1

On Shabbos during the seven days of mourning, the mourner must observe the laws that concern his private life. This means he is forbidden to have marital relations, and to bathe.1 But he should not observe any mourning in public. Therefore, before saying "Mizmor Shir Leyom Ha'Shabbos" he should put on his shoes, sit on a chair, and change his torn garment, as stated above, Chapter 195:6. Torah study is considered a private mattes,2 but, to review the weekly portion of the Torah, the Scripture twice, and the Targum once,3 is permissible. Since it is the duty of every Jew to complete the weekly portion of the Torah, it is likened to the reading of the Shema, and other such portions of the daily prayers.

א

שַׁבָּת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַשִׁבְעָה, נוֹהֵג בָּה דְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּצִנְעָא, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָסוּר בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה וּבִרְחִיצָה. אֲבָל דְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּפַרְהֶסְיָא, אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג. וְלָכֵן קֹדֶם מִזְמוֹר שִׁיר לְיוֹם הַשַׁבָּת, נוֹעֵל אֶת הַמִּנְעָלִים, וְיוֹשֵׁב עַל כִּסֵּא, וּמַחֲלִיף אֶת הַבֶּגֶד הַקָּרוּעַ, כְּדִלְעֵיל סִימָן קצה, סָעִיף ו. וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה, הֲוֵי דָּבָר שֶׁבְּצִנְעָא. אֲבָל לַחֲזוֹר אֶת הַפָּרָשָׁה שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגוּם, מֻתָּר, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁחַיָּב אָדָם לְהַשְׁלִים פָּרָשִׁיּוֹתָיו, הֲוֵי לֵהּ כְקוֹרֵא אֶת שְׁמַע וְכַדּוֹמֶה מִסֵּדֶר הַיוֹם.

2

If the mourner was called to the reading of the Torah, he must go up, for if he were to refuse, it would constitute a public display of mourning. Rabbeinu Tam used to be called to the Torah to the reading of the third portion every Shabbos; and when he happened to be in mourning and the Chazzan failed to call him, he went up himself. He said that since he had been accustomed to read the third portion every Shabbos, those who would see that he did not go up this day would understand that it was due to his mourning, and this would be a public display of mourning. Also, if a Kohein is a mourner, and there is no other Kohein in the synagogue, they must call him up to the reading of the Torah. However, it is preferable that he leave the synagogue4 before the Seifer Torah is taken out of the Aron HaKodesh. Also, if the mourner has a son to be circumcised and it is the custom that he must go up to the Torah reading, they should call him up. For if they do not call him, it constitutes a public display of mourning.5 But it is preferable that he not be in the synagogue during the reading of the Torah.6 (As for a woman whose time has come to go to the synagogue occurs on the Shabbos during her mourning, see chapter 211:11, above.)

ב

אִם קָרְאוּ אֶת הָאָבֵל לַעֲלוֹת לַתּוֹרָה, צָרִיךְ לַעֲלוֹת. כִּי אִם הָיָה נִמְנָע, הֲוֵי דָּבָר שֶׁבְּפַרְהֶסְיָא. וְרַבֵּינוּ תָּם הָיוּ קוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּכָל שַׁבָּת לִשְׁלִישִׁי, וְאֵרַע לוֹ אֵבֶל וְלֹא קְרָאוֹ הַחַזָן, וְעָלָה הוּא מֵעַצְמוֹ וְאָמַר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻרְגַּל לִקְרוֹת שְׁלִישִׁי בְּכָל שַׁבָּת, הָרוֹאֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה הַיּוֹם, יֵדַע שֶׁהוּא מֵחֲמַת אֲבֵלוּת, וַהֲוֵי פַרְהֶסְיָא. וְכֵן אִם הַכֹּהֵן הוּא אָבֵל וְאֵין כֹּהֵן אַחֵר בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, צְרִיכִין לִקְרוֹתוֹ. אֲבָל יוֹתֵר טוֹב שֶׁיֵצֵא מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת קֹדֶם הוֹצָאַת סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה. וְכֵן אִם יֵשׁ לְאָבֵל בֵּן לָמוּל וְהַמִּנְהָג שֶׁהוּא חִיוּב לַעֲלוֹת לַתּוֹרָה, יִקְרָאוּהוּ. דְּאִם לֹא יִקְרָאוּהוּ, הֲוֵי פַרְהֶסְיָא, וְיוֹתֵר טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בְּבֵית הַכְנֶסֶת בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה. (אִשָּׁה שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּה לָלֶכֶת לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁבִּימֵי אֶבְלָהּ, עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן ריא סָעִיף יא)

