּת בְּפִיו לְזֵכֶר בְּעָלְמָא בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, וְזֶהוּ כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ כְּלָל.רצ

אֲבָל חַיָּב אָדָם לִדְחֹק אֶת עַצְמוֹ לְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת חֲכָמִים לֶאֱכֹל כְּזַיִת שָׁלֵם אַף אִם יִכְאֹב עָלָיו.רצא וְשִׁעוּר כְּזַיִת יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תפ"ורצב עַיֵּן שָׁם:182

32 The charoses must be thick because it commemorates the mortar with which our ancestors were compelled to work. Afterwards, it must be softened with liquid, in remembrance of the blood.183 [The charoses] should be softened with a red liquid like vinegar or red wine.

The charoses should be made from fruits that are used as metaphors for the Jewish people, for example, figs, as it is written:184 “The fig tree has sprouted its buds,” nuts, as it is written:185 “[I descended] to the nut-garden,” dates, as it is written:186 “I will ascend the date-palm,” pomegranates, as it is written:187 “like a slice of pomegranate,” and apples, recalling [the verse,188] “Beneath the apple tree, I aroused you,” for [in Egypt, the Jewish women] would give birth to their children [beneath the apple trees] without sorrow. [The charoses should also include] almonds (shekeidim), for the Holy One, blessed be He, hurried (shakad) the redemption and brought it about.189

According to the fundamentals of the law, one may even make [the charoses] from vegetables,190 and soften it even with water or other liquids. Nevertheless, at the very least, one should add kiyuha to [the charoses],191 e.g., apples,192 wine, or vinegar, to recall the servitude that the Jews suffered until their teeth turned dark.193

לב הַחֲרֹסֶת צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת עָב,רצג לְפִי שֶׁהוּא זֵכֶר לַטִּיטרצד שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּעְבְּדוּ בּוֹ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ צָרִיךְ לְרַכֵּךְ אוֹתוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֶהרצה זֵכֶר לַדָּם.רצו,183 וְיֵשׁ לְרַכְּכוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֶה אָדֹם, כְּגוֹן חֹמֶץ אוֹ יַיִן אֲדֻמִּים.רצז

וְיֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת הַחֲרֹסֶת מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלוּ בָּהֶם כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל,רחצ כְּגוֹן תְּאֵנִים,רצט שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרש,184 "הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַגֶּיהָ", וֶאֱגוֹזִים,שא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרשב,185 "אֶל גִּנַּת אֱגוֹז", וּתְמָרִים,שג שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרדש,186 "אֶעֱלֶה בְתָמָר", וְרִמּוֹנִים,שה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרשו,187 "כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן", וְתַפּוּחִים, זֵכֶר לְ188"תַחַתשז הַתַּפּוּחַ עוֹרַרְתִּיךָ",שח שֶׁהָיוּ יוֹלְדוֹת שָׁם בְּנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא עֶצֶב,שט וּשְׁקֵדִים,שי עַל שֵׁם שֶׁשָּׁקַד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל הַקֵּץשיא לַעֲשׂוֹת.שיב,189

וּמֵעִקַּר הַדִּין יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מִירָקוֹת,שיג,190 וּלְרַכְּכוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַיִם וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין. אֲבָל עַל כָּל פָּנִים, צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ קִיּוּהָא,שיד,191 כְּגוֹן תַּפּוּחִים192 אוֹ יַיִןשטו וְחֹמֶץ,שטז זֵכֶר לַשִּׁעְבּוּד שֶׁהָיוּ מִשְׁתַּעְבְּדִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל עַד שֶׁהָיוּ שִׁנֵּיהֶם קֵהוֹת:שיז,193

33 In [the charoses], one should include spices191 that resemble straw, e.g., cinnamon and ginger,194 that cannot be ground thoroughly, [i.e.,] after they have been ground, there remain strands that are firm and slightly long that resemble straw, recalling the straw that [the Jews] would mix into the mortar.

לג וְצָרִיךְ לִתֵּן בְּתוֹכוֹ תַּבְלִיןשיח,191 הַדּוֹמִין לְתֶבֶן, כְּגוֹן קִנָּמוֹן וְזַנְגְּבִילשיט,194 שֶׁאֵינָן נִדּוֹכִין הָדֵק הֵיטֵב וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן לְאַחַר הַדִּיכָה חוּטִין קָשִׁין וַאֲרֻכִּין קְצָת כְּמוֹ תֶּבֶן, זֵכֶר לַתֶּבֶן שֶׁהָיוּ מְגַבְּלִין בְּתוֹךְ הַטִּיט:שכ

34 If Pesach falls on Shabbos, one must be careful to soften the charoses with a liquid on Friday.195 If one forgot to soften [the charoses] before Shabbos, he should soften it on Shabbos, [but should do so while] deviating from his ordinary pattern, i.e., he should put the liquid into the container first and then place the charoses in it. [The person] may [then] stir [the mixture] with his finger or hold the container and shake it until [the liquid] is mixed in. See sec. 321[:16].196

