Introductory Remarks to Chapter 94
Houses usually were arranged in this fashion with endless variations:

Throughout these halachos, when reference is made to people living in a courtyard, it means people living in the houses that open to the courtyard. In order to carry from the houses into the courtyard, all residents had to join in making an eiruv. This is a rabbinical ordinance instituted by King Solomon and his Court. Sometimes courtyards were adjoining each other, having only one exit to the street, (as illustrated):
and sometimes each courtyard had its own exit to the street. There are halachos of eiruv pertaining to such situations. When the halachah refers to an alley, it denotes an area into which two or more courtyards exit. See illustration.
In order to carry in the alley, many requirements must be fulfilled. The halachos are complex and not discussed in the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch. However, mention is made of partnership in the alley. This is achieved when all the inhabitants of the courtyard that exit into the alley jointly make a special eiruv, the details of which are not discussed in the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, but at times will be referred to in the footnotes.
Two or more Jews who reside in one courtyard, each living in his own apartment, are forbidden to carry1 from the house into the courtyard, or from the courtyard into the house. It is also forbidden to carry from2 one house into the other, even without passing through the courtyard, as for example, when there is a door or a window between one house and the other house.3 It is a mitzvah for them to make an eiruvei chatzeiros, so that they do not fall into transgression.4


שְׁנֵי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר הַדָּרִים בֶּחָצֵר אַחַת, כָּל אֶחָד בְּחֶדֶר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל לֹא מִן הַבָּתִים לֶחָצֵר, וְלֹא מִן הֶחָצֵר לַבָּתִים וְלֹא מִבַּיִת לְבָיִת. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא דֶּרֶךְ הֶחָצֵר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ פֶּתַח אוֹ חַלּוֹן בֵּין בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל זֶה לְבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, אֲסוּרִין לְטַלְטֵל דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם (עַיֵּן מגן אברהם סִימָן שס"ו סָעִיף קטן א). וּמִצְוָה עֲלֵיהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ לִידֵי מִכְשׁוֹל (שס"ו).


When two courtyards have a door between them, if they wish, all the tenants of each courtyard may make a separate eiruv, whereby all the tenants of the courtyard are permitted to carry into their own courtyard; but any vessels that were in the house before Shabbos began,5 are forbidden to be carried from one courtyard into the other.6 If they wish, all the tenants of both courtyards can make one eiruv jointly, in order that they should be allowed to carry, from one courtyard into the other, even such vessels that were in the house when Shabbos began. And if there is even a window between the courtyards that measures no less than four tefachim wide by four tefachim high,7 and it is within ten8 tefachim above the ground, and it has no grate,9 [the tenants of both courtyards] may also make a joint eiruv. But if it is less than that, they cannot make a joint eiruv. If there is a window between two houses, even if it is higher than ten tefachim, they can make a joint eiruv, (because the house is considered as filled).10


שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם פֶּתַח, אִם רוֹצִים, עוֹשִׂים כָּל בְּנֵי חָצֵר עֵרוּב אֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָם, וּמֻתָּרִים כָּל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר לְטַלְטֵל בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁלָּהֶם. אֲבָל אֲסוּרִים לְטַלְטֵל מֵחָצֵר לֶחָצֵר כֵּלִים שֶׁשָׁבְתוּ בַּבָּיִת. וְאִם רוֹצִים, עוֹשִׂים כָּל הַדָּרִים בִּשְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת, עֵרוּב אֶחָד, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מֻתָּרִין לְטַלְטֵל גַּם מֵחָצֵר לְחָצֵר אֲפִלּוּ כֵּלִים שֶׁשָׁבְתוּ בַּבָּיִת. וְאִם יֵשׁ בֵּין הַחֲצֵרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ רַק חַלּוֹן שֶׁהוּא לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת רָחָב אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים וְגָבוֹהַּ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים וְהוּא בְּתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ וְאֵין בּוֹ סְרִיגָה, גַּם כֵּן יְכוֹלִין לְעָרֵב בְּיַחַד. אֲבָל בְּפָחוֹת מִזֶּה, אֵין יְכוֹלִין לְעָרֵב בְּיָחַד. וְאִם יֵשׁ חַלּוֹן בֵּין שְׁנֵי בָּתִּים, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא גָּבוֹהַּ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, יְכוֹלִין לְעָרֵב בְּיַחַד (מִשּׁוּם דְּבֵיתָא כְּמָאן דְּמַלְיָא דָּמִי) (שעב).