3

If one is officially appointed by the congregation to be the reader of the Torah in the synagogue on Shabbos, and he became a mourner on the Shabbos of the first seven days, he should not go to that synagogue; for if he is present there, it will raise the question if he should read or not.

ג

הַמְמֻנֶּה מֵהַקָּהָל לִהְיוֹת קוֹרֵא בַתּוֹרָה בְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֵרַע לוֹ אֵבֶל, לֹא יֵלֵךְ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ שִׁבְעָה לְבֵית כְּנֶסֶת זֶה. כִּי אִם יִהְיֶה שָׁם, יֵש לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם יִקְרָא אוֹ לֹא.

4

Shabbos is included in the seven days of mourning. Even if he received timely news of the death of a relative on Shabbos, when he had not yet begun mourning, it is still counted as one of the seven days, and at the conclusion of the Shabbos, he must tear his garments.

ד

שַׁבָּת עוֹלָה לְמִנְיַן שִׁבְעָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁמַע שְׁמוּעָה קְרוֹבָה בְּיוֹם שַׁבָּת, שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל עֲדַיִן כְּלָל בַּאֲבֵלוּת, עוֹלָה לוֹ גַּם כֵּן, וּבְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת קוֹרֵעַ.

5

If he buried his dead, or received timely news of his relatives death, on a Yom Tov, whether on Yom Tov itself, or on Chol Hamoed, he is not subject to the laws of mourning,7 until after the Yom Tov. This rule applies to the observance of mourning in public. But the laws concerning his private life must be observed even on a Yom Tov. He should not change his garments,8 9 for this would constitute a public display of mourning. (Although every other mourner must change his clothing during a Yom Tov, nevertheless, this person who has not yet begun to mourn, should not change his garments during the Festival). One who puts on Tefillin during Chol Hamoed, should also put them on on the first day after the burial.10

ה

הַקּוֹבֵר אֶת מֵתוֹ אוֹ שָׁמַע שְׁמוּעָה קְרוֹבָה (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן רו) בָּרֶגֶל, בֵּין בְּיוֹם טוֹב בֵּין בְּחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד, לֹא חָלָה עָלָיו אֲבֵלוּת עַד לְאַחַר הָרֶגֶל. (וְדִין אֲנִנוּת, עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן קצו). וְהַנֵי מִלֵּי, בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁל פַּרְהֶסְיָא. אֲבָל דְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּצִנְעָא, נוֹהֵג גַּם בָּרֶגֶל. לֹא יַחֲלִיף בְּגָדָיו, דְּזֶה הֲוֵי פַרְהֶסְיָא. (וְאַף עַל גַּב דִּשְׁאָר אָבֵל מְשַׁנֶה בְגָדָיו גַּם בַּרֶגֶל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם זֶה שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל עֲדַיִן אֲבֵלוּת, אֵין לוֹ לְשַׁנּוֹת בָּרֶגֶל). וּמִי שֶׁמַּנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין בְּחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד, יַנִּיחַ גַּם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַקְּבוּרָה.

6

At the conclusion of Yom Tov, he begins to count the seven days of mourning. The last day of Yom Tov is counted as one of the seven days and he counts six days after it. Even the second day of Rosh Hashanah is included in the seven days.

