1

In the opinion of some authorities, in our time the wine of a non-Jew or Jewish wine touched by a non-Jew is forbidden only for drinking but not for deriving other benefit from it. Therefore, a Jew is permitted to take non-Jewish wine in payment of a debt, for it is equivalent to saving it from a loss. The same law applies in avoiding other types of loss, but only when, for example, the wine was already purchased. However, initially, it is forbidden to buy such wine in order to make a profit from it. Some authorities are lenient even in this instance, but it is best to follow the stricter opinion.

א

סְתָם יֵינָם בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה, וְכֵן מַגַּע עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים בַּיַּיִן שֶׁלָּנוּ, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, דְּאֵינוֹ אָסוּר רַק בִּשְׁתִיָּה וְלֹא בַהֲנָאָה. וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְיִשְֹרָאֵל לִגְבּוֹת בְּחוֹבוֹ סְתָם יֵינָם, מִפְּנֵי דַּהֲוֵי כְּמַצִּיל מִידֵיהֶם. וְהוּא הַדִּין בִּשְׁאָר הֶפְסֵד, כְּגוֹן אִם עָבַר וְקָנָה. אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לִקְנֹת כְּדֵי לְהִשְׂתַּכֵּר בּוֹ. וְיֵשׁ מְקִלִּין גַּם בָּזֶה וְטוֹב לְהַחְמִיר.

2

It is permissible to make a bath from non-Jewish wine for a sick person, although he is not critically ill.

ב

מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מֶרְחָץ מִסְּתָם יֵינָם אֲפִלּוּ לְחוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה (קנ"ה).

3

Kosher wine that was cooked until it was brought to a boil and its contents reduced by the boiling, [even] if it was touched by a non-Jew, it is permissible even for drinking. However, wine into which spices have been put, such as vermouth, as long as it is still called wine, and has not been boiled becomes forbidden [when touched by a non-Jew].

ג

יַיִן כָּשֵׁר שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהִרְתִּיחַ וְנִתְמַעֵט מִמִּדָּתוֹ עַל יְדֵי הָרְתִיחָה, אִם נָגַע בּוֹ עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים, מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁתִיָּה. אֲבָל יַיִן שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין לְתוֹכוֹ לַעֲנָה (ווערמוטה), כֹּל שֶׁשֵּׁם יַיִן עָלָיו וְלֹא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל נֶאֱסָר.

4

A dish into which wine was added but is not discernable even if it was not yet brought to a boil, does not become forbidden when touched by a non-Jew.

ד

תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁיַּיִן מְעֹרָב בּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ נִכָּר, אֲפִלּוּ עֲדַיִן לֹא הִרְתִיחַ, אֵינוֹ נֶאֱסָר בְּמַגַּע עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים.

5

Wine that was diluted with six parts of water is no longer considered wine and does not become forbidden when touched by a non-Jew. However, raisin wine which is made by pouring water on raisins is considered real wine.

ה

יַיִן מָזוּג אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשָּׁה חֲלָקִים מַיִם, בָּטֵל הַיַּיִן. וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱסָר בְּמַגַּע עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים. אֲבָל יֵין צִמּוּקִים, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנָּתַן מַיִם עַל הַצִּמּוּקִים, הֲרֵי זֶה כְּיַיִן גָּמוּר (ע"ל ססנ"ג).

6

Mead which is made from water poured on the seeds, or on the lees of wine, as long as it is improved for drinking cannot be permitted, when touched by a non-Jew.

ו

הַתְּמָד, דְּהַיְנוּ מַיִם שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים עַל הַחַרְצַנִּים אוֹ עַל הַשְּׁמָרִים, כָּל שֶׁהוּא מְשֻׁבָּח לִשְׁתִיָּה, אֵין לְהַתִּירוֹ אִם נָגַע בּוֹ עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים.

7

Once even a small quantity of wine has been drawn from a barrel in which grapes were pressed, or if wine was taken from it in a vessel, the entire contents of the barrel is considered wine and becomes forbidden when touched by a non-Jew, even if he touched only the seeds and the husks. Therefore, barrels of grapes found in the house of a non-Jew are forbidden since he might have already drawn wine from them. It is also forbidden to let a non-Jew press grapes, even if the barrel is sealed.

