1

If you borrow or rent an animal or other articles from your neighbor, you are not permitted to lend them or rent them to another party without the consent of the owner. Even in the case of sacred books, the lending of which is a meritorious act, we do not assume that the owner would want to have a mitzvah done with his property, for it is possible he does not want his property in the possession of someone who may not be trustworthy in his eyes. However, if you borrow a book, you may allow someone else to study from it in your house, provided he studies from it alone and not two [of you] together. If it is known that the owner is accustomed to trust this other party in such matters, the borrower is permitted to lend it to him, and the renter is permitted to rent it to him.

א

הַשׁוֹאֵל אוֹ הַשּׂוֹכֵר בְּהֵמָה אוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי, לֹא לְהַשְׁאִילָם וְלֹא לְהַשְׂכִּירָם לְאַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת בְּעָלִים. אֲפִלּוּ סְפָרִים שֶׁיֵשׁ מִצְוָה בְּהַשְׁאָלָתָן, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, מִן הַסְּתָם נִיחָא לַבְּעָלִים שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה מִצְוָה בְּמָמוֹנָם, כִּי שֶׁמָּא אֵין רְצוֹנָם שֶׁיְהֵא דָבָר שֶׁלָּהֶם בְּיַד אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן בְּעֵינֵיהֶם. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לַשּׁוֹאֵל סֵפֶר לְהַנִּיחַ לְאַחֵר לִלְמֹד בּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִלְמַד, רַק יְחִידִי, וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּיָחַד. וְאִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁדַּרְכָּן שֶׁל הַבְּעָלִים לְהַאֲמִין לָזֶה הַשֵּׁנִי בִּדְבָרִים כָּאֵלּוּ, מֻתָּר הַשּׁוֹאֵל לְהַשְּׁאִיל לוֹ וְהַשּׂוֹכֵר לְהַשְּׂכִּיר לוֹ.

2

It is a mitzvah to pay the wages of a hired workman on time, and if you delay such payment, you are transgressing a negative commandment, as it is said, "On the same day you shall give him his wages, and the sun shall not go down on it."1 It is also a mitzvah to pay for the hire of an animal or a utensil at the proper time, and if you delay such payment, you are transgressing a negative command, as it is said "You shall not oppress a hired worker who is poor and needy etc., in the same day you must give his wage."2 What is the proper time? If he finished his work during the day, he should be paid before the end of that day. If the day has passed and you still did not pay him, you are transgressing the mitzvah of "In the same day you should give him his wage, and the sun shall not go down on it."3 If he finished his work during the evening, he should be paid during that night. If the night passed and you had not paid him, you are transgressing the negative command, "The wages of your worker shall not abide with you (all the night) until the morning."4 Similarly, a workman who is hired by the week, or month, or year, if he has finished his work during the day, he should be paid during that day; if he finished during the night, he should be paid during that night and not later.

ב

מִצְוָה לָתֵת שְׂכַר פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר בִּזְמַנּוֹ. וְאִם אֵחַר, עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר, בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ וְלֹא תָבוֹא עָלָיו הַשֶׁמֶשׁ. וּכְמוֹ כֵן מִצְוָה לָתֵת שְׂכַר בְּהֵמָה אוֹ כְלִי בִּזְמַנּוֹ. וְאִם אַחֲרוֹ, עוֹבֵר בְּלָאו, שֶנֶּאֱמַר, לֹא תַעֲשׂק שָׂכִיר עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן וְגוֹ' בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ. וְאֵיזֶהוּ זְמַנּוֹ. אִם כָּלְתָה הַמְּלָאכָה בַּיּוֹם, זְמַנּוֹ כָּל הַיּוֹם. וְאִם עָבַר הַיּוֹם וְלֹא נָתַן לוֹ, עוֹבֵר עַל בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ וְלֹא תָבוֹא עָלָיו הַשֶׁמֶשׁ. וְאִם כָּלְתָה הַמְּלָאכָה לְאַחַר שֶׁיָצָא הַיוֹם וְנִכְנַס הַלַּיְלָה, זְמַנוֹ כָּל הַלָּיְלָה. עָבַר הַלַּיְלָה וְלֹא נָתַן לוֹ, עוֹבֵר עַל לֹא תָלִין פְּעֻלַת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד בֹּקֶר. וְכֵן שְׂכִיר שָׁבוּעַ, שְׂכִיר חֹדֶשׁ, שְׂכִיר שָׁנָה, יָצָא מִמְּלַאכְתּוֹ בַיוֹם, יֶשׁ לוֹ זְמָן כָּל הַיוֹם. יָצָא מִמְּלַאכְתּוֹ בַלַּיְלָה, יֶשׁ לוֹ זְמָן כָּל הַלַּיְלָה וְלֹא יוֹתֵר.

3

Also, if you gave your garment to a tailor to repair, for a set price, and the tailor returns it to you during the day, you must pay him during that day. And if he returned it to you at night, you must pay him during that night. However, so long as the garment remains with the tailor, although the garment is finished, and the work has been completed, you are not in violation of the law, even if it is in the tailor's possession for many days, and even if the tailor has notified you to bring the money and take the garment nevertheless, you are not in violation of the law.

ג

וְכֵן אִם נָתַן טַלִיתוֹ לְאֻמָּן לְתַקְּנָהּ בְּקַבְּלָנוּת וֶהֱבִיאָהּ לוֹ בַיוֹם, יֶשׁ לוֹ זְמָן כָּל הַיוֹם בִּלְבָד. הֱבִיאָהּ לוֹ בַלַּיְלָה, יֶשׁ לוֹ זְמָן כָּל הַלַּיְלָה בִּלְבָד. אֲבָל כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַטַּלִּית בְּיַד הָאֻמָּן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה וְכָלְתָה מְלַאכְתָּהּ, אֵין בַּעַל הַבַּית עוֹבֵר, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא אֵצֶל הָאֻמָּן כַּמָּה יָמִים. וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁיָבִיא לוֹ מָעוֹת וְיִטּוֹל אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר.