לד אִם חָל פֶּסַח בְּשַׁבָּת – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְרַכֵּךְ הַחֲרֹסֶת בְּמַשְׁקֶה מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת.שכא,195 וְאִם שָׁכַח לְרַכְּכוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – יְרַכְּכוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה יִתֵּן הַמַּשְׁקֶה לְתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ הַחֲרֹסֶת,שכב וְיָכוֹל לְעָרְבוֹ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ אוֹ אוֹחֵז בַּכְּלִי וּמְנַעֲנֵעַ עַד שֶׁיִּתְעָרֵב, עַיֵּן סִימָן שכ"א:שכג,196

35 After eating the vegetable dipped in liquid,197 one must take the middle matzah from the three placed on the plate and break off a piece of it for the reason to be explained.198 The entire Jewish people have adopted the custom of using this piece of matzah that was broken off to perform another mitzvah with it,199 i.e., it is left over for the afikoman. Therefore, it is proper that this portion comprise the majority of the matzah,200 because the afikoman is an important mitzvah, taking the place of the Pesach sacrifice.201

It is customary to hide [the afikoman] under the tablecloth,202 recalling [the manner in which the Jews carried their dough out of Egypt], “their leftovers bound in their garments [on their shoulders].”203 There are some who bind [the afikoman] in a cloth and place it on their shoulders as a remembrance of the Exodus from Egypt.204

לה אַחַר שֶׁאָכְלוּ מֵהַיְרָקוֹת בְּטִבּוּל197 – צָרִיךְ לִקַּח מַצָּה הָאֶמְצָעִיתשכד מִשָּׁלֹשׁ מַצּוֹת הַמֻּנָּחִים לְפָנָיו בַּקְּעָרָה וְלִבְצֹעַ מִקְצָתָהּ מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.שכה,198 וְנָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמִּקְצָת זֶה שֶׁבּוֹצְעִים מֵהַמַּצָּה עוֹשִׂין בּוֹ גַּם כֵּן מִצְוָה אַחֶרֶת,199 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמְּשַׁמְּרִין אוֹתוֹ לַאֲפִיקוֹמָן.שכו וּלְפִיכָךְ, נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִקְצָת הַזֶּה רֹב הַמַּצָּה,שכז,200 שֶׁאֲפִיקוֹמָן הִיא מִצְוָה חֲשׁוּבָה,שכח שֶׁהוּא לָנוּ בִּמְקוֹם הַפֶּסַח.שכט,201

וְנוֹהֲגִין לְהַצְנִיעוֹ תַּחַת הַמַּפָּה,של,202 זֵכֶר לְ"מִשְׁאֲרֹתָם צְרֻרֹת בְּשִׂמְלֹתָם".שלא,203 וְיֵשׁ שֶׁכּוֹרְכִין אוֹתוֹ בְּמִטְפַּחַת וּמְשִׂימִין עַל שִׁכְמָם, זֵכֶר לִיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם:שלב,204

36 The other portion of [the middle matzah] should be returned to the [Seder]plate and placed between the two whole matzos so that the Haggadah will be recited over it. [The rationale is that] the Haggadah must be recited over matzah with which it is fit to fulfill one’s obligation [to eat matzah. Furthermore, the Haggadah must not be recited over a whole matzah, as indicated by] the verse:205 “Eat matzos, lechem oni [i.e., the bread of affliction], because of it.” [The Sages206 noted that the word oni, “affliction,” shares the same letters as the word oneh, “respond.” Thus,] the Sages interpreted [the phrase lechem oni as referring to] “[bread] over which one responds with many words.”207 [Also,] because oni is written lacking [the letter] vav, the Sages interpreted206 the phrase lechem oni as lechem ani, “poor man’s bread,” [and commented:] “What is the habit of a poor man? With a [mere] piece [of bread. Hence,] in this instance as well, [one should partake of] a piece [of bread],”208 i.e., the matzah with which one fulfills his obligation should not be whole, but merely a piece. Over this [piece of matz­ah], the Haggadah should be recited.209 (In sec. 475[:4], it is explained why [this piece of matzah] is placed between the two whole matzos.)

Afterwards, it is customary to lift the plate on which the matzos [were placed]210 and recite the passage Ha211 lachma [anya][“This is the bread of affliction”]212until Mah nishtanah. It is not necessary to remove the cooked foods from the plate [containing the matzos] before it is lifted. Instead, one may lift [the plate containing the matzos] with these items on it.

לו וּמִקְצָתָהּ הַשֵּׁנִי צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לַקְּעָרָה וְלִתֵּן אוֹתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שְׁתֵּי מַצּוֹת הַשְּׁלֵמוֹת,שלג כְּדֵי לוֹמַר עָלָיו הַהַגָּדָה,שלד לְפִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַהַגָּדָה עַל מַצָּה הָרָאוּי לָצֵאת בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרשלה,205 "תֹּאכַל עָלָיו מַצּוֹת לֶחֶם עֹנִי", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִיםשלו,206 שֶׁעוֹנִין עָלָיו דְּבָרִים הַרְבֵּה,207 וּמִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "לֶחֶם עֹנִי" חָסֵר וָא"ו, דָּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:שלז,206 "לֶחֶם עָנִי", מַה דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל עָנִי בִּפְרוּסָה – אַף כָּאן בִּפְרוּסָה,208 שֶׁהַמַּצָּה שֶׁיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ לֹא תִּהְיֶה שְׁלֵמָה אֶלָּא פְּרוּסָה, וְעָלֶיהָ יֹאמַר הַהַגָּדָהשלח,209 (וּבְסִימָן תע"השלט יִתְבָּאֵר לָמָּה מְשִׂימִין אוֹתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׁלֵמוֹת).