ז

עֲנָבִים דְּרוּכוֹת בְּגִיגִית, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּמְשַׁךְ מִמֶּנּוּ יַיִן אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁאַב מִמֶּנּוּ יַיִן בִּכְלִי, נִקְרָא הַכֹּל יַיִן וְנֶאֱסָר בְּמַגַּע עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נָגַע אֶלָּא בַּחַרְצַנִּים וּבַזָּגִים. וְלָכֵן גִּיגִיוֹת עֲנָבִים דְּרוּכוֹת עוֹמְדוֹת בְּבֵית עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים יֵשׁ לֶאֱסוֹר, שֶׁמָּא הִמְשִׁיךְ מִמֶּנָּה. וְאָסוּר לִדְרֹךְ עַל יְדֵי עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים, אֲפִלּוּ בְּגִיגִית פְּקוּקָה.

8

Care must be taken that the removal of the seeds and husks from the presses should not be done by a non-Jew, even after the extraction of wine from the first and second pressing because it is possible that they might still be moist with wine.

ח

יֵשׁ לְהִזָּהֵר מִלְּהוֹצִיא אֶת הַחַרְצַנִּים וְהַזָּגִים מִן הַגִּתּוֹת עַל יְדֵי עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים, אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ מֵהֶם יַיִן רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי, כִּי שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹד טוֹפֵחַ יַיִן (קכ"ג).

9

If a non-Jew poured water into wine with the intention of diluting it,1 we are not allowed to drink it. But if he had not intended to dilute it, or even if it was doubtful whether he intended to do so, it is permissible to drink from it.

ט

עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ מַיִם לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן, אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לְמָזְגוֹ, אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה. וְאִם לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְמָזְגוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא סָפֵק, מֻתָּר (קכ"ה).

10

[If] wine vinegar made from kosher wine is so strong that it seethes when poured upon the ground, it no longer becomes forbidden when touched by a non-Jew. But vinegar produced from non-Jewish wine always remains forbidden.

י

חֹמֶץ יַיִן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִיַּיִן כָּשֵׁר, אִם הוּא חָזָק כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁמְּבַעְבֵּעַ כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹפְכִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הָאָרֶץ, שׁוּב אֵינוֹ נֶאֱסָר בְּמַגַּע עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים. אֲבָל אִם נַעֲשָׂה מִסְּתָם יֵינָם, לְעוֹלָם הוּא בְּאִסּוּרוֹ.

11

Similarly, whiskey [brandy] that was produced from non-Jewish wine or from seeds, skins and lees [of non-Jewish wine,] is considered like the wine itself. But when [brandy] is made from kosher wine, the touch of a non-Jew does not make it forbidden.

יא

וְכֵן יַיִן שָׂרָף שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִסְּתָם יֵינָם, וְכֵן מֵהַחַרְצַנִּים וְהַזָגִים וְהַשְּׁמָרִים, הֲרֵי הוּא כַּיַיִן עַצְמוֹ. אֲבָל הַנַּעֲשָׂה מִיַּיִן כָּשֵׁר אָז לְאַחַר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה יַיִן שָׂרָף אֵין מַגַּע עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים אוֹסַרְתּוֹ.

12

It has become the accepted custom to permit the use of Tartaric Acid, since it has no taste.

יב

מֶלַח שֶל יַיִן (ווַיינְשְׁטֵיין) (טַרְטַר) נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג לְהַתִּיר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ הֲנָאָה לְחֵךְ (סִימָן קכ"ג ובחכמת אדם).

13

If a non-Jew touches the wine by means of another object, [i.e. not with his own body] or through his power, a Rabbinic authority must be consulted.

יג

מַגַּע עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְכֵן הַבָּא מִכֹּחוֹ, יַעֲשֶׂה שְׁאֵלַת חָכָם (קכד קכה).

14

If wine is sent [to someone] with a non-Jewish messenger, great care must be taken that every faucet or spout should be sealed with double seals.

יד

הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ יַיִן עַל יְדֵי עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים, צָרִיךְ לְהַשְׁגִּיחַ הֵיטֵב בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּרְזָא אוֹ מְגּוּפָה לַחְתּוֹם בִּשְׁנֵי חוֹתָמוֹת (ק"ל).

15

If a Jew produces kosher wine for a non-Jew, for the purpose of selling it to Jewish customers, the situation raises many special halachic issues, and in certain circumstances, even double seals or a lock and key are not sufficient safeguards. It is necessary to consult a Rabbinic authority as to the proper procedure. One who fears for his soul should avoid this type of wine.

טו

יִשְֹרָאֵל שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה יֵינוֹ שֶׁל עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים בְּהֶכְשֵׁר כְּדֵי לְמָכְרוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ לְיִשְׂרְאֵלִים, יֵשׁ בָּזֶה כַּמָה חִלּוּקֵי דִּינִים, וְלִפְעָמִים אֲפִלּוּ שְׁנֵי חוֹתָמוֹת וְגַם מַפְתֵּחַ לֹא מַהֲנִי. וְצָרִיךְ לִשְׁאֹל לְמוֹרֵה הוֹרָאָה כְּדָּת מַה לַעֲשׂוֹת, וְשׁוֹמֵר נַפְשׁוֹ יִרְחַק מִיַּיִן כָּזֶה.