[If there are] two courtyards, one behind the other, and the tenants of the inner courtyard have no other exit to the street than through the outer courtyard, if [the tenants of both courts] wish to do so, they may make a joint eiruv. If they did not make a joint eiruv, then if the tenants of the inner court alone made an eiruv, they are permitted to carry in their own court and the tenants of the outer court are forbidden11 [to carry]. If the tenants of the inner court did not make an eiruv, but the tenants of the outer court alone made an eiruv, then the eiruv is of no use to them, because, since the tenants of the inner court have a right of passage through the outer court, they prohibit the tenants of the outer court [from carrying in their own court]. This is true only if the people of the inner court did not make an eiruv. For then, since they forbid one another [to carry] in their own place (court), it is "a foot (referring to the person) which is forbidden [to carry] in its own place," and a "foot forbidden in its place" forbids [others] also in another place. But if they made an eiruv by themselves, and they are allowed to carry in their own court, then it constitutes "a foot permitted [to carry] in its own place," and they do not forbid carrying even to the tenants of the outer court. Consequently, if there is only one Jewish tenant in the inner court, since he is not forbidden to carry in his own court, he cannot cause a prohibition to be imposed [on the tenants of the outer court]. If two tenants live in the inner court and they did not make an eiruv, even though only one tenant lives in the outer court, since they are "a foot forbidden in its own place," they also forbid the single tenant.12


שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לְפָנִים מִזּוֹ, וּבְנֵי הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית אֵין לָהֶם דֶּרֶךְ אֶל הָרְחוֹב, רַק דֶּרֶךְ הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה, שֶׁיֵּשׁ פֶּתַח בֵּין הַחֲצֵרוֹת וְדֶרֶךְ שָׁם הוֹלְכִין אִם רוֹצִים, מְעָרְבִים עֵרוּב אֶחָד בְּיָחַד. אִם לֹא עֵרְבוּ בְּיַחַד, אִם בְּנֵי הַפְּנִימִית לְבַדָּם עֵרְבוּ, הֵם מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁלָּהֶם, וּבְנֵי הַחִיצוֹנָה אֲסוּרִים. וְאִם בְּנֵי הַפְּנִימִית לֹא עֵרְבוּ אֶלָּא בְּנֵי הַחִיצוֹנָה לְבַדָּם עֵרְבוּ, לֹא מַהֲנִי לָהֶם הָעֵרוּב, כִּי מֵאַחַר שֶׁבְּנֵי הַפְּנִימִית יֵשׁ לָהֶם דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל דֶּרֶךְ הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה, הֵם אוֹסְרִים עֲלֵיהֶם. וְזֶהוּ דַּוְקָא אִם בְּנֵי הַפְּנִימִית לֹא עֵרְבוּ, דְּאָז כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם אוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה בִּמְקוֹמָם, דַּהֲוֵי לֵיה רֶגֶל הָאֲסוּרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ. וְרֶגֶל הָאֲסוּרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ, אוֹסֶרֶת גַּם בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר. אֲבָל אִם עֵרְבוּ גַּם הֵם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָם, שֶׁאָז מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל בִמְקוֹמָם, וַהֲוֵי לָהּ רֶגֶל הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ, אֵינָם אוֹסְרִים גַּם עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה. וְכֵן אִם בַּפְּנִימִית אֵינוֹ דָּר רַק יִשְֹרָאֵל אֶחָד, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אָסוּר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ, גַּם עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר. וְאִם בַּפְּנִימִית דָּרִים שְׁנַיִם וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבַּחִיצוֹנָה אֵינוֹ דָּר אֶלָּא אֶחָד, כֵּיוָן דַּהֲוֵי לָהּ רֶגֶל הָאֲסוּרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ, אוֹסְרִים גַּם עַל הַיָּחִיד.


When houses are built with a second story, and a balcony in front of them, from which the tenants go into the courtyard through a stairway, and from the courtyard into the public domain, they are govorned by the same [laws] that apply to two courts, one behind the other, and the balcony is considered as the inner court.13


בַּתִּים הַבְּנוּיִּים בַּעֲלִיָּה (שטאק) וְלִפְנֵיהֶם מִרְפֶּסֶת (גאניג) שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה יוֹרְדִים בַּמַּדְרֵגוֹת לְתוֹךְ הֶחָצֵר וּמֵחָצֵר לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, דִּינָם גַּם כֵּן כִּשְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לְפָנִים מִזּוֹ, וְהַמִּרְפֶּסֶת הִיא כְּמוֹ חָצֵר פְּנִימִית (שע"ה).


A house that has two apartments with a lobby through which you enter both apartments, and the apartments are occupied by two tenants, they are forbidden to carry anything even from their apartments into the lobby. Similarly, even if one apartment is divided into two rooms occupied by two tenants, even though the occupant of the inner room has no other exit than through the outer room, which leads into the courtyard, nevertheless, they may not carry anything, even from one room into the other until they make an eiruv. (If the two houses or apartments belong to one person, and he rented an apartment to someone, and he also has "a hold14 on the apartment,"15 see Shulchan Aruch 370 and Chayei Adam 73: 3–4.)


