1

Fencing an area with partitions to make carrying in it permissible, will serve that purpose only when the area was fenced around for dwelling purposes. What is meant by "fenced around for dwelling purposes" ? If you built a house to live in, or you opened a door from your house, and fenced the area with partitions, the way courtyards are built for houses, then, even if the [enclosed area] is very large, it is an absolute private domain. But areas that have been fenced around for other than dwelling purposes, such as gardens or orchards,1 whose fences are made only to guard their contents, these are graded by their size. If the area would not require more than two seahs2 [of seed], you may carry things in it, but if it would require more than two seahs [of seed], it is considered a karmelis.3

א

הֶקֵּף מְחִצּוֹת לְטַלְטֵל בְּתוֹכָן, לֹא מַהֲנֵי אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהֻקַּף לְדִירָה. וּמַהוּ נִקְרָא מֻקָּף לְדִירָה. זֶה שֶׁבָּנָה לוֹ בֵּית דִּירָה, אוֹ שֶׁפָּתַח פֶּתַח מִבֵּיתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִקִּיף שָׁם בִּמְחִצּוֹת, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין הַחֲצֵרוֹת לַבָּתִים, אָז אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא גָּדוֹל הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד, הֲוֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה. אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁהֻקַּף שֶׁלֹּא לְשֵׁם דִּירָה, כְּגוֹן גַּנּוֹת וּפַרְדְּסִים, שֶׁאֵין הַמְּחִצּוֹת עֲשׂוּיוֹת אֶלָּא לִשְׁמוֹר מַה שֶׁבְּתוֹכָן, בְּאֵלּוּ יֵשׁ חִלּוּק בְּגָדְלָן. אִם אֵינוֹ גָּדוֹל מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם (שֶיְבִאַר בְּסָעִיף שֶלְאַחַר זֶה), מֻתָּרִין לְטַלְטֵל בְּתוֹכוֹ (וְעַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סָעִיף ג) אֲבָל אִם הוּא גָדוֹל מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם דִּינוֹ כְּכַרְמְלִית.

2

What is the size of an area requiring two seahs [of seed] ? It is the area of the courtyard of the Tabernacle, [which was] one hundred amos long by fifty amos wide. If the space is a square, it would measure seventy amos and four tefachim by seventy amos and four tefachim. (In our amos it measures fifty three by fifty three and a little more).4 If the area is circular or in any other shape, it should also be calculated to measure 5, 000 square amos. (In our amos it is 3, 750.)5 However, if the length of the area is more than twice its width even if only by one amah,6 then it is considered as requiring more than two seahs [of seed],7 since it does not resemble the courtyard of the Tabernacle.

ב

כַּמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּר סָאתַיִם. כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה חֲצַר הַמִּשְׁכָּן, מֵאָה אַמָּה אֹרֶךְ וַחֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה רֹחַב. וְאִם הוּא מְרֻבָּע, עוֹלֶה בַּחֶשְׁבּוֹן שִׁבְעִים אַמָּה וְאַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים עַל שִׁבְעִים אַמָּה וְאַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים (וּבְאַמּוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׁלֹשׁ עַל חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׁלֹשׁ וּמְעַט יוֹתֵר). וְאִם הַמָּקוֹם עָגֹל אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר צִיּוּר צְרִיכִין גַּם כֵּן לַחְשׁוֹב כֵּן שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה בְּתִשְׁבֹּרֶת (בִּמְרֻבָּע), חֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אַמָּה. (וּבָאַמּוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ שְׁלשֶׁת אֲלָפִים שְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וַחֲמִשִּׁים). אַךְ אִם אָרְכּוֹ יוֹתֵר עַל פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּרָחְבּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ רַק אַמָּה אַחַת, אָז נֶחְשָׁב כְּיוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לַחֲצַר הַמִּשְׁכָּן.

3

A space which has been fenced around for other than dwelling purposes, and which is not larger than "two seahs" so that you are allowed to carry in it, if there is a courtyard next to it, you are also permitted to carry from there into the courtyard and from the courtyard into the enclosed space, because [the enclosure] and the court are considered as one domain. However, it is not considered the same domain as the house, and therefore the vessels in such an enclosed space are forbidden to be carried into the house, and vessels that are in the house are forbidden to be carried into the enclosed space.

ג

מָקוֹם שֶׁמֻּקָּף שֶׁלֹּא לְשֵׁם דִּירָה, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ גָּדוֹל מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּתוֹכוֹ, אִם יֵשׁ בְּסָמוּךְ לוֹ חָצֵר, מֻתָּר גַּם כֵּן לְהוֹצִיא מִתּוֹכוֹ לֶחָצֵר וּמֵחָצֵר לְתוֹכוֹ, כֵּלִים שֶׁשָׁבְתוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ אוֹ בֶּחָצֵר, כִּי נֶחְשָׁב לִרְשׁוּת אַחַת עִם הֶחָצֵר. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת אַחַת עִם הַבַּיִת, שֶׁהַכֵּלִים שֶׁשָׁבְתוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ, אָסוּר לְהַכְנִיסָן לְתוֹךְ הַבָּיִת וְהַכֵּלִים שֶׁשָׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת, אָסוּר לְהַכְנִיסָן לְשָׁם.

