1

It is forbidden to rob or to steal even an article of trivial value from a Jew or from a non-Jew. It is recorded in Tanna Devei Eliyohu:1 It happened that a man told me [Eliyah] that he had wronged a non-Jew in measuring dates that he sold to him. Thereafter, he bought oil with all that money and the jug broke and the oil spilled. I said, "Blessed is the Omnipotent that shows no favoritism." The Torah says, "Do not cheat your fellow, nor rob him,"2 and robbery of a non-Jew also constitutes robbery.

א

אָסוּר לִגְזוֹל אוֹ לִגְנוֹב אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא, בֵּין מִיִשְֹרָאֵל בֵּין מִגּוֹי. אִיתָא בְּתַנָּא דְבֵי אֵלִיָהוּ, מַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁסִּפֵּר לִי, שֶׁעָשָׂה עַוְלָה לַגּוֹי בִּמְדִידַת הַתְּמָרִים שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ קָנָה בְּכָל הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁמֶן, וְנִשְׁבַּר הַכַּד וְנִשְׁפַּךְ הַשֶׁמֶן. וְאָמַרְתִּי, בָּרוךְ הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁאֵין לְפָנָיו מַשּׂוֹא פָּנִים. הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר, לֹא תַעֲשׂק אֶת רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל. וְגֵזֶל הַנָכְרִי, גָּזֵל.

2

Taking a thing of such trivial value, that no one would mind, like taking a splinter from a bundle [of wood], in order to use it as a toothpick, is permitted. However, it is an act of piousness to refrain from this as well.

ב

אִם הוּא דָבָר מֻעָט כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁאֵין מִי שֶׁיַקְפִּיד עָלָיו כְּלָל, כְּגוֹן לִטּוֹל מֵהַחֲבִילָה קֵיסָם לַחֲצוֹץ בּוֹ שִׁנָּיו, מֻתָּר. וּמִדַּת חֲסִידוּת לְהִמָּנַע גַּם מִזֶה.

3

Even stealing with the intention of returning it, but just for the sake of annoying someone, or to tease someone, is also forbidden.

ג

אֲפִלּוּ לִגְנוֹב עַל דַּעַת לְהַחֲזִיר, אֶלָּא שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְצַעֲרוֹ קְצָת אוֹ בְּדֶרֶךְ שְׂחוֹק, גַּם כֵּן אָסוּר.

4

It is forbidden to cheat your fellow even in the slightest degree, as it is said, "Do not cheat your neighbor."3 What is cheating? If your neighbor's money comes into your possession with his consent; for example, if he lent you money, or you owe him wages (or rent), and you do not wish to pay him, or you put him off by saying, "Go," "and return [later]." Since the verse states: your [Jewish] neighbor, it is not forbidden to do so with a non-Jew. This is true only if this will not cause the Name of God to be desecrated; for example if you borrowed from a non-Jew and he died, it is permitted to deny the loan to his son, because he does not know for sure that you are lying. However, if the non-Jew knows you are lying, it is forbidden because of the desecration of God's Name. And even if the son is not sure, it is only permitted to deny a loan, or any other such debt you owed him. If you have in your possession an article you received from a non-Jew which is intact, you are forbidden to deny it, for this constitutes actual robbery. Moreover, even if you buy something from a non-Jew, you are forbidden to fool him in counting out the money, as it is said, "And he shall reckon with his buyer,"4 which refers to a non-Jew. For he is only conveying the article to you in consideration of the sum agreed upon, and if you fool him in the payment, it is tantamount to stealing the article, and not merely denying a debt.5 Even deception not involving any loss of money is forbidden in business dealing, as was explained in Chapter 63. Nevertheless, if the non-Jew makes a mistake, it is permitted to benefit from it, provided there will be no desecration of God's Name, [for example] in such a case where he remains unaware of his mistake. It is best to say to him, "I am relying on your estimate or your bill."