אַחַר כָּךְ נוֹהֲגִין לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הַקְּעָרָה שֶׁבָּהּ הַמַּצּוֹת,210 וְאוֹמְרִים "הָא211 לַחְמָא וְכוּ'"212 עַד "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה".שמ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר הַתַּבְשִׁילִין מֵהַקְּעָרָה קֹדֶם הַהַגְבָּהָה, אֶלָּא יָכוֹל לְהַגְבִּיהָהּ עִם כָּל הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁעָלֶיהָ:שמא

37 There are those who are careful to say Kiha lachma or Ha kilachma, [i.e., “this is like the bread,”] because it is not appropriate to say ha lachma di achalu avhasana [“this is the bread that our ancestors ate,”] because this is not the actual bread our ancestors ate. Therefore, even though the wording in all texts [of the Haggadah] is Ha lachma, one who says Kiha lachma or Ha kilachma is not remiss.213

לז יֵשׁ מְדַקְדְּקִים לוֹמַר "כְּהָא לַחְמָא" אוֹ "הָא כְּלַחְמָא", לְפִי שֶׁאֵין שַׁיָּךְ לוֹמַר "הָא לַחְמָא דִּי אֲכָלוּ אַבְהָתָנָא", שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין זֶה הַלֶּחֶם מַמָּשׁ שֶׁאָכְלוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ.שמב וּלְפִיכָךְ, אַף שֶׁבְּכָל הַסְּפָרִים הַנֹּסַח הוּא: "הָא לַחְמָא",שמג מִכָּל מָקוֹם, הָאוֹמֵר: "כְּהָא לַחְמָא" אוֹ "הָא כְּלַחְמָא" – לֹא הִפְסִיד:שדמ,213

38 In the era of the Sages of the Gemara, there were small tables before each one of the participants [in the Seder. At this point in the Seder,]214 the Sages required206 that the small table positioned before the person leading the Seder together with the matzos on itbe removed, and placed in another corner, to [attract] the children’s attention and [motivate] them to ask,206 “Why are the matzos being removed, when we haven’t eaten yet?” As a result, they will be motivated to ask other questions, including the Mah nishtanah, as will be explained.215

In the later generations, when all the participants [in the Seder began to] eat at one large table, which it is difficult to remove, it became customary to remove the Seder plate with the matzos from before [the person] reciting the Haggadah and place it at the end of the table, as if [everyone had completed] eating so the children would ask questions.

In the present era, it is not customary to remove the Seder plate,216 because the children know that the main part of the meal will not be comprised of the matzos that are on the Seder plate. Therefore, they will not ask any questions when [those matzos] are removed from the table.

לח בִּימֵי חַכְמֵי הַגְּמָרָא שֶׁהָיוּ לָהֶם שֻׁלְחָנוֹת קְטַנִּים לִפְנֵי כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהַמְסֻבִּיןשמה – הִצְרִיכוּ חֲכָמִים206 לַעֲקֹר מִלִּפְנֵי מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר הַהַגָּדָהשמו אֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן הַקָּטָן שֶׁלְּפָנָיו214 עִם הַמַּצּוֹת הַמֻּנָּחוֹת עָלָיו וּלְהַנִּיחָם בְּזָוִית אַחֶרֶת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאוּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ:שמז,206 לָמָּה מְסִירִין הַמַּצּוֹת וַעֲדַיִן לֹא אָכַלְנוּ,שמח וְעַל יְדֵי כֵן יִתְעוֹרְרוּ לִשְׁאֹל גַּם כֵּן שְׁאָר הַשְּׁאֵלוֹת: "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה כוּ"',שמט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.שנ,215

וּבַדּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים שֶׁכָּל הַמְּסֻבִּין אוֹכְלִין עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד גָּדוֹל וְיֵשׁ טֹרַח גָּדוֹל בַּעֲקִירָתוֹשנא – נָהֲגוּ לַעֲקֹר הַקְּעָרָה שֶׁבָּהּ הַמַּצּוֹת מִלִּפְנֵי בַּעַל הַבַּיִת הָאוֹמֵר הַהַגָּדָה וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּסוֹף הַשֻּׁלְחָןשנב כְּאִלּוּ כְּבָר אָכְלוּ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁאֲלוּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת.שנג

וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין נוֹהֲגִין אֲפִלּוּ בַּעֲקִירַת הַקְּעָרָה,216 לְפִי שֶׁהַתִּינוֹקוֹת יוֹדְעִין שֶׁעִקַּר הָאֲכִילָה לֹא תִּהְיֶה מִמַּצּוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַּקְּעָרָה, וּלְפִיכָךְ לֹא יִשְׁאֲלוּ כְּלוּם כְּשֶׁיְּסִירֵן מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן:שנד

39 Afterwards,217 the second cup [of wine] should be poured.218 It is not necessary to wash and rinse the cup,219 because it was already washed and rinsed before [it was used for] Kiddush.

