1

A Festival cancels the seven-day and the thirty day periods of mourning. Thus, if one buries his dead before a Festival, and observed some time in mourning, as soon as the Festival begins, his mourning is suspended. Even if the burial took place on the eve of Yom Tov, toward the close of the day, so that the laws of mourning pertained to him, even if he merely removed his shoes for just a short time before Yom Tov, the Festival suspends the mourning, and we consider it as though he had observed the entire seven days of mourning. The first day of the Yom Tov is counted as the eighth day,1 and he then completes the thirty day mourning period. Even if the eve of Yom Tov is Shabbos, and he received timely news towards the evening, although on Shabbos the only laws of mourning observed are those concerning his private life, since at least these laws were observed, the Festival cancels the seven days of mourning.

א

הָרֶגֶל, מְבַטֵּל גְזֵרַת שִׁבְעָה וּגְזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים. כֵּיצַד. הַקּוֹבֵר אֶת מֵתוֹ קֹדֶם הָרֶגֶל וְנָהַג אֲבֵלוּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא הָרֶגֶל, מַפְסִיק אֶת הָאֲבֵלוּת. וַאֲפִלּוּ נִקְבַּר בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב לְעֵת עֶרֶב בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁחָלָה עָלָיו אֲבֵלּוּת, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁחָלַץ מִנְעָלָיו רַק שָׁעָה מֻעֶטֶת קֹדֶם יוֹם טוֹב, מַפְסִיק אֶת הָאֲבֵלוּת וְנֶחְשָׁב לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ כְּבָר נָהַג אֲבֵלוּת כָּל שִׁבְעָה, וְיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן הוּא שְׁמִינִי, וּמַשְׁלִים עַד שְׁלֹשִׁים (וְעַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סָעִיף ח). וַאֲפִלּו אִם הָיָה עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב בְּיוֹם שַׁבָּת וְשָׁמַע שְׁמוּעָה קְרוֹבָה סָמוּךְ לָעֶרֶב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבַּשַׁבָּת אֵין נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא דְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּצִנְעָא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנָּהַג אֲפִלּוּ רַק בָּזֶה, גַּם כֵּן הָרֶגֶל מְבַטֵל אֶת הַשִׁבְעָה.

2

If the mourner either inadvertently or intentionally neglected to observe any mourning2 before the Festival, or if the burial took place close to nightfall, whereby he was unable to observe any mourning, the Festival does not cancel it, and he is subject to the same law as one who buries his dead during a Festival.

ב

שָׁגַג אוֹ הֵזִיד וְלֹא נָהַג אֲבֵלוּת קֹדֶם הָרֶגֶל אוֹ שֶׁנִּקְבַּר הַמֵּת סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְלֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִנְהוֹג אֲבֵלוּת, אֵין הָרֶגֶל מְבַטֵּל, וְדִינוֹ כְּדִין קוֹבֵר מֵתוֹ בָּרֶגֶל.

3

If one of the days of mourning, except the seventh day, occurs on the eve of a Festival, since the Festival will cancel the seven-day mourning period, some Poskim permit him to wash his clothes, provided he does not wear them until nightfall. It is best to take care not to wash them until the afternoon,3 so that it is evident that he is washing them on account of the Festival. He is forbidden to bathe until nightfall, but some Poskim permit bathing4 after the Minchah service,5 close to nightfall. In places where this custom prevails one may follow it. With regard to having his hair cut, all Poskim agree that it is forbidden.

ג

אִם חָל אֶחָד מִימֵי הָאֲבֵלוּת חוּץ מִיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּעֶרֶב הָרֶגֶל, יֵשׁ מַתִּירִין לְכַבֵּס כְּסוּתוֹ, וְלֹא יִלְבָּשֶׁנָּה עַד הַלַּיְלָה, כֵּיוָן דְּהָרֶגֶל יְבַטֵּל גְּזֵרַת שִׁבְעָה. וְטוֹב לִזָּהֵר מִלְּכַבֵּס עַד לְאַחַר חֲצוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִהְיֶה נִכָּר שֶׁמִּפְנֵי הָרֶגֶל הוּא מְכַבֵּס. וְלִרְחוֹץ, אָסוּר עַד הַלָּיְלָה. וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִין לִרְחוֹץ אַחַר תְּפִלַּת מִנְחָה סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה. וְהֵיכָא דְנָהוּג, נָהוּג. וּבְגִלּוּחַ, לְכֻלֵּי עָלְמָא, אָסוּר.