ו

לְאַחַר הָרֶגֶל, מַתְחִיל לִמְנוֹת שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי אֲבֵלוּת, וְיוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב עוֹלֶה לוֹ לְמִנְיָן, וּמוֹנֶה אַחֲרָיו שִׁשָה יָמִים. וַאֲפִלוּ יוֹם שֵׁנִי שֶל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה גַּם כֵּן עוֹלֶה לוֹ לְמִנְיָן.

7

Although the laws of mourning do not apply on Yom Tov and Chol Hamoed, and even the laws of the thirty days of mourning do not apply, and he is permitted to wear pressed garments; nevertheless, since he is forbidden to have his hair cut because of the Yom Tov, the days of the Yom Tov are included in the thirty days and the thirty days are counted from the day the burial took place. Although Shemini Atzeress is a Yom Tov by itself, nevertheless, since he has not yet begun mourning, it does not cancel the period of mourning and in the total of thirty days, it counts as only one day.

ז

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אֲבֵלוּת בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּבְחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד, וַאֲפִלּוּ גְזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים אֵין בָּהֶם, וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לִלְבּוֹשׁ בְּגָדִים מְגֹהָצִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן דְאָסוּר בָּהֶם בְּגִלּוּחַ מֵחֲמַת הַמּוֹעֵד (כְּדִלְעֵיל סִימָן קד סָעִיף יא), לָכֵן עוֹלִין לְמִנְיַן שְׁלֹשִׁים, וּמוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשִׁים מִיּוֹם הַקְּבוּרָה. וְיוֹם שְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רֶגֶל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל עֲדַיִן בַּאֲבֵלוּת, אֵינוֹ מְבַטֵּל, וְגַם בְמִנְיַן הַשְׁלֹשִׁים אֵינוֹ נִמְנֶה רַק לְיוֹם אֶחָד.

8

However, if a bridegroom marries before a Yom Tov, and the Yom Tov occurs in the middle of the wedding week, and his relative died during the Yom Tov, then the days of his wedding week, are not included in the total of thirty days.

ח

אֲבָל חָתָן שֶׁנָּשָׂא אִשָׁה קֹדֶם הָרֶגֶל, וּבָא הָרֶגֶל תּוֹךְ שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה, וּמֵת לוֹ מֵת בְתוֹךְ הָרֶגֶל, אֲזַי כָּל שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה שֶׁלּוֹ, אֵינָן עוֹלִין לוֹ לְמִנְיַן שְׁלֹשִׁים (וְעַיֵּן לְעֵיל סוֹף סִימָן ריג).

9

Although no mourning is observed on a Yom Tov, it is still proper to console the mourner (this does not constitute mourning, since the mourner himself does nothing). After the Yom Tov, at the end of seven days from the burial, although, as yet, the seven days of mourning have not expired, he may employ11 others to do his work12 in their homes, and his servants may work for him privately in his home. It is not necessary to console him after the Yom Tov, for as many days as they comforted him during the Yom Tov, but they should visit him during those days.

ט

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אֲבֵלוּת בָרֶגֶל, מִתְעַסְּקִין בּוֹ לְנַחֲמוֹ (וְאֵין בָזֶה מִשּׁוּם אֲבֵלוּת, כֵּיוָן דְּהָאָבֵל לָאו מִדִּי קָעֲבֵד). וּלְאַחַר הָרֶגֶל כְּשֶׁיִכְלוּ שִׁבְעָה מִיּוֹם הַקְּבוּרָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא כָלוּ שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הָאֲבֵלוּת, מְלַאכְתּוֹ נַעֲשֵׂית עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים בְּבָתֵּיהֶם, וַעֲבָדָיו עוֹשִׂין לוֹ בְצִנְעָא בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. וְאֵין צְרִיכִין לְנַחֲמוֹ אַחַר הָרֶגֶל מִנְיַן הַיָמִים שֶׁנִּחֲמוּהוּ בָרֶגֶל, אֲבָל מַרְאִין לוֹ פָּנִים (דִּין אָבֵל בְּפוּרִים, עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן קמא סָעִיף כ, וְסִימָן קמב סָעִיף ז).