ד

אָסוּר לַעֲשׂק אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, לֹא תַעֲשׂק אֶת רֵעֲךָ. וְאֵיזֶהוּ עושֵׁק. זֶה שֶׁבָּא מָמוֹן חֲבֵרוֹ לְיָדוֹ בִּרְצוֹן חֲבֵרוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֵשׁ לוֹ בְיָדוֹ הַלְוָאָה אוֹ שְׂכִירוּת, וְאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁדּוֹחֵהוּ בְּלֵךְ וָשׁוּב, לֵךְ וָשׁוּב. וְכֵיוָן דִּכְתִיב רֵעֲךָ, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר בַּגּוֹי. וְהוּא שֶׁאֵין חִלוּל הַשֵּׁם בַּדָּבָר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁלָּוָה מִגּוֹי וָמֵת, רַשַׁאי לְכַחֵשׁ לִבְנוֹ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁהוּא מְשַׁקֵּר. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהַגּוֹי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא מְשַּׁקֵּר, אָסוּר, מִפְּנֵי חִלוּל הַשֵּׁם. וְאַף בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ, אֵינוֹ רַשַׁאי אֶלָּא לְהַפְקִיעַ הַלְוָאָתוֹ אוֹ שְׁאָר חוֹב שֶׁהוּא חַיָב לוֹ. אֲבָל חֵפֶץ שֶׁהוּא בְעָיִן, אָסוּר לִכְפֹּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה הֲוֵי גָזֵל מַמָּשׁ. וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ קָנָה מִמֶּנוּ חֵפֶץ, אָסוּר לְהַטְעוֹת אוֹתוֹ בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן בִּנְתִינַת הַמָּעוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וְחִשַּׁב עִם קוֹנֵהוּ, דְּמַיְרֵי בַּגּוֹי, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מַקְנֶה לוֹ הַחֵפֶץ אֶלָּא בְּעַד הַסְּכוּם שֶהִשְׁתַּוּוּ. וְהַמַּטְעֵהוּ בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן הַמָּעוֹת, הֲרֵי זֶה כְּגוֹנֵב אֶת הַחֵפֶץ וְלֹא כְּמַפְקִיעַ חוֹבוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ גְנֵבַת דַּעַת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ חֶסְרוֹן מָעוֹת, אָסוּר בְּמַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי בְסִימָן סג. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הַגּוֹי טָעָה בְעַצְמוֹ, מֻתָּר אִם לֹא יִהְיֶה חִלוּל הַשֵׁם בַּדָּבָר, שֶׁלֹּא יִוָּדַע לוֹ. וְנָכוֹן שֶׁיֹּאמַר לוֹ הַיִשְֹרָאֵל, רְאֵה שֶעַל חֶשְׁבּוֹנְךָ אֲנִי סוֹמֵךְ.

5

If you covet the house or the vessels of your neighbor, or anything which your neighbor has no intention of selling, and you ask his friends to influence him, or if you, yourself, pressure him until he agrees to sell it to you, you have violated the injunction, "You shall not covet."6 From the moment you were tempted, and began to think, how will you acquire this item, you have violated the command, "You shall not desire";7 for desire is only in the heart, and desire leads one to covet. If you ultimately buy that which you had desired, you will have transgressed two negative commands. That is why it is said, "You shall not covet" and "You shall not desire."8

ה

כָּל הַחוֹמֵד בֵּיתוֹ אוֹ כֵּילָיו שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, אוֹ כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בְּדַעַת חֲבֵרוֹ לְמָכְרוֹ, וְהוּא הִרְבָּה עָלָיו רֵעִים אוֹ שֶׁהִפְצִיר בּוֹ בְעַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁמְּכָרוֹ לוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַחְמֹד. וּמִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּפְתָּה בְּלִבּוֹ וְחָשַׁב אֵיךְ יִקְנֶה חֵפֶץ זֶה, עָבַר בְּלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה, כִּי אֵין תַּאֲוָה אֶלָּא בַלֵּב בִּלְבָד, וְהַתַּאֲוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּד. וְהַקּוֹנֶה אֶת הַדָּבָר שֶׁהִתְאַוָּה לוֹ, עוֹבֵר בִּשְׁנֵי לָאוִין. וּלְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר, לֹא תַחְמֹד וְלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה.