4

If he buried his dead seven days before the Festival, since he observed seven days of mourning before the Festival, the Festival cancels the thirty day mourning period. This is true even when the seventh day occurs on the day before Yom Tov; since we maintain that part of the day is like an entire day; as soon as the people leave the synagogue (in the morning), the seven day mourning period has been completed, and the remainder of the day is counted as part of the thirty-day mourning period, which is cancelled by the Festival. The mourner may wash his clothing, bathe, and have his hair cut on the eve of the Festival towards nightfall.6 since he is doing it in honor of the Festival, and the Festival cancels the thirty-day mourning period. If the seventh day occurs on the eve of Pesach, since the afternoon which is the time the Pascal lamb was offered, is regarded somewhat as a Yom Tov, he is permitted to bathe immediately after midday and to have his hair cut before noon (since after midday, another person is forbidden to cut his hair for him).

ד

קָבַר אֶת מֵתוֹ שִׁבְעָה יָמִים לִפְנֵי הָרֶגֶל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנָּהַג שִׁבְעָה קֹדֶם הָרֶגֶל, הָרֶגֶל מְבַטֵל גְּזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, כֵּיוָן דְּאָמְרִינָן מִקְצָת הַיּוֹם כְּכֻלוֹ, הֲרֵי לְאַחַר יְצִיאָה מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, נִשְׁלְמוּ הַשִּׁבְעָה, וּשְׁאָר הַיוֹם הוּא בְּתוֹרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים, וּבָא הָרֶגֶל וּמַפְסִיק, וּמֻתָּר לְכַבֵּס וְלִרְחוֹץ וּלְגַלֵּחַ בְּעֶרֶב הָרֶגֶל סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה לִכְבוֹד הָרֶגֶל, וְהָרֶגֶל מְבַטֵּל גְּזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים. וּבְעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, כֵּיוָן דִּלְאַחַר חֲצוֹת שֶׁהוּא זְמַן שְׁחִיטַת הַפֶּסַח, נֶחְשָׁב קְצָת כְּמוֹ יוֹם טוֹב, מֻתָּר בִּרְחִיצָה תֵּכֶף לְאַחַר חֲצוֹת, וּבְגִלּוּחַ קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת (כֵּיוָן דִּלְאַחַר חֲצוֹת אָסוּר לְאַחֵר שֶׁיְגַלֵּחַ אוֹתוֹ).

5

If the seventh day of mourning occurs on Friday, and Shabbos will be the eve of Yom Tov, he is permitted to wash his clothing, bathe, and have his hair cut on the eve of Shabbos.7

ה

חָל שְׁבִיעִי שֶׁלּוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, וְיוֹם הַשַׁבָּת יִהְיֶה עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, מֻתָּר לְכַבֵּס וְלִרְחוֹץ וּלְגַלֵּחַ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת.

6

If a mourner neglected to have his hair cut on the eve of Shabbos, or on the eve of Yom Tov, he is forbidden to have his hair cut on Chol Hamoed, since he was able to have his hair cut before then. He is, however, permitted to have his hair cut after Yom Tov. If the seventh day of mourning occurred on Shabbos, which is the eve of Yom Tov, since from the standpoint of the laws of mourning he was allowed to have his hair cut then, but was prevented because of Shabbos, it is considered as though he was prevented by an accident, and he is, therefore, permitted to have his hair cut even on Chol Hamoed.

ו

אִם לֹא גִלַּח אֶת עַצְמוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אוֹ בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, אָסוּר לוֹ לְגַלֵּחַ בְּחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה יָכוֹל לְגַלֵּחַ מִקֹּדֶם. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹ לְגַלֵּחַ לְאַחַר יוֹם טוֹב. וְאִם חָל שְׁבִיעִי שֶׁלּוֹ בְשַׁבָּת שֶׁהוּא עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּצַד הָאֲבֵלוּת הָיָה יָכוֹל לְגַלֵּחַ אֶלָּא שֶׁהַשַׁבָּת עִכְּבוֹ, אִם כֵּן הֲוֵי לֵהּ אָנוּס, וּמֻתָּר לְגַלֵּחַ אֶת עַצְמוֹ גַּם בְּחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד.

7

A Festival cancels the thirty-day mourning period, only if the mourning is for other relatives; but if he is mourning for his father or mother, since he is forbidden to have his hair cut until his friends reprove him,8 the Festival does not cancel this regulation.