בַּיִת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שְׁתֵּי דִּירוֹת, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ פְּרוֹזְדוֹר (פארהויז, קיכע) אֲשֶׁר דֶּרֶךְ זֶה נִכְנָסִים לְדִירָה זוֹ וְגַם לְדִירָה זוֹ, וְדָרִים בִּשְׁתֵּי הַדִּירוֹת שְׁנֵי בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים, אֲסוּרִים לְהוֹצִיא אֲפִלּוּ מִבַּיִת לִפְרוֹזְדוֹר. וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִירָה אַחַת שֶׁהִיא חֲלוּקָה לִשְׁנֵי חֲדָרִים וְדָרִים בָּהֶם שְׁנַיִם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפְּנִימִי אֵין לוֹ פֶתַח אֶלָּא לְהַחִיצוֹן וּמִן הַחִיצוֹן יוֹצְאִין לֶחָצֵר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֲסוּרִין לְטַלְטֵל אֲפִלּוּ מֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ עֵרוּב. (וְאִם שְׁנֵי הַבָּתִּים אוֹ הַדִּירוֹת שַׁיָּכִים לְאִישׁ אֶחָד וְהוּא הִשְׂכִּיר דִּירָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְיֵשׁ לוֹ גַּם כֵּן שָׁם תְּפִיסַת יָד, עַיֵּן בָּזֶה בַּשֻּׁלְחָן עָרוּךְ סִימָן ש"ע, וּבְחַיֵּי אָדָם כְּלָל עג סִימָן גּ' וְסִימָן דּ')


How do you make an eiruv? The mitzvah done to perfection is for one of the tenants of the courtyard, to take one whole loaf16 of his own bread on erev Shabbos and confer a share of it, through another person, to all the tenants of that court. This is done by saying to that other person, in any language he understands, as follows: "Take this loaf and acquire it on behalf of all the Jews who live in this courtyard, (or in these courtyards)." This person then takes the loaf and raises it one tefach.17 Then the one who is making the eiruv takes it from him and18 recites the berachah, Baruch atah Adonai Elokeinu melech ha'olam asher kiddeshanu bemitzvosav vetzivanu al mitzvas eiruv.19 ["Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the Universe, Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the mitzvah of eiruv]." He then says, "By means of this eiruv it will be permissible for us to take out and to bring in from the houses into the courtyard and from the courtyard into the houses and from one house into another, for all the Jews who live in the houses of the courtyard."20 Since they all acquired a share in this loaf, and at the beginning of Shabbos it is in the house21 of the one who made the eiruv, it is considered as if all the tenants were living in this house, and therefore they are permitted to carry from the houses into the courtyard, and from the courtyard into the houses, and also in the entire courtyard.


כֵּיצַד עוֹשִׂין אֶת הָעֵרוּב (מִן הַמֻבְחָר). אֶחָד מִבַּעֲלֵי הַבָּתִּים שֶׁבְּחָצֵר, לוֹקַח בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כִּכָּר אֶחָד שָׁלֵם מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, וּמְזַכֶּה אוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר לְכָל הַדָּרִים בֶּחָצֵר, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאוֹמֵר לְאַחֵר בְּלָשׁוֹן שֶׁהוּא מֵבִין עִנְיָן זֶה: קַח כִּכָּר זֶה וּזְכֵה בּוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל כָּל הַיִשְׂרְאֵלִים הַדָּרִים בֶּחָצֵר זֹה (אוֹ בַּחֲצֵרוֹת אֵלּוּ). וְלוֹקֵחַ זֶה אֶת הַכִּכָּר וּמַגְבִּיהוֹ טֶפַח. וְהַמְעָרֵב לוֹקְחוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְבָרֵךְ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל מִצְוַת עֵרוּב, וְאוֹמֵר בַּהֲדֵין עֵרוּבָא יְהֵא שָׁרֵי לָנָא לְאַפּוּקֵי וּלְעַיּוּלֵי מִן הַבָּתִים לֶחָצֵר וּמִן הֶחָצֵר לַבָּתִים וּמִבַּיִת לְבַיִת, לְכָל יִשְֹרָאֵל הַדָּרִים בַּבָּתִּים שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר הַזֹּאת. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁכֻּלָּם זָכוּ בְּכִכָּר זֶה, וּבִכְנִיסַת שַׁבָּת הוּא מֻנָּח בַּבַיִת הַזֶּה שֶׁל הַמְעָרֵב, נֶחְשָׁבִים כְּאִלּוּ כֻּלָּם דָּרוּ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה, וְלָכֵן מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל מֵהַבָּתִּים לֶחָצֵר וּמֵהֶחָצֵר לַבָּתִּים וּבְכָל הֶחָצֵר.