6

The robber is enjoined by a positive command, to return the stolen article if it is in its original state, and has not been altered. As it is said, "He shall return that which he robbed."9 The same law applies to a thief.10 This obligation cannot be fulfilled merely with the return of money to the owner, even when he had already given up hope of getting it back. However, if the stolen article was lost or altered in such a way that it cannot be restored to its original state, or it was sunk into a building, and will cause him a great loss to tear down the building, the obligation may be fulfilled by paying a sum of money equivalent to its worth at the time of the robbery. If the victim of the robbery is in another town, the robber is not required to send the money to him, but he should notify him to come and get it. If the victim died, the robber must pay the restitution to his heirs.

ו

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה עַל הַגּוֹזֵל לְהַחֲזִיר אֶת הַגְּזֵלָה עַצְמָהּ אִם הִיא בְעֵינָהּ וְלֹא נִשְּׁתַּנֵית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל. וְהוּא הַדִין לְגַנָּב. וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּנְתִינַת דָּמִים, אֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּבָר נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים. אֲבָל אִם אָבְדָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנִית בְּשִׁנוּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר לִבְרִיָתוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשִקְעָהּ בַּבִנְיָן, שֶׁיִהְיֶה לוֹ הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל לִסְתֹּר אֶת הַבִּנְיָן, יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּנְתִינַת דָּמִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה שָוֶה בִּשְׁעַת הַגְּזֵלָּה. וְאִם הַנִּגְזָה הוּא בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִשְׁלוֹחַ אֶת הַמָּעוֹת לִמְקוֹמוֹ, אֶלָּא מוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁיָבוֹא וִישַׁלֵּם לוֹ. אִם מֵת הַנִּגְזָל, יַחֲזִיר לְיוֹרְשָׁיו.

7

He who robs the public—such as a shopkeeper who gives a short measure, or weighs with a short weight, or the like, or a public official who is lenient towards his relatives, and exacting towards others, or one who took usury from the public, will find it difficult to repent adequately. Therefore, he should establish a community service, so that his victims, too, might benefit from them.11 Nevertheless, if the identity of his victims are known to him, he is obligated to make restitution, and he does not fulfill this obligation merely by contributing to a public service.

ז

הַגּוֹזֵל אֶת הָרַבִּים, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה חֶנְוָנִי וּמָדַד בְּמִדָּה חֲסֵרָה אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁקַל בְּמִשְׁקָל חָסֵר וְכַדּוֹמֶה, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻנֶּה בַּקָּהָל וְהֵקֵל עַל קְרוֹבָיו וְהִכְבִּיד עַל אֲחֵרִים, וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנָטַל רִבִּית מֵרַבִּים, תְּשׁוּבָתוֹ קָשָה. לְפִיכָךְ יַעֲשֶׂה צָרְכֵי רַבִּים, שֶׁגַּם הַנִּגְזָלִים יֵהָנוּ מֵהֶם. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לָאֵלֶּה שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁגָּזַל מֵהֶם, מְחֻיָב לְהַחֲזִיר לָהֶם, וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּמַה שֶׁעָשָׂה צָרְכֵי רַבִּים.

8

It is forbidden to buy from a thief, or a robber, any article that was stolen or robbed. There is no difference if he is a Jew or a non-Jew, for the non-Jew is also commanded not to steal or rob even from another non-Jew; and this is one of the seven precepts which they have been commanded. It is a serious sin to buy from a thief or a robber, for in doing so you are abetting evildoers. With reference to this it is said, "He who is a partner with a thief, hates his own soul,"12 and he causes the thief to commit other acts of stealing; for if he will find no buyer he will not steal. Although it is possible for the thief to take the stolen article to a place where he is not known, this course is not always available to him. If the buyer's intention is for the owner's benefit, in order to restore it to him, upon payment of the money he advanced, it is permissible; provided it is impossible for the owner himself to recover it. It is also forbidden to accept for safekeeping, anything which appears to be stolen.