ז

הָא דְרֶגֶל מְבַטֵּל גְּזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים, דַּוְקָא עַל שְׁאָר מֵתִים. אֲבָל עַל אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ שֶׁאָסוּר לְגַלֵּחַ עַד שֶׁיִגְעֲרוּ בוֹ חֲבֵרָיו, אֵין הָרֶגֶל מְבַטֵּל זֹאת.

8

If one had observed mourning for one hour, (not exactly, but even less than an hour) before Pesach, that hour is considered like seven days, which together with the eight days of Pesach, make a total of fifteen days, to which he must add another fifteen days to complete the thirty-day mourning period. If he observed mourning for one hour before Shavuos, that hour is regarded as seven days, and the first day of Shavuos is also regarded as seven days (since its sacred offerings can be brought on any of the following seven days,) and the second day of Shavuos is counted as his fifteenth day, after which he must add another fifteen days. If he observed mourning for one hour before the Festival of Sukkos, it is counted as seven days, which together with the seven days of Sukkos make a total of fourteen days. The Festival of Shemini Atzeress is also counted as seven days (for it is a Festival in its own right, and amends9 can be made for its sacrifices), making it a total of twenty-one days. The day of Simchas Torah counts as the twenty-second day, and he must add another eight days.

ח

נָהַג שָׁעָה אַחַת (לָאו דַּוְקָא שָׁעָה אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ פָחוֹת) לִפְנֵי פֶסַח, אוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה חֲשׁוּבָה כְּמוֹ שִׁבְעָה, וּשְׁמוֹנָה יְמֵי פֶסַח (בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ) הֲרֵי לוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם, וּמַשְׁלִים עוֹד חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר לְמִנְיַן שְׁלֹשִׁים. נָהַג שָׁעָה אַחַת לִפְנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת, אוֹתָה שָׁעָה הִיא כְּמוֹ שִׁבְעָה, וְיוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל שָׁבוּעוֹת נֶחְשָׁב גַּם כֵּן שִׁבְעָה יָמִים (כֵּיוָן שֶׁקָּרְבְּנוֹתָיו יֵש לָהֶם תַּשְׁלוּמִין כָּל שִׁבְעָה). וְיוֹם שֵׁנִי שֶׁל שָׁבוּעוֹת הוּא לוֹ יוֹם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר, וּמַשְׁלִים אַחַר כָּךְ גַּם כֵּן עוֹד חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם. נָהַג שָׁעָה אַחַת לִפְנֵי חַג הַסֻכּוֹת, הֲרֵי שִׁבְעָה. וְשִׁבְעָה יְמֵי סֻכּוֹת, הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם. וּשְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת נֶחְשָׁב גַּם כֵּן לְשִׁבְעָה (שֶׁהוּא רֶגֶל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְיֵשׁ לְקָרְבְּנוֹתָיו תַּשְׁלוּמִין) הֲרֵי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם. וְיוֹם שִׂמְחַת תּוֹרָה, יוֹם הָעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁנַיִם, וּמַשְׁלִים עוֹד שְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים.

9

Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are also considered Festivals with regard to canceling the seven and thirty-day mourning periods. Thus, if one observed mourning for one hour before Rosh Hashanah, Rosh Hashanah cancels the seven day period, and Yom Kippur cancels the thirty-day period. If he observed mourning for one hour before Yom Kippur, Yom Kippur cancels the seven day period,10 and Sukkos cancels the thirty-day period.

ט

רֹאשׁ הַשָׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, נֶחְשָׁבִים גַּם כֵּן כִּרְגָלִים לְעִנְיַן בִּטּוּל שִׁבְעָה וּשְׁלשִׁים. נָהַג שָׁעָה אַחַת לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, בִּטֵּל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה גְּזֵרַת שִׁבְעָה, וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְבַטֵּל גְּזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים. נָהַג שָׁעָה אַחַת לִפְנֵי יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, בִּטֵּל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שִׁבְעָה, וְחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת מְבַטֵּל שְׁלֹשִׁים.

10

Although a Festival cancels the seven-day mourning period, nevertheless, the candle that is customarily lit in the place where the death occurred, to honor the soul of the deceased, should also be lit on Yom Tov. However, it is better to light it in the synagogue.

י

אַף עַל גַּב דְּרֶגֶל מְבַטֵּל שִׁבְעָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מַה שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהַדְלִיק נֵר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמֵּת לִכְבוֹד הַנְּשָׁמָה, יַדְלִיקו גַּם בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם טוֹב יוֹתֵר לְהַדְלִיק בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת (אוֹרַח חַיִּים סִימָן תקמח, יו"ד סִימָן שצט).