It is essential [that the maker of the eiruv] should grant them ownership only through a third party, therefore, he may not grant ownership through his son or daughter who are minors,22 even if they do not eat at his table, because their hand is considered an extension of his own hand.23 But through another minor he may grant ownership rights, (for regarding Rabbinical ordinances, a minor can acquire rights for another person);24 and, if possible, he should not grant ownership through his wife whom he supports, and not through his son or daughter who are bar or bas mitzvah who eat at his table [i.e. supported by him], for according to some authorities, they too are considered as an extension of his hand.25 However, if there is no other person present, he may grant it through them. If his son is married, although he is supported by his father, all authorities agree that the father may grant ownership rights through him.26


צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹת דַּוְקָא עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר. וְלָכֵן לֹא יְזַכֶּה עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם סְמוּכִים עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, מִשּׁוּם דְּיָדָם כְּיָדוֹ. אֲבָל עַל יְדֵי קָטֹן אַחֵר, יָכוֹל לְזַכּוֹת (דְּבְמִידִּי דְּרַבָּנָן, קָטֹן זוֹכֶה לַאֲחֵרִים). וְאִם אֶפְשָׁר, לֹא יְזַכֶּה עַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ, שֶׁמַּעֲלֶה לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת, וְגַם לֹא עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים אִם הֵם סְמוּכִים עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, מִשּׁוּם דְּיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, דְּגַם אֵלּוּ נֶחְשָׁבִים כְּיָדוֹ. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּדְלֵית לֵיה אִישׁ אַחֵר יָכוֹל לְזַכּוֹת עַל יְדֵיהֶן. וְאִם הַבֵּן נָשָׂא אִשָּׁה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסָּמוּךְ עַל שֻׁלְחַן אָבִיו, לְכֻלֵּי עָלְמָא יָכוֹל לְזַכּוֹת עַל יָדוֹ (שס"ו).


What is the amount (of bread) required for the eiruv? If there are eighteen tenants or less, the amount is the size of a dried fig (which is one third of an egg) for each tenant, except for the one who makes the eiruv and keeps it in his house, (for he is not required to give bread [to establish his residence] since he already lives in his house). If there are more than eighteen tenants, even if there are one thousand, the size of the eiruv is an amount of food enough for two meals, which is [a loaf of bread] the size of eighteen dried figs, which is equivalent to six eggs.27 Some authorities hold that it is the equivalent of eight eggs.28 (According to their opinion a dried fig is equivalent to 1/3 and 1/9 of an egg.)


כַּמָה הוּא שִׁעוּר הָעֵרוּב. בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵם שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר בַּעֲלֵי בָתִּים אוֹ פָּחוֹת, שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת (שֶׁהִיא כְּמוֹ שְׁלִישׁ בֵּיצָה) לְכָל אֶחָד, חוּץ מִזֶּה שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה אֶת הָעֵרוּב וּמַנִּיחוֹ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ (כִּי הוּא אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן פַּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּלָאו הָכִי הוּא דָּר שָׁם) וְאִם הֵם יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם אֶלֶף, שִׁעוּרוֹ מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעוּדּוֹת, שֶׁהֵם שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה גְּרוֹגָרוֹת, שֶׁהֵן כְּמוֹ שֵׁש בֵּיצִים. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהֵם כְּמוֹ שְׁמוֹנֶה בֵּיצִים, (וּלְפִי זֶה כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת, הוּא כִּשְׁלִישׁ וּתְשִׁיעִית בֵּיצָה) (שס"ח).


It is essential [that the one making the eiruv] should not resent it if a neighbor29 eats it.30 If he does resent it, it is not a valid eiruv. He should, therefore, be careful not to make the eiruv with food he prepared for Shabbos.


צָרִיךְ שֶׁלֹּא יַקְפִּיד עַל הָעֵרוּב אִם יֹאכְלֶנּוּ חֲבֵרוֹ. וְאִם מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו, אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. לָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְעָרֵב בְּדָבָר שֶׁהֵכִין לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת (שס"ו).


The eiruv must be placed where it is accessible to every tenant at twilight on erev Shabbos. Therefore, if there was a dead person there, or in an adjacent apartment and one of the tenants is a kohein, who is therefore unable to enter the place where the eiruv is at twilight, the eiruv is void.31


הָעֵרוּב צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת מֻנָּח בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מִן בַּעֲלֵי הַבָּתִּים שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בִּשְׁבִילָם, יָכוֹל לָבוֹא שָׁמָּה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. וְלָכֵן אִם הָיָה שָׁם אוֹ בַשְּׁכוּנָה מֵת, רַחְמָנָא לִיצְלָן, וְאֶחָד מִן בַּעֲלֵי הַבָּתִּים הוּא כֹּהֵן וְלֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לָבֹא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשוֹת אֶל הָעֵרוּב, בָּטֵל הָעֵרוּב (עַיֵּן פרמ"ג משבצות סוֹף סִימָן שס"ו).