4

You have not transgressed the law of: "The wages of your worker shall not abide with you"5 [or the law of] "That the sun shall not go down on it,"6 unless the worker demands his wages, and you have the money to pay him. But if the worker did not demand his wages, or he demanded his wages but you do not have the money, you are not in violation of the law. Nevertheless,7 a scrupulous person will borrow money to pay his worker in the proper time, for he is poor and sets his heart upon his wage. If your system is not to pay the workers until after a certain sum is due, even if they demand a small sum, which they have undoubtedly already earned, nevertheless, (if you refuse to give it to them), you are not guilty of transgressing the law, since it is known that this is your system of payment, and on such condition they hired themselves out to you.

ד

אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר משּׁוּם בַּל תָּלִין וְלֹא תָבוֹא עָלָיו הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן תְּבָעוֹ הַשָּׂכִיר וְיֶשׁ לוֹ מָעוֹת לִתֵּן לוֹ. אֲבָל אִם לֹא תְבָעוֹ הַשָּׂכִיר, אוֹ שֶׁתְּבָעוֹ וְאֵין לוֹ מָעוֹת, אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מִדַּת חֲסִידוּת הִיא לִלְווֹת וְלִפְרֹעַ לַשָּׂכִיר בִּזְמַנּוֹ, כִּי הוּא עָנִי וְאֵלָיו הוּא נוֹשֵׁא אֶת נַפְשׁוֹ. וּמִי שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִפְרֹעַ לַפּוֹעֲלִים עַד לְאַחַר הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן, אֲפִלּוּ תָבְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ דָבָר מֻעָט שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי מַגִּיעַ לָהֶם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁיָדוּעַ שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ כֵן, עַל דַּעַת כֵּן נִשְׂכְּרו אֶצְלוֹ.

5

If a hired workman was working for you, and spoiled the article on which he had worked, even if it was caused by his negligence, in a manner in which he is legally bound to make reparation, it is a mitzvah for you to waive your legal rights, and release him from liability, as it is said: "That you may walk in the way of good men."8 If the worker is a poor man, and has no food, it is a mitzvah to give him his wages, as it is said, "And keep the paths of the righteous."9 and the path of the righteous is to keep the way of Hashem, to practice charity and justice, to an even greater degree than is required by law.10

ה

שָׂכִיר שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת וְהִפְסִידָהּ, אֲפִלּוּ בִפְשִׁיעָה, בְּאֹפֶן שֶׁעַל פִּי הַדִין הוּא חַיָב בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין, מִצְוָה עַל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְהִכָּנֵס עִמּוֹ לִפְנִים מִשׁוּרַת הַדִּין וְלִמְחוֹל לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, לְמַעַן תֵּלֵךְ בְּדֶרֶךְ טוֹבִים. וְאִם הַשָׂכִיר עָנִי הוּא וְאֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל, מִצְוָה לִתֵּן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֶמַר, וְאָרְחוֹת צַדִּיקִים תִּשְׁמֹר. וְזֶה הוּא אֹרַח צַדִּיקִים, לִשְׁמֹר דֶרֶךְ ה' לַעֲשׂוֹת צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט לִפְנִים מִשׁוּרַת הַדִּין.

6

Just as the employer is admonished not to rob the worker of his wages, and not to delay payment, so is the worker admonished not to cheat his employer by wasting time at work. He must work with all his strength [ability,] as our father, Jacob, peace unto him, said, "That I served your father with all my strength."11 Therefore, a worker is not permitted to work all night, and hire himself out during the day because he has been weakened by the night work. Similarly, it is not permitted to work your animal at night and hire it out for work during the day. A worker is not permitted to starve or afflict himself, for this weakens his physical strength, and he will not be able to do the work for his employer properly. This law applies also to a teacher. (see Chapter 165:12)

ו

כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁבַּעַל הַבַּיִת מֻזְהָר שֶׁלֹּא לִגְזֹל שְׂכַר הֶעָנִי וְלֹא לְאַחֲרוֹ, כָּךְ הֶעָנִי מֻזְהָר שֶׁלֹא יִבָּטֵל מִמְּלֶאכֶת בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. וְחַיָב לַעֲבוֹד בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַר יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ עָלָיו הַשָׁלוֹם, כִּי בְּכָל כֹּחִי עָבַדְתִּי אֶת אֲבִיכֶן. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין הַפּוֹעֵל רַשַּׁאי לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בַלַּיְלָה וּלְהַשְׂכִּיר עַצְמוֹ בַיּוֹם, (שֶׁכְּבָר נֶחֱלַשׁ מֵהַלַּיְלָה), וְכֵן אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בִּבְהֶמְתּוֹ בַלַּיְלָה וּלְהַשְׂכִּירָהּ בַּיוֹם. וְאֵין הַפּוֹעֵל רַשַּׁאי לְהַרְעִיב וּלְסַגֵּף עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַחֲלִישׁ כֹּחוֹ וְלֹא יוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלֶאכֶת בַּעַל הַבִַּיִת כָּרָאוּי. וְכֵן הוּא דִּין הַמְלַמֵּד (עַיֵּן לְעֵיל סִימָן קסה סָעִיף יב).