לט אַחַר כָּךְשנה,217 צָרִיךְ לִמְזֹג כּוֹס שֵׁנִי.שנו,218 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ שְׁטִיפָה וַהֲדָחָה,שנז,219 שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁטָפוֹ וֶהֱדִיחוֹ קֹדֶם הַקִּדּוּשׁ:שנח

40 Even though it is not necessary to hold the cup of wine in one’s hand until one reaches [the passage beginning] Lifichach, as will be explained,220 it is nevertheless necessary to pour the second cup immediately, before beginning the recitation of the Haggadah. [In this way,] the children will [be motivated to] ask, “Why are we drinking a second cup [of wine] before the meal?”, for it is not customary to drink in this manner on all the [other] days of the year.

In this manner, [the children] will be motivated to ask the other questions, [including] Mah nishtanah…. [In this way, one will have] his children fulfill [the charge implied by] the verses,221 “When in the future, your child will ask you, saying, ‘What are these testimonials, statutes, and judgments,’… and you shall tell your child, ‘We were slaves….?’ ”222

If the child lacks the level of understanding to ask, then his father is obligated to teach him to ask Mah nishtanah.218If a person does not have a child,223 his wife is obligated to ask him.218If [the person] does not have a wife, he should ask himself,224Mah nishtanah…?”218Even if two Torah scholars who are learned in the laws of Pesach [are sharing the Seder] together, one should ask the other, Mah nishtanah…?218

Afterwards, they both225 begin [reading] Avadim hayinu [i.e., “We were slaves….”]. It is not necessary for the second [scholar] to ask [the first in return] Mah nishtanah. Similarly, if one’s child or wife asked [the questions, the person conducting the Seder] need not ask Mah nishtanah.226Instead, he should begin Avadim hayinu.

מ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לֶאֱחֹז הַכּוֹס בְּיָדוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִ"לְפִיכָךְ" כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,שנט,220 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לִמְזֹג מִיָּד קֹדֶם הַתְחָלַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה,שס כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁאֲלוּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת: לָמָּה שׁוֹתִין כּוֹס שֵׁנִי קֹדֶם הַסְּעוּדָה,שסא שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת כֵּן בְּכָל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, וְעַל יְדֵי כָּךְ יִתְעוֹרְרוּ לִשְׁאֹל גַּם כֵּן שְׁאָר הַשְּׁאֵלוֹת: "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה וְכוּ'",שסב לְקַיֵּם לְבָנָיו מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר:שסג,221 "כִּי יִשְׁאָלְךָ בִנְךָ מָחָר לֵאמֹר מָה הָעֵדֹת וְהַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְגוֹ', וְאָמַרְתָּ לְבִנְךָ עֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ וְכוּ'".222

וְאִם אֵין דַּעַת בַּבֵּן לִשְׁאֹל – הֲרֵי אָבִיו חַיָּב לְלַמְּדוֹ לִשְׁאֹל "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה כוּ'".שסד,218 וְאִם אֵין לוֹ בֵּן223 – הֲרֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ חַיֶּבֶת לִשְׁאֹל אוֹתוֹ.שסה וְאִם אֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה – הוּא שׁוֹאֵל אֶת עַצְמוֹ224 "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה כוּ'".שסו,218

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מְסֻבִּין שְׁנֵי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים הַבְּקִיאִים בְּהִלְכוֹת פֶּסַח – שׁוֹאֵל אֶחָד מֵהֶם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה כוּ'".שסז,218 וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַתְחִילִין שְׁנֵיהֶםשסח,225 "עֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ", וְאֵין הַשֵּׁנִי צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה".שסט

וְכֵן כְּשֶׁהַבֵּן אוֹ הָאִשָּׁה שׁוֹאֲלִין אוֹתוֹ – אֵין הוּא צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה",226 אֶלָּא מַתְחִיל "עֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ":שע

41 [When asking the questions,] one must say, “[On all other nights,] we do not dip even once.” One should not say, “We are not obligated to dip even once,”227 because [the conclusion of the question], “this night, twice,” would not [be appropriate.218] That would imply that we are obligated to dip twice [at the Seder,] while in truth, we dip because of an obligation only once, i.e., [when we] dip the maror in the charoses.228 The first [time we dip] is not obligatory, but is performed [only] to arouse the children’s curiosity.229

מא צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר: "אֵין אָנוּ מַטְבִּילִין אֲפִלּוּ פַּעַם אֶחָת".שעא אֲבָל אֵין לוֹמַר: "אֵין אָנוּ חַיָּבִים לְטַבֵּל אֲפִלּוּ פַּעַם אֶחָת",שעב,227 לְפִי שֶׁאֵיךְ יֹאמַר: "הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה שְׁתֵּי פְעָמִים",218 שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מַשְׁמַע שֶׁחַיָּבִים לְהַטְבִּיל שְׁתֵּי פְעָמִים, וּבֶאֱמֶת אֵין מַטְבִּילִין מֵחֲמַת חִיּוּב אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת, דְּהַיְנוּ הַמָּרוֹר שֶׁמַּטְבִּילִין בַּחֲרֹסֶת,שעג,228 אֲבָל טִבּוּל הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵינוֹ מֵחֲמַת חִיּוּב, אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהַתְמִיהַּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת:שעד,229