The eiruv should be made every erev Shabbos,32 and on Shabbos, Hamotzi should be said over it,33 [and it should be eaten], as stated in Chapter 102:2 below, (for it has to be on hand) only at the beginning of Shabbos). But if you are afraid that you might in the future forget [to make an eiruv], you may make an eiruv with one loaf of bread for all the Shabbosos until Pesach, and [in this case], when you say: "By means of this eiruv etc." you should conclude: "For all the Shabbosos until Pesach which will come to us for goodness." And [in this case] it is necessary that the loaf is thin and well baked, so that it will not become spoiled. For the Shabbos during Pesach you must make the eiruv with matzoh that is kosher for Pesach.


יֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת בְּכָל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, וּבְשַׁבָּת יִבְצַע עָלָיו, כְּדִלְקַמָּן סִימָן ק"ב סָעִיף ב, (כִּי אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת קַיָּם רַק בִּכְנִסַת שַׁבָּת). אַךְ אִם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ פֶּן יִשְׁכַּח פַּעַם אַחַת, יָכוֹל לְעָרֵב בְּכִכָּר אֶחָד לְכָל הַשַׁבָּתוֹת שֶׁעַד הַפֶּסַח. וּכְשֶׁאוֹמֵר בַּהֲדֵין וְכוּ' יְסַיֵּם בְּכָל הַשַׁבָּתוֹת שֶׁעַד הַפֶּסַח הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ לְטוֹבָה. וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה הַכִּכָּר, דַּק וְאָפוּי הֵיטֵב שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַלְקֵל. וּלְשַׁבָּת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, יַעֲשֶׂה הָעֵרוּב בְּמַצָּה כְּשֵׁרָה (שס"ח שצ"ג).


You may not make an eiruv chatzeiros on Yom Tov.34 Thus, if a Yom Tov occurs on erev Shabbos, you must make the eiruv on erev Yom Tov [Thursday].


אֵין עוֹשִׂין עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וְאִם חָל יוֹם טוֹב בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, צְרִיכִין לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב.


If a person eats in one place, and sleeps in another place, the place where he eats is his legal residence35 as far as the laws of eiruv are concerned. It is there that he prohibits [the other tenants from carrying if they were not included in the eiruv] if he eats his own food there, in a special room. But in the place where he sleeps he does not prohibit [the other tenants to carry].


מִי שֶׁאוֹכֵל בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְיָשֵׁן בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, מְקוֹם אֲכִילָתוֹ הִיא הָעִקָּר לְעִנְיָן זֶה, וְשָׁם הוּא אוֹסֵר אִם אוֹכֵל שָׁם מִשֶּׁלּוֹ בְּחֶדֶר מְיֻחָד. אֲבָל בְּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא יָשֵׁן, אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר.


Regarding a visiting guest in a court, some authorities hold,36 that even if he stays in a house by himself, as long as he does not stay there permanently, but for thirty days or less,37 38 he does not prohibit the tenants of the court [to carry]. Therefore all of them are permitted to carry either from the tenants' houses, or from the house of the guest; even if there are many guests [in the courtyard] and only one tenant. This is true only if there is [at least] one permanent tenant, even if he is a non-Jew,39 for then the guests become subordinate to him. But when all [the people in the court] are guests, they do prohibit one another from carrying,40 if each one eats in a special room for himself. If there is a non-Jew among them they must rent his residence from him as will be discussed below. Some authorities say41 that there is no difference between a guest and a tenant; thus, as long as [the guest] has a special room where he eats, his status is the same as that of a tenant. It is proper to follow the stricter view initially,42 and they should make an eiruv without reciting the berachah. But when it is done already, the first opinion may be relied upon.


הַמִּתְאָרֵחַ בֶּחָצֵר, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, דַּאֲפִלּוּ נִתְאָרַח בְּבַיִת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, אִם לֹא נִתְאָרַח דֶּרֶךְ קֶבַע אֶלָּא לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם אוֹ לְפָחוֹת מִזֶּה, אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עַל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר, וְכֻלָּם מֻתָּרִין לְטַלְטֵל, בֵּין מִבָּתֵּי בַּעֲלֵי הַבָּתִּים בֵּין מִבֵּית הָאוֹרֵחַ, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָאוֹרְחִים רַבִּים, וּבַעַל הַבַּיִת אֶחָד. וְדַוְקָא בִּדְאִכָּא בַּעַל הַבַּיִת קָבוּעַ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי (עַיֵן יַד אֶפְרַיִם), דְּאָז הָאוֹרְחִים בְּטֵלִים לְגַבֵּהּ. אֲבָל אִם כֻּלָּם הֵם אוֹרְחִים, אוֹסְרִין זֶה עַל זֶה אִם יֵשׁ לְכָל אֶחָד חֶדֶר מְיֻחָד לַאֲכִילָה. וְאִם יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי, צְרִיכִין לִשְׂכּוֹר רְשׁוּתוֹ כְּדִלְקַמָּן, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, שֶׁאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין אוֹרֵחַ לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת, דְּכָל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חֶדֶר מְיֻחָד לֶאֱכֹל שָׁם, דִּינוֹ כְּבַעַל הַבַּיִת (עַיֵּן בס' אה"ע). וְכֵן יֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם לְעָרֵב בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה. וּבְדִיעֲבַד יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.