ח

אָסוּר לִקְנוֹת מֵהַגַנָּב אוֹ מֵהַגַּזְלָן אֶת הַחֵפֶץ שֶׁגָּנַב אוֹ גָזָל. וְאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין שֶׁהוּא יִשְֹרָאֵל אוֹ נָכְרִי, כִּי גַם הַנָּכְרִי נִצְטַוֶּה עַל אִסּוּר גְּנֵבָה וּגְזֵלָה אֲפִלּוּ מִנָּכְרִי חֲבֵרוֹ, וְהוּא מִשֶּׁבַע מִצְוֹת שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ עֲלֵיהֶם. וְעָוֹן גָּדוֹל הוּא לִקְנוֹת מִן הַגַּנָּב אוֹ מִן הַגַּזְלָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מַחֲזִיק יְדֵי עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה. וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר, חוֹלֵק עִם גַּנָּב שׂוֹנֵא נַפְשׁוֹ, וְגוֹרֵם לַגַּנָּב שֶׁיִגְנוֹב עוֹד גַּם גְּנֵבוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת, וְאִם לֹא יִמְצָא לוֹקֵחַ, לֹא יִגְנוֹב. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהוֹלִיךְ אֶת הַגְּנֵבָה לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ, אֵין זֶה מָצוּי לוֹ כָּל כָּךְ. וְאִם הַקּוֹנֶה מִתְכַּוֵּן לְטוֹבַת הַבְּעָלִים לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לָהֶם כְּשֶׁיַחֲזִירוּ לוֹ מְעוֹתָיו, מֻתָּר. וְדַוְקָא כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אֶפְשָׁרִי לַבְּעָלִים בְּעַצְמָם לְהַצִיל. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְקַבֵּל בְּפִקָּדוֹן דָּבָר שֶׁנִּרְאֶה שֶׁהוּא גָנוּב אוֹ גָזוּל.

9

It is forbidden to derive the slightest benefit from property that was stolen or robbed while it is in the possession of the thief or robber. Even a trivial benefit that its owner would not mind, such as exchanging the money for an equal amount of another denomination is forbidden in the case of money that was stolen or robbed. It is also forbidden to enter a stolen house to [protect yourself] from the hot sun or from the rain, or to pass through a stolen field.

ט

אֲפִלוּ לֵהָנוֹת שׁוּם הֲנָאָה מִן הַגְּנֵבָה אוֹ מִן הַגְּזֵלָה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא בְּיַד הַגַּנָב אוֹ הַגַּזְלָן, אָסוּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ הֲנָאָה מֻעֶטֶת שֶׁגַּם בְּעָלֶיהָ לֹא הָיוּ מַקְפִּידִים עָלֶיהָ, כְּגוֹן חִלּוּף מַטְבְּעוֹת בְּשָׁוְיָן, אָסוּר בְּמָעוֹת גְּנוּבוֹת אוֹ גְּזוּלוֹת. וְכֵן לִכָּנֵס לְבַיִת גָּזוּל, בַּחַמָּה מִפְנֵי הַחַמָּה וּבַגְשָׁמִים מִפְּנֵי הַגְשָׁמִים, אוֹ לַעֲבוֹר בְּשָׂדֶה גְזוּלָה, אָסוּר.

10

It is forbidden to derive benefit from the possessions of one who is a known thief or robber, who has no other occupation, and whose entire property is presumed to have been acquired by theft or robbery, and a poor man is forbidden to accept charity from him.

י

וְלָכֵן מִי שֶׁהוּא גַנָּב אוֹ גַזְלָן מְפֻרְסָם, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מְלָאכָה אַחֶרֶת אֶלָּא זֹאת, וְכָל מְמוֹנוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת גָנוּב אוֹ גָזוּל, אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנוּ, וְאָסוּר לְעָנִי לָקַחַת מִמֶּנּוּ צְדָקָה.

11

Similarly, it is forbidden to buy something from someone who wishes to sell an article that apparently had been stolen as when fruit watchmen sell fruit in a secluded spot, or when a salesman conceals the merchandise he is trying to sell, or when he says to the buyer, "Hide it." It is forbidden to buy something from a woman when there is reason to suspect that she is selling it without her husband's consent, or to buy women's jewelry or clothing from a man, when there is reason to suspect that he is selling them without his wife's consent.