42 “The father should teach his child, answering his questions according to the child’s level of understanding.”230 This refers to the recitation of the Haggadah, which is a positive Scriptural commandment.231 Even if the child did not ask [his father] anything, [the father should teach his child the story of the Exodus,] as it is written:221 “You shall tell your child on that day.” For this reason, it is necessary to recite the Haggadah in a language that children and women232 understand233 or explain the idea to them according to their level of understanding. If they [are capable of] understanding a lot, it should be explained to them in its entirety.

מב וּלְפִי דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל בֵּן אָבִיו מְלַמְּדוֹשעה הַתְּשׁוּבָה עַל שְׁאֵלוֹתָיו,230 דְּהַיְנוּ אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה, שֶׁהִיא מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָה231 אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא שָׁאַל אוֹתוֹ הַבֵּן כְּלוּם,שעו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרשעז,221 "וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְגוֹ'". וּלְפִיכָךְ, צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַהַגָּדָה בְּלָשׁוֹן שֶׁמְּבִינִים233 הַקְּטַנִּים וְהַנָּשִׁים,שעח,232 אוֹ יְפָרֵשׁ לָהֶם הָעִנְיָן לְפִי דַּעְתָּם, אִם הֵם מְבִינִים הַרְבֵּה – יְפָרֵשׁ לָהֶם הַכֹּל:שעט

43 The fundamental text of the Haggadah which our Sages ordained234 as an obligation for everyone [to recite or hear] is from the beginning of [the passage] Avadim hayinu [i.e., “We were slaves,”]235until [the words,] “…is worthy of being praised.

[The Sages ordained that] then [the passage,] “In the beginning, our ancestors worshipped idols,” should be recited until the conclusion of the exposition of the passage, “An Aramean sought to destroy my forefather.”236 Afterwards, [one must recite the passages beginning,]237 “The Pesach sacrifice that [our ancestors] would eat,” “This matzah,” “This maror,” “In every generation,” [including the verse,] “He brought us out from there,”238 and “Therefore…” until [the conclusion of the blessing], “Blessed are You, G‑d, Who redeemed Israel.”239

The remainder of the text of the Haggadah is a custom practiced by the entire Jewish people from the earlier generations [onward].240

מג וְעִקַּר נֹסַח הַהַגָּדָה שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים234 חוֹבָה עַל הַכֹּל, הוּא מִתְּחִלַּת "עֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ"שפ,235 עַד "הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח", וְאַחַר כָּךְשפא "מִתְּחִלָּה עוֹבְדֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה הָיוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ כוּ'"שפב עַד סוֹף דְּרוּשׁשפג פָּרָשַׁת "אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי",שפד,236 וְאַחַר כָּךְ237 "פֶּסַח שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִין כוּ', מַצָּה זוֹ כוּ', מָרוֹר זֶה כוּ',שפה בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר כוּ', וְאוֹתָנוּ הוֹצִיא מִשָּׁם כוּ',שפו,238 לְפִיכָךְ כוּ'", עַד "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' גָּאַל יִשְׂרָאֵל".שפז,239

וּשְׁאָר כָּל נֹסַח הַהַגָּדָה הוּא מִנְהָג שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִדּוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים:שפח,240

44 In the era when the table or the Seder plate that was placed before the person reciting the Haggadah was removed, it was necessary to return [the table]241 when he would begin the recitation of “We were slaves….” [The rationale is that] the Haggadah must be recited over the matzah,242 maror, charoses, and the two cooked foods, as explained above.243 Therefore, one must take care that the matzah is slightly uncovered until [the passage beginning] Lifichach.

At that point, it is customary for each person to raise his cup [of wine]244 and hold it in his hand until he concludes the blessing [“Blessed are You, G‑d,] Who redeemed Israel.”245 Therefore, it is appropriate to cover the matzos [at this time], so that the bread will not see its shame,246 when the cup [of wine] is being raised.

Similarly, when [the passage] Vehi she’amdah… (“It is this [promise] that has stood by…”) is recited, there are those who are accustomed to holding the cup [of wine] in their hand247 until [after the words,] “and the Holy One, blessed be He, saves us from their hand.” [Therefore,] it is appropriate that the matzah be covered [then] as well until the cup is placed on the table. Then, [the matzah] should be uncovered.