When a Jew lives with a non-Jew in the same courtyard, the non-Jew does not prohibit [the Jew to carry], and he is allowed to carry from the house into the courtyard and from the courtyard into the house. Even if there are two or more Jews, but they live there under such conditions that they do not need an eiruv, as explained in paragraph 13 above, then the non-Jew does not prohibit them [to carry]. But if there are two or more Jews [living there] who are required to make an eiruv, and a non-Jew also lives there, he prohibits them [to carry],43 and they cannot make an eiruv until they rent the premises. If two or more non-Jews live there, they must rent [the premises] from each of them.44


יִשְֹרָאֵל הַדָּר עִם אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי בֶּחָצֵר אַחַת, אֵין הָאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי אוֹסֵר עָלָיו, מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִבַּיִת לֶחָצֵר וּמֵחָצֵר לַבָּיִת. וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם שְׁנֵי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר, רַק שֶׁהֵם דָּרִים בְּאֹפֶן שֶׁהֵם לֹא הָיוּ צְרִיכִין לָעֵרוּב, כַּמְבֹאָר לְעֵיל סָעִיף י"ג, אָז גַּם כֵּן אֵין הָאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶם. אֲבָל אִם הֵם שְׁנֵי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר שֶׁהָיוּ צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב, אָז אִם דָּר שָׁם גַּם אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי, הוּא אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶם, וְאֵינָם יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב עַד שֶׁיִּשְׂכְּרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת הָרְשׁוּת. וְאִם דָּרִים שָׁם שְׁנֵי נָכְרִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר, צְרִיכִין לִשְׂכּוֹר מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד.


Even if the non-Jew lives in another courtyard but he has no exit to the street other than through the court where the Jews live, or if he lives in the attic and the stairway leads to the courtyard, he also prohibits them [to carry].45


אֲפִלּוּ אִם הָאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי דָּר בְּחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים רַק דֶּרֶךְ הֶחָצֵר שֶׁהַיִשְׂרְאֵלִים דָּרִים בָּהּ, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא דָּר בַּעֲלִיָּה, וְהַמַּדְרֵגוֹת הֵן לְתוֹךְ הֶחָצֵר, גַּם כֵּן אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶם.


If a courtyard belongs to a Jew, but he rented or lent an apartment to a non-Jew, [the non-Jew] does not prohibit [the Jewish residents from carrying], because [the Jew] did not rent or lend it to [the non-Jew] with the power to prohibit the Jewish residents [from carrying],46 even if the owner of the courtyard himself does not live there.47


אִם הֶחָצֵר הִיא שֶׁל יִשְֹרָאֵל, אֶלָּא שֶׁהִשְׂכִּיר אוֹ הִשְׁאִיל שָׁם דִּירָה לְאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי, אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר, כִּי לֹא הִשְׂכִּיר אוֹ הִשְׁאִיל לוֹ עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיֶּאֱסוֹר עַל בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר בְּעַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ דָּר שָׁם.


How do you rent [the premises from a non-Jew]? The Jew says to the [non-Jew] "Rent me your premises for so and so much money," and he does not have to explain to him that it is in order to make carrying48 permissible. However, if he says to him "Give me permission," even though he explains to him, "in order that I may be permitted to carry in the courtyard," it is not valid.49


כֵּיצַד שׂוֹכְרִין. אוֹמֵר לוֹ הַיִשְֹרָאֵל: הַשְׂכֵּר לִי רְשׁוּתְךָ בְּמָעוֹת אֵלּוּ. וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְפָרֵשׁ לוֹ כְּדֵי לְהַתִּיר הַטִּלְטוּל. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ, תֵּן לִי רְשׁוּתְךָ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְפָרֵשׁ לוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁאוּכַל לְטַלְטֵל בֶּחָצֵר, לֹא מַהֲנִי.


You may rent [the premises] even from the [non-Jew's] wife50 and even from his servant.


יָכוֹל לִשְׂכּוֹר אֲפִלּוּ מֵאִשְׁתּוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ מִמְשָׁרְתוֹ.