4

If you fenced around a space with partions8 for other than dwelling purposes, and afterwards built a dwelling on it, or you made a door in the house leading to it; what can legally be done to change it into an enclosure for dwelling purposes? You should make a break in the partition of more than ten amos; because an opening of ten amos is considered a door; but if it is more than that, it is considered a break, whereby the partitions will be nullified.9 After that if you repair the fence,10 it will be considered as fenced around for dwelling purposes.

ד

מָקוֹם שֶׁהֻקַּף שֶׁלֹּא לְשֵׁם דִּירָה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה הִקִּיף בִּמְחִצּוֹת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּנָה שָׁם בֵּית דִּירָה אוֹ שֶׁפָּתַח לְשָׁם פֶּתַח מִבֵּיתוֹ, מַאי תַּקָּנָתֵיה לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ מֻקָּף לְדִירָה. יִפְרֹץ בַּמְּחִצּוֹת מָקוֹם יָתֵר עַל עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, (כִּי עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת חֲשׁוּבוֹת כְּפֶתַח, וְיָתֵר מִכֵּן הֲוֵי פִּרְצָה), וְנִתְבַּטְּלוּ הַמְּחִצּוֹת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִגְּדֹּוֹר אוֹתָהּ, וְנֶחְשָׁב מֻקָּף לְדִירָה.

5

[If you have] a courtyard that is larger than two seahs, and you planted trees in it,11 even in the greater part of it, the status of dwelling is thereby not nullified, and it is still considered as fenced around for dwelling purposes, because people usually spend time in the shade of trees. However, if you planted12 seeds that cover the greater part of the yard (even if it is not in one area, but scattered) the status of dwellings has been nullified13 and the entire [yard] is considered as a garden. If [the planted area] covers less than half of the courtyard; and this area is less than two seahs, it is of no consequence compared to the courtyard and the whole area is regarded as a courtyard.14 But if [the planted area] covers more than two seahs (in one place), then the planted area is regarded as a karmelis, and the rest of the courtyard is completely open to a place which is forbidden (to carry into), and thus it is forbidden to carry anything in it except within four amos.

ה

חָצֵר שֶׁהִיא יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם, וְנָטַע בָּהּ אִילָנוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּרֻבָּהּ, לֹא נִתְבַּטְּלָה בָּזֶה הַדִּירָה וַעֲדַיִן חֲשוּבָה מֻקֶּפֶת לָדִּירָה, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ הָאָדָם לְהִסְתּוֹפֵף בְּצֵל אִילָנוֹת. אֲבָל אִם זָרַע בָּהּ זְרָעִים, אִם זֶה בְּרֹב הֶחָצֵר, (אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד אֶלָּא מְפֻזָר), נִתְבַּטֵּלָה בָּזֶה הַדִּירָה וְחֲשׁוּבָה כֻּלָהּ כְּגִנָּה. וְאִם זֶה בְּמוּעַט הֶחָצֵר, אִם הוּא פָּחוּת מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם, בָּטֵל לְגַבֵּי הֶחָצֵר וְכֻלּוֹ דִּינוֹ כֶּחָצֵר. אֲבָל אִם הוּא יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַים (בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד), הֲרֵי מְקוֹם הַזֶּרַע כְּמוֹ כַּרְמְלִית, וְהַשְּׁאָר מִן הֶחָצֵר הֲרֵי הוּא פָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ לַמָקוֹם הָאָסוּר, וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל גַּם בּוֹ רַק בְּאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת.

6

Likewise, a courtyard measuring only two seahs or less, part of which has been planted, should also be judged by the greater part of it. If the greater part has been planted, although you are permitted to carry there, since it is not larger than two seahs, nevertheless, vessels that are in your house are forbidden to be carried into it. Therefore, it is necessary to make a partition in front of the garden in order that you may carry things from the house into the courtyard.15

ו

וְכֵן חָצֵר שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ אֶלָּא בֵּית סָאתַיִם אוֹ פָּחוֹת וְזָרַע בְּמִקְצָתָהּ, גַּם כֵּן נִדּוֹן אַחַר הָרֹב. וְאִם רֻבָּהּ זָרוּעַ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּרִין לְטַלְטֵל שָׁם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּלִים שֶׁשָׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת, אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא לְשָׁם (כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי בְּסָעִיף ג'). וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה בִּפְנֵי הַגִּנָּה, שֶׁיְהֵא מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהוֹצִיא מִן הַבַּיִת אֶל הֶחָצֵר (שנ"ח).