מד בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ מְסִירִין הַשֻּׁלְחָן אוֹ הַקְּעָרָה מִלִּפְנֵי הָאוֹמֵר הַגָּדָהשפט – הָיוּ צְרִיכִים לְהַחֲזִירָן לְפָנָיושצ,241 כְּשֶׁמַּתְחִיל "עֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ",שצא לְפִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַהַגָּדָה עַל מַצָּהשצב,242 וּמָרוֹר וַחֲרֹסֶת וּשְׁנֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.שצג,243 וְלָכֵן יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁתְּהֵא הַמַּצָּה מְגֻלָּה קְצָתשצד עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִ"לְפִיכָךְ",שצה שֶׁאָז נוֹהֲגִין לְהַגְבִּיהַּ כָּל אֶחָד כּוֹסוֹשצו,244 וְלֶאֱחֹז בְּיָדוֹשצז עַד שֶׁחוֹתֵם "גָּאַל יִשְׂרָאֵל".שצח,245 וּלְפִיכָךְ, נָכוֹן לְכַסּוֹת הַמַּצּוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִרְאֶה הַפַּת בָּשְׁתּוֹשצט,246 כְּשֶׁנּוֹטְלִין הַכּוֹס.ת

וְכֵן כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר "וְהִיא שֶׁעָמְדָה כוּ'", יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִיןתא לֶאֱחֹז הַכּוֹס בַּיָּדתב,247 עַד "וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַצִּילֵנוּ מִיָּדָם" – נָכוֹן גַּם כֵּן שֶׁתְּהֵא הַמַּצָּה מְכֻסָּהתג עַד שֶׁיַּעֲמִיד הַכּוֹס עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וְאָז יְגַלֶּנָּה:תד

45 When [the person conducting the Seder] reaches [the passage] “This matzah that we eat…,” he should lift the matzah248 and show it to the participants [in the Seder] so that the mitzvah [of eating matzah] will be dear to them. One should lift the middle [matzah, i.e.,] the one that was broken, that is called “the bread of affliction,” and with which one [will] fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah],249 as explained above.250 Similarly, when one reaches [the passage], “This maror,” one should lift the maror251 and show it to the participants. However, when one says “(This)252 Pesach offering that our ancestors…,” one should not lift the cooked food on the Seder plate that commemorates the Pesach sacrifice, so that it will not appear that he consecrated [the cooked food] for that purpose.253

מה כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְ"מַצָּה זוֹ שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹכְלִין כוּ'"תה – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הַמַּצָּהתו,248 לְהַרְאוֹתָהּ לְהַמְּסֻבִּין שֶׁתֵּחָבֵב הַמִּצְוָה עֲלֵיהֶם.תז וְיֵשׁ לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הָאֶמְצָעִית הַפְּרוּסָה שֶׁהִיא נִקְרֵאת "לֶחֶם עֹנִי"תח וּבָהּ הוּא יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ249 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תט,250 וְכֵן כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְ"מָרוֹר זֶה"תי – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הַמָּרוֹרתיא,251 לְהַרְאוֹתוֹ לַמְּסֻבִּין.תיב אֲבָל כְּשֶׁיֹּאמַר "פֶּסַח (זֶהתיג,252) שֶׁהָיוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ כוּ'"תיד – לֹא יַגְבִּיהַּ הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבַּקְּעָרָה שֶׁהוּא זֵכֶר לַפֶּסַח,תטו שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ הִקְדִּישׁוֹ לְכָךְ:תטז,253

46 [When reciting the phrase] vene’emar lifanav shirah chadashah; Halleluyah,254 the nun of vene’emar should be vocalized with a segol. The intent is [to stress the past tense of the word, i.e.], that Moshe and the Jewish people already recited a new song, i.e., the song [sung before G‑d at the Splitting] of the Sea, when they left Egypt. Also, there are [Sages]255 who maintain that Moshe and the Jewish people recited the Hallel [after the Splitting of the Sea].

One should not vocalize the nun with a cholem,256in which instance, [the phrase would] refer to the Future Redemption. Were that to be the case, the phrase should read venomar lifanav shir chadash in a masculine form,257for the Midrash258 teaches that all the songs the Jewish people recited are referred to as shirah, using the feminine form [for song], for all of the redemptions resembled a woman in childbirth who bore a son and then was relieved of the pain of the birth. Afterwards, she again gave birth amidst pain. Similarly, all the redemptions259 [experienced by the Jews] have been followed by exiles and difficulties.260 However, the Ultimate Redemption will not be followed by difficulty at all. Therefore, [concerning it, the verse] declares:261 “Sing to G‑d a new song (shir),” using the masculine term [for song]. For this reason, [when reciting] the blessing asher g’alanu,262 one must use the words shir chadash and not shirah chadashah in the phrase, “and we give thanks to You with a new song.”

מו "וְנֶאֱמַר לְפָנָיו שִׁירָה חֲדָשָׁה הַלְלוּיָהּ"תיז,254 – צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַנּוּ"ן שֶׁל "וְנֶאֱמַר" בְּסֶגוֹ"ל,תיח וְיִהְיֶה פֵּרוּשׁוֹ שֶׁכְּבָר אָמְרוּ לְפָנָיו מֹשֶׁה וְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִםתיט "שִׁירָה חֲדָשָׁה", דְּהַיְנוּ שִׁירַת הַיָּם,תכ וְגַם יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםתכא שֶׁמֹּשֶׁה וְיִשְׂרָאֵל אָמְרוּ אֶת הַהַלֵּל.תכב,255

אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר הַנּוּ"ן בְּחוֹלָם,256 [וְ] יִהְיֶה פֵּרוּשׁוֹ עַל גְּאֻלָּה הָעֲתִידָה, אִם כֵּן הָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר: "וְנֹאמַר לְפָנָיו שִׁיר חָדָשׁ",תכג בִּלְשׁוֹן זָכָר,257 שֶׁכָּךְ אָמְרוּ בַּמִּדְרָשׁ:תכד,258 כָּל הַשִּׁירוֹת נִקְרֵאת "שִׁירָה" לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה, כִּי תְּשׁוּעָתָם כְּיוֹלֶדֶת שֶׁהִמְלִיטָה זָכָרתכה וְנִפְטְרָה מִצַּעַר הַלֵּדָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ חוֹזֶרֶת וְיוֹלֶדֶת בְּצַעַר, כָּךְ כָּל הַגְּאֻלּוֹת259 הָיוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶן גָּלֻיּוֹת וְצָרוֹת,260 אֲבָל גְּאֻלָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה לֹא תִהְיֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ צָרָה כְּלָל, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַרתכו,261 "שִׁירוּ לַה' שִׁיר חָדָשׁ", לְשׁוֹן זָכָר.

וּלְפִיכָךְ, צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּבִרְכַּת "אֲשֶׁר גְּאָלָנוּ":262 "וְנוֹדֶה לְךָ שִׁיר חָדָשׁ", וְלֹא יֹאמַר "שִׁירָה חֲדָשָׁה":תכז

47 A blessing is not recited over the Hallel recited on this night,263 because it is not read as a single continuum. Instead, a portion is read before the meal and a portion [is read] after [reciting] Grace after Meals.264

מז אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הַהַלֵּל שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּלַיְלָה זֶה,תכח,263 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין קוֹרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּפַעַם אֶחָד, אֶלָּא קוֹרִין מִקְצָתוֹ לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה וּמִקְצָתוֹ לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן:תכט,264

48 Although, [generally,] Hallel is recited while standing, as explained in sec. 420,265 nevertheless, the Hallel recited on this night263 may even be recited while sitting. [The rationale is that] all the practices performed on this night [should be performed] in a manner that [bespeaks] freedom.266 Therefore, a person is not troubled to stand. Nevertheless, one should not read the Hallel or the Haggadah while leaning on his side. Instead, he should sit [upright] in awe and dread. See sec. 63[:1].267

מח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקְּרִיאַת הַהַלֵּל הִיא מְעֻמָּד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"כ,תל,265 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַהַלֵּל שֶׁבְּלַיְלָה זֶה263 קוֹרִין אֲפִלּוּ מְיֻשָּׁב, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַעֲשֵׂי לַיְלָה זֶה הוּא דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת,תלא,266 לְפִיכָךְ אֵין מַטְרִיחִין אוֹתוֹ לַעֲמֹד.תלב

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא יִקְרָא הַהַלֵּל וְהַהַגָּדָה כְּשֶׁהוּא מֻטֶּה עַל צִדּוֹ, אֶלָּא יֵשֵׁב בְּאֵימָה וּבְיִרְאָה,תלג עַיֵּן סִימָן ס"ג:תלד,267

49 In the blessing asher g’alanu,262 one should say min haZevachim (“from the sacrifices”) and then min haPesachim (“from the Pesach offerings”). [The rationale is that] the sacrifice [referred to in this blessing is] the chagigah offering, [which] was eaten on this night before the Pesach sacrifice so that the Pesach sacrifice would be eaten when one was sated.268

When Pesach falls on Saturday night, there are those who are precise in the matter and say min haPesachim u’min haZevachim (“from the Pesach offerings and from the sacrifices”), because the chagigah offering is not eaten on such a night,269 as explained above.270 [In this instance, the phrase] “the sacrifices” refer to the chagigah offerings and the festive peace-offerings that are offered on the following day during the day.271

There are others who are not precise regarding this matter and use one version uniformly.272 [The rationale is that] we are asking that G‑d bring us to other festivals that approach as we rejoice in His service and in the following year, when Pesach will not fall on Saturday night [in Jerusalem], we will eat first from the sacrifices, i.e., the chagigah offering which can be eaten on such a night, and then from the Pesach offering. [This applies] even [in a year] when according to the fixed calendar [we follow at present], in the following year, Pesach will fall on Saturday night. Nevertheless, when the Beis HaMikdash will be rebuilt, [the new moon] will be sanctified according to [when it] is sighted, and it is possible that [Pesach] will not fall on Saturday night.273

מט בְּבִרְכַּת "אֲשֶׁר גְּאָלָנוּ"262 צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "מִן הַזְּבָחִים" וְאַחַר כָּךְ "מִן הַפְּסָחִים", לְפִי שֶׁהַזֶּבַח הִיא הַחֲגִיגָה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת בְּלַיְלָה זֶה קֹדֶם אֲכִילַת הַפֶּסַח, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַפֶּסַח נֶאֱכָל עַל הַשֹּׂבַע.תלה,268 וּכְשֶׁחָל פֶּסַח בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – יֵשׁ מְדַקְדְּקִיןתלו לוֹמַר: "מִן הַפְּסָחִים וּמִן הַזְּבָחִים", שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין חֲגִיגָה נֶאֱכֶלֶת בְּלַיְלָה זֶה269 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,תלז,270 וְהַזְּבָחִים הֵם הַחֲגִיגָה וְשַׁלְמֵי שִׂמְחָה שֶׁמַּקְרִיבִין לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם.תלח,271