יא

וְכֵן אִם אֶחָד רוצֶה לִמְכֹּר אֵיזֶה חֵפֶץ שֶׁנִּרְאֶה שֶׁהוּא גָנוּב, כְּגוֹן שׁוֹמְרֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁמּוֹכְרִים פֵּרוֹת בְּמָקוֹם צָנוּעַ, אוֹ מוֹכֵר אַחֵר שֶׁנּוֹשֵׂא אֵיזֶה דָבָר בְּהַצְנֵעַ לְמָכְרוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֵר לְהַקּוֹנֶה, הַטְמֵן, אָסוּר לִקְנוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ לִקְנוֹת מֵאִשָּׁה אֵיזֶה דָבָר שֶׁיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁהִיא מוֹכֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת בַּעְלָּה, אוֹ לִקְנוֹת מֵאִישׁ דָּבָר מִתַּכְשִׁיטֵי הָאִשָּׁה וּמַלְבּוּשֶׁיהָ, שֶׁיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁהוּא מוֹכְרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת אִשְׁתּוֹ, אָסוּר.

12

If you inadvertently exchanged coats at a wedding hall or another public place, you are not allowed to use these items that came into your possession, and are not yours. When the rightful owner appears you must return it to him, even if yours had been lost there. Also, in case a commercial launderer gave you someone else's garment, you are forbidden to wear it, but must return it to its rightful owner; even though yours was lost. However, if the article was with you so long that it is impossible the owner did not inquire after his things during this time, then you are permitted to wear it, for you may assume that the launderer satisfied the owner, and paid him for this garment.

יב

מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַלְפוּ לוֹ כֵּלָיו בְּבֵית הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וְכַדּוֹמֶה, הַרֵי זֶה לֹא יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכֵלִים אֵלוּ שֶׁבָּאוּ לְיָדוֹ וְאֵינָם שֶׁלּוֹ. וּכְשֶׁיָבוֹא בַּעַל הַחֵפֶץ, צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לוֹ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחֵפֶץ שֶׁלּוֹ נֶאֱבָד. וְכֵן כּוֹבֶסֶת הַמְכַבֶּסֶת לְרַבִּים וְהֵבִיאָה לוֹ חָלוּק שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ, אָסוּר לְלָבְשוֹ, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לִבְעָלָיו, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשֶּׁלּוֹ נֶאֱבָד. אַךְ אִם מֻנָּח אֶצְלוֹ יָמִים רַבִּים, עַד שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא חָקְרוּ הַבְּעָלִים בֵּינְתַיִם אַחַר שֶׁלָּהֶם, אָז מֻתָּר לוֹ לְלָבְשוֹ, כִּי מִסְּתָמָא סִלְּקָה הַכּוֹבֶסֶת אֶת בְּעָלָיו וְשִׁלְּמָה בְּעַד הֶחָלוּק הַזֶה.

13

It is forbidden to use anything belonging to your fellow without his knowledge. Even if you are certain that when the owner finds out he will be happy and elated that you used it, because of his good feelings towards you; nevertheless it is forbidden. Therefore, if you enter the orchard or garden belonging to your neighbor, it is forbidden to pluck fruit without the owner's knowledge, even though the owner of the orchard and the owner of the garden is truly a dear, cherished friend, and will certainly be happy and elated when finding out that you enjoyedhis fruit. Nevertheless, since at the present time he knows nothing of this, you are enjoying it unlawfully.13 It is necessary to warn the public regarding this; for they break this rule for lack of knowledge.

יג

אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מִשׁוּם דָּבָר שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּרוּר לוֹ שֶׁכְּשֶיִוָּדַע לִבְעָלָיו יִשְׂמְחוּ וְיָגִילוּ מִפְנֵי אַהֲבָתָם אוֹתוֹ. מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר. לְפִיכָךְ הַנִּכְנָס לְפַרְדֵּס אוֹ לְגִנַּת חֲבֵרוֹ, אָסוּר לוֹ לִלְקֹט פֵּרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַבְּעָלִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבַּעַל הַפַּרְדֵּס וּבַעַל הַגִּנָּה אוֹהֲבוֹ וְרֵעוֹ אֲשֶׁר כְּנַפְשוֹ, וּבְּוַדַּאי יִשְׂמַח וְיָגִיל כְּשֶׁיִוָּדַע לוֹ שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה זֶה מִפֵּרוֹתָיו, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָו אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מִזֶה, הֲרֵי הוּא נֶהֱנֶה בְּאִסּוּר. וְצָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לָרַבִּים, שֶׁנִּכְשָׁלִין בָּזֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן יְדִיעָה.