If you rented the premises without specifying any definite period of time, it remains valid as long as the non-Jew does not change51 his mind, and he still lives there. However, if the non-Jew moves away from there and another non-Jew moves in, you must renew the rental agreement with the second [non-Jew]. If you rented [the premises] for a specific time, and during that time the non-Jew rented his apartment to another non-Jew, then the original rental agreement is sufficient.52 But if the non-Jew died or he sold it to another non-Jew during this time, you must rent it again from the heir or from the buyer.53 And if you rented it from his servant, if you rented it without specifying a time, it is valid only as long as the servant is there. But if you rented it for a certain length of time, then even if the servant left, the lease remains in force until that time expires.54


שָׂכַר אֶת הָרְשׁוּת סְתָם, מַהֲנִי לְכָל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא חָזַר בּוֹ הָאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי וְהוּא דָּר שָׁם. אֲבָל אִם יָצָא מִשָּׁם אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי זֶה וְנִכְנַס אַחֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ, צְרִיכִין לִשְׂכּוֹר מֵחָדָשׁ מִזֶּה הַשֵּׁנִי. וְאִם שָׂכַר לִזְמָן, וּבְתוֹךְ הַזְּמָן הִשְׂכִּיר הָאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי דִּירָתוֹ לְאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי אַחֵר, דַּי בַּשְּׂכִירוּת הָרִאשׁוֹן. אֲבָל אִם מֵת אוֹ שֶׁמְּכָרָהּ לְאַחֵר בְּתוֹךְ הַזְּמָן, צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וְלִשְׂכּוֹר מֵהַיּוֹרֵשׁ אוֹ מֵהַלּוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם שָׂכַר מִמְּשָׁרְתוֹ, אִם שָׂכַר סְתָם, לֹא מַהֲנִי אֶלָּא כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַמְשָׁרֵת הַזֶּה הוּא שָׁם. וְאִם שָֹׁכַר לִזְמָן אֲפִלּוּ נִסְתַּלֵּק הַמְשָׁרֵת, מַהֲנֵי הַשְּׂכִירוּת עַד הַזְּמָן.


Whenever a rental [from a non-Jew] expires and you have to make a new lease, you also have to make a new eiruv; for an eiruv is not automatically55 renewed.


בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְבַּטְּלָה הַשְּׂכִירוּת וּצְרִיכִין לַחֲזוֹר וְלִשְׂכּוֹר, צְרִיכִין גַּם כֵּן לַעֲשׂוֹת עֵרוּב מֵחָדָשׁ, דְּאֵין עֵרוּב חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר.


If it is impossible to rent the premises56 from [the non-Jew], one of the Jews57 should ask him to lend him a special place on his premises,58 to place an object there. And he should then put the object there and through this, the Jew acquires that place. Even if he removed the article from there before Shabbos,59 nevertheless, since the Jew had the right to leave that object there on Shabbos, it is considered as if he had a share in the apartment. This Jew may then rent the premises60 to all the residents of the courtyard.


אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׂכֹּר מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת הָרְשׁוּת, יְבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶחָד מִן הַיִשְׂרְאֵלִים שֶׁיַּשְׁאִיל לוֹ מָקוֹם בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ הַמְיֻחָד לוֹ לְהַנִּיחַ שָׁם אֵיזֶה חֵפֶץ, וְיַנִּיחַ שָׁם אֶת הַחֵפֶץ, וּבָזֶה קוֹנֶה הַיִשְֹרָאֵל אֶת הַמָּקוֹם. וַאֲפִלּוּ לָקַח אֶת הַחֵפֶץ מִשָּׁם קֹדֶם שַׁבָּת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה לְהַיִשְֹרָאֵל רְשׁוּת לְהַנִּיחַ שָׁם חֶפְצוֹ גַּם בַּשַׁבָּת, נֶחְשָׁב כְּאִלּו יֵשׁ לוֹ שָׁם חֵלֶק בַּדִּירָה, וְיָכוֹל הַיִשְֹרָאֵל הַזֶּה לְהַשְׂכִּיר אֶת הָרְשׁוּת לְכָל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר.


An apostate or a person who publicly desecrates the Shabbos61 62 (according to some authorities, even if it is only a Rabbinic prohibition),63 is considered as a non-Jew, and you must rent his premises from him.


יִשְֹרָאֵל מוּמָר אוֹ שֶׁהוּא מְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא (יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, אֲפִלּוּ רַק בְּאִסּוּר דְּרַבָּנָן), הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי וּצְרִיכִין לִשְׂכֹּר מִמֶּנּוּ רְשׁוּת (שפ"ה).