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵין מְדַקְדְּקִין בְּכָךְתלט וְאוֹמְרִים הַכֹּל נֹסַח אֶחָד,272 שֶׁהֲרֵי אָנוּ מְבַקְּשִׁיםתמ שֶׁ"יַּגִּיעֵנוּ ה' לְמוֹעֲדִים הַבָּאִים שָׂשִׂים בַּעֲבוֹדָתוֹ", וְשָׁם נֹאכַל לְשָׁנָה הַבָּאָה, כְּשֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה פֶּסַח בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, מִן הַזְּבָחִים מִתְּחִלָּה, דְּהַיְנוּ מֵחֲגִיגָה שֶׁנֶּאֱכֶלֶת בְּלַיְלָה זֶה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מִן הַפְּסָחִים. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם עַל פִּי חֶשְׁבּוֹן הַקְּבִיעוּת הַמָּסוּר בְּיָדֵינוּ יִהְיֶה פֶּסַח הַבָּא בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כְּשֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ יְקַדְּשׁוּ עַל פִּי הָרְאִיָּה,תמא וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת:273

50 [During the recitation of the Haggadah,] it is customary to sprinkle a bit of [the wine] from one’s cup when he reaches [the phrase], “Blood, fire, and columns of smoke,” when he mentions the Ten Plagues by name, and similarly, when he mentions them in groupings, i.e., de­tzach, adash, b’achav, [sprinkling a bit of wine for each word, sprinkling] a total of 16 times. [The Hebrew letters ו”י have the numerical value of 16, and thus] recall the sword of the Holy One, blessed be He, that is called יוה"ך.274 [This is the name of] the angel charged with executing vengeance.

נ נוֹהֲגִין לִזְרֹק מְעַט מִן הַכּוֹס כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְ"דָם וָאֵשׁ וְתִמְרוֹת עָשָׁן", וְכֵן כְּשֶׁמַּזְכִּיר הַמַּכּוֹת בִּשְׁמוֹתָן בִּפְרָט, וְכֵן כְּשֶׁמַּזְכִּירָן בִּכְלָל, דְּהַיְנוּ "דְּצַ"ךְ עֲדַ"שׁ בְּאַחַ"ב",תמב סַךְ הַכֹּל י"ו פְּעָמִים,תמג כְּנֶגֶד חַרְבּוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁנִּקְרֵאת יוה"ך,274 וְהוּא מַלְאָךְ הַמְמֻנֶּה עַל הַנְּקָמָה:תמד

51 It is customary to sprinkle a small amount [of the wine] from the cup with the finger that is closest to the thumb, [i.e., the index finger. This finger] is referred to as etzba without any further description.275 Thus, it recalls the verse,276 “It is the finger of G‑d.” Others are accustomed to sprinkle [the wine] with the finger call kemitzah (the ring finger) because it is with this finger that the Holy One, blessed be He, struck the Egyptians.277 There are some who pour [the wine] from the cup itself because of [esoteric] reasons known to them278and do not [sprinkle it] with their fingers.279

נא וְנוֹהֲגִין לִזְרֹק מְעַט מִן הַכּוֹס בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹתמה הַסָּמוּךְ לַגּוּדָל, שֶׁהוּא נִקְרָא אֶצְבַּע סְתָם,תמו,275 רֶמֶז עַל מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּבתמז,276 "אֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים הִיא".תמח וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִיןתמט לִזְרֹק בָּאֶצְבַּע הַנִּקְרָא קְמִיצָה, לְפִי שֶׁבְּאֶצְבַּע זוֹ הִכָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמִצְרַיִם,תנ,277 וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִיןתנא מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶם278 לִזְרֹק מִן הַכּוֹס עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא עַל יְדֵי אֶצְבַּע:279

52 A blind person is obligated to recite the Haggadah [by heart] or to hear it [read by others] according to Scriptural Law.280 Therefore, he may fulfill the obligation on behalf of others.281 [This ruling applies] even if [the person] is blind from birth.

נב סוּמָא חַיָּב בִּקְרִיאַת הַהַגָּדָה אוֹ בִּשְׁמִיעָתָהּתנב מִן הַתּוֹרָה.תנג,280 וּלְפִיכָךְ, הוּא מוֹצִיא הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן,תנד,281 אַף אִם הוּא סוּמָא מֵעֵת הִוָּלְדוֹ:תנה

53 An incident occurred regarding a person who was held prisoner by non-Jews and did not know the wording of the Haggadah by heart. He had a Chumash in his possession and [on the Seder night], he recited all the passages relating the Exodus from Egypt.282

נג מַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה תָּפוּס בִּידֵי נָכְרִים וְלֹא יָדַע בַּאֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה בְּעַל פֶּה, וְהָיָה לוֹ חֻמָּשׁ וְאָמַר כָּל הַפָּרָשִׁיּוֹת שֶׁל יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם:תנו,282