14

However, it is permitted for a member of your household to give a slice of bread to a poor man, or to the owner's friend's son without his knowledge, for this is customary among people, and is not considered as something done without the owner's knowledge since this is customary, and the owner is aware of this custom. For this reason it is permitted to accept charity from women, if it is a small contribution, even without her husband's knowledge, since this is the general custom, and husbands are aware of this custom. Also, with regard to an orchard, if you are generally acustomed to eat of its fruit with the owner's knowledge, you are permitted to do so (even without his knowledge). And so it is in all similar cases.

יד

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מֻתָּר לְבֶן בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם לִתֵּן פְּרוּסָה לְעָנִי אוֹ לִבְנוֹ שֶׁל אוֹהֲבוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁכָּךְ נָהֲגוּ בַּעֲלֵי הַבָּתִּים. וְאֵין זֶה נִקְרָא שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַבְּעָלִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּךְ נָהֲגוּ, וְהַבְּעָלִים יוֹדְעִין מִזֶּה הַמִּנְהָג. וּמִטַּעַם זֶה, מֻתָּר לְקַבֵּל צְדָקָה מִן הַנָּשִׁים דָּבָר מֻעָט שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַבְּעָלִים, הוֹאִיל וְדַרְכָּן בְּכָךְ, וְיוֹדְעִין הַבְּעָלִים שֶׁדַּרְכָּן בְּכָךְ. וְכֵן בְּפַרְדֵּס, אִם הוּא רָגִיל בּוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מִפֵּרוֹתָיו מִדַּעַת הַבְּעָלִים, מֻתָּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיוֹצֵא בָזֶה.

15

If you find fruit on the road underneath a tree, that overhangs the road, if it is the type of fruit that usually falls from the tree, and becomes spoiled after falling, or even it it does not become spoiled, but most people who pass by are non-Jews, or if it is the type of fruit that animals are accustomed to eat, and animals do pass by, [it may be assumed that] the owner has already abandoned his ownership, and you are permitted to take them. However, if it is fruit that does not become spoiled by the fall, and if most of the people passing by are Jews, it is forbidden to take them because it is considered robbery, If the fruit belongs to minor orphans, it is forbidden to take it in any case, because minors cannot waive their rights of ownership.

טו

הַמּוֹצֵא פֵרוֹת בַּדֶּרֶךְ תַּחַת אִילָן שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֶה עַל הַדֶּרֶך, אִם הֵם פֵּרוֹת שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לִפּוֹל מִן הָאִילָן וּבִנְפִילָתָם הֵם נִמְאָסִים, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָם נִמְאָסִים אֶלָּא שֶׁרֹב הָעוֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה הֵמָּה גוֹיִם, אוֹ שֶׁהֵם פֵּרוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַבְּהֵמוֹת לֶאֱכֹל אוֹתָם, וְהֵן עוֹבְרוֹת דֶרֶךְ שָׁם, הֲרֵי הַבְּעָלִים כְּבָר נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ מֵהֶם וּמֻתָּרִים. אֲבָל אִם הֵם פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָם נִמְאָסִים בִּנְפִילָתָם, וְרֹב הָעוֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה הֵמָּה יִשְׂרְאֵלִים, אֲסוּרִים מִשׁוּם גָּזֵל. וְאִם הֵם שֶׁל יְתוֹמִים קְטַנִּים, אֲסוּרִים בְּכָל עִנְיָן, כִּי הַקְּטַנִּים, אֵין הַיֵאוּשׁ וְהַמְּחִילָה שֶׁלָּהֶם כְּלוּם

16

The law of existing government must be recognized as the law (in civil matters).14

טז

דִּינָא דְּמַלְכוּתָא דִּינָא.