In many communities they equip all alleyways and streets with an eiruv (by installing the form of a door64 [tzuras hapesach] or something similar), and they rent the property rights from the non-Jews,65 in order to be able to carry throughout the city. It is essential that all the procedures are performed by a Rav who is an expert, and well versed [in these halachos]. In these communities it is customary to place the eiruv in the synagogue, (because the laws of partnership apply to it, and it is not necessary [to place it] specifically in a dwelling).66


בְּהַרְבֵּה קְהִלּוֹת מְתַקְּנִים כָּל הַמְּבוֹאוֹת וְהָרְחוֹבוֹת בְּעֵרוּבִין (דְּהַיְנוּ בְּצוּרַת הַפֶּתַח וְכַדּוֹמֶה) וְשׂוֹכְרִין רְשׁוּת מִן הַנָּכְרִי לְמַעַן יוּכְלוּ לְטַלְטֵל בְּכָל הָעִיר. וּצְרִיכִין לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל הַתִּקּוּנִים עַל יְדֵי רַב מֻמְחֶה וּבָקִי. וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת אֵלּוּ נוֹהֲגִין לְהַנִּיחַ אֶת עֵרוּבֵי הַחֲצֵרוֹת בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת (מִשּׁוּם דְּיֵשׁ לוֹ דִּין שֻׁתָּף, וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ דַּוְקָא בֵּית דִּירָה) (שס"ו שצ"א).


In communities, however, where the city is not equipped with an eiruv, then, even when they make eiruvei chatzeiros for the residents of the courtyard in which the synagogue [is located], it is forbidden to put the eiruv in the synagogue, but it must be put in one of the dwellings.67


אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין הָעִיר מְתֻקֶּנֶת בְּעֵרוּבִין, גַּם כְּשֶׁעוֹשִׂין עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת בִּשְׁבִיל הַדַּיָרִים שֶׁבַּחֲצַר בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ אֶת הָעֵרוּב בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אֶלָּא צְרִיכִין לְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּבֵית דִּירָה (עַיֵן מַחֲצִית הַֹשֶּקֶל סוֹף סימָן שסה בְֹּשֵם חֲכַם צְבִי).


If a city-wide eiruv became defective on Shabbos, the residents of every courtyard that is properly [surrounded with partitions] in which there is no break [large enough] to make [carrying there] forbidden,68—even if that courtyard contains many houses—are permitted to carry there the entire Shabbos. Even if the eiruv is deposited in another premise which is now separated from this courtyard, nevertheless, they are permitted [to carry], because regarding this, we say, "Once it was permitted on that Shabbos, it continues to be permitted."69 70 However, since there is strong reason to be concerned that many people will fall into error and carry [by mistake], even in places where it is now forbidden to do so, since they are accustomed to carrying legally; therefore, if it is possible to have it repaired by a non-Jew, it may be done.71 If the string of the "form of the door" was torn, and it is possible for a non-Jew to repair it with a loop, or by making one knot and a loop over it, so much the better.


עִיר הַמְתֻקֶּנֶת בְּעֵרוּבִין וְנִתְקַלְקֵל הָעֵרוּב בַּשַׁבָּת, אָז כָּל הַחֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁהֵן כְּתִקּוּנָן וְאֵין בָּהֶן פִּרְצָה הָאוֹסֶרֶת (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן פ"ב סָעִיף ד' ה'), אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בֶּחָצֵר כַּמָּה בָּתִּים, מֻתָּרִין לְטַלְטֵל שָׁם כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַשַׁבָּת. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֵרוּב הַחֲצֵרוֹת הוּא בִּרְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה עַתָּה מֵחָצֵר זֹה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֻתָּר, מִשּׁוּם דִּלְעִנְיָן זֶה אָמְרֵינָן, שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן דְּהֻתְּרָה, הֻתְּרָה. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲשָׁשׁ גָּדוֹל שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּשְׁלוּ רַבִּים לַשֵּׂאת גַּם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻרְגְּלוּ בְּהֶתֵּר, עַל כֵּן אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ עַל יְדֵי אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי, מֻתָּר. וְאִם נִקְרַע הַחֶבֶל שֶׁבְּצורַת הַפֶּתַח וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהָאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי יְתַקְּנוֹ בַעֲנִיבָה אוֹ בְּקֶשֶׁר אֶחָד וַעֲנִיבָה עַל גַּבָּיו, מַה טּוֹב.


If a Yom Tov occurs on erev Shabbos and the eiruv became defective,72 even though the eiruv serves a need also on Yom Tov [of permitting you to carry] articles you do not need [on Yom Tov], still we do not say that since it was permitted on Yom Tov73 it should also be permitted on Shabbos, because Yom Tov and Shabbos have two [distinctly different] characters of holiness.74


אִם חָל יוֹם טוֹב בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְנִתְקַלְקֵל אָז הָעֵרוּב, אַף עַל גַּב דְּהָעֵרוּב מוֹעִיל גַּם לְיוֹם טוֹב לְעִנְיַן דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם לְצֹרֶךְ (כְּדִלְקַמָּן סִימָן צ"ח סָעִיף ל"ד), לֹא אָמְרֵינָן, הוֹאִיל וְהֻתַּר לְיוֹם טוֹב, הֻתַּר גַּם לַשַׁבָּת, מִשּׁוּם דְּיוֹם טוֹב וְשַׁבָּת, שְׁתֵּי קְדֻשּׁוֹת הֵן (מג"א סִימָן שס"ג).