16

Vessels in which wine is kept for a short time which contained non-Jewish wine, and that had no wine in them for twenty four hours, whether the vessels are made of leather, wood, glass, stone or metal, if they are not lined with pitch, they should be rinsed well with water three times and they may be used. If, however, they are lined with pitch, they have a different halachic status. Similarly, earthenware has a different halachic status.

טז

כֵּלִים שֶׁל סְתָם יֵינָם, אִם הֵם כֵּלִים שֶׁאֵין הַדֶּרֶךְ לְהַחְזִיק בָּהֶם יַיִן אֶלָּא זְמַן קָצָר, וְגַם לֹא הָיָה בָּהֶם הַיַּיִן מֵעֵת לְעֵת, בֵּין שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל עוֹר בֵּין שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל עֵץ וְשֶׁל זְכוּכִית וְשֶׁל אֶבֶן וְשֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת, אִם אֵינָם מְזֻפָּתִין, מְדִיחָן הֵיטֵב בְּמַיִם שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים וּמֻתָּרִים. וְאִם הֵם מְזֻפָּתִין, יֵשׁ לָהֶם דִּין אַחֵר. וְכֵן כְּלִי חֶרֶס יֵשׁ לָהֶם דִּין אַחֵר.

17

Vessels that are made for keeping wine in them for a long time, that is, they are designed to hold wine for at least three days, even though the vessel belongs to a Jew, and the non-Jew kept wine in the vessel for only a short time, it, nevertheless, requires a kashering process. The vessel must be filled with water up to the very brim and be allowed to stay that way for at least twenty-four hours, which is referred to as mei'eis le'eis;2 after that the water should be poured out and refilled a second time and allowed to stay that way for at least twenty-four hours. This procedure should be repeated a third time. It is not necessary that the three twenty-four hour periods be consecutive. If the water remained in the vessel for many days without being poured out, it counts for only one twenty-four hour period. Some authorities say that if the wine was in the vessel for twenty-four hours, it cannot be kashered in this manner, because after twenty-four hours of soaking, it is considered as if it was boiled (cooked) and it requires kashering with boiling water. And if there is no pressing need, it is best to follow this more stringent opinion.

יז

כֵּלִים הָעֲשׂוּיִים לְהַכְנִיס בָּהֶם יַיִן לְקִיּוּם, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמְיַחֲדִין אוֹתָן לְהַחְזִיק בָּהֶם יַיִן לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכְּלִי הוּא שֶׁל יִשְֹרָאֵל, וְהָעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים הֶחְזִיק בּוֹ אֶת הַיַּיִן רַק זְמַן מֻעָט, מִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר עַל יְדֵי עִרוּי דְּהַיְנוּ מְמַלְּאִים אֶת הַכְּלִי מַיִם עַל כָּל גְּדוֹתָיו, וְיַעֲמֹד כָּךְ לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת, מֵעֵת לְעֵת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ שׁוֹפֵךְ אֶת הַמַּיִם וְנוֹתֵן בּוֹ מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים, וְיַעֲמֹד כָּךְ לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת מֵעֵת לְעֵת, וְכֵן עוֹשֶׂה פַּעַם שְׁלִישִׁית. וְאֵין צְרִיכִין שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַשְּׁלשָׁה מֵעֵת לְעֵת דַּוְקָא רְצוֹפִין. וְאִם עָמְדוּ בּוֹ הַמַּיִם כַּמָּה יָמִים וְלֹא שְׁפָכָם, לֹא עָלָה לוֹ אֶלָּא לְמֵעֵת לְעֵת אֶחָד. יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, דְּאִם הַיַּיִן הָיָה בּוֹ מֵעֵת לְעֵת, לֹא מִתְכַּשֵּׁר בְּעֵרוּי, מִשּׁוּם דְּכָבוּשׁ כִּמְבֻשָּׁל וּבָעֵי הַגְעָלָה. וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין צֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל, יֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר כֵּן.

18

Since glass utensils are smooth and hard; even though wine is kept in them for long periods, it is sufficient to rinse them three times.

יח

כְּלֵי זְכוּכִית כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם חֲלָקִים וְקָשִׁים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין בָּהֶם יַיִן לְקִיּוּם, סָגֵּי לְהוּ בַּהֲדָחַה שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים.

19

[If] a vessel that contained Jewish wine was emptied of its wine, but the vessel was still so moist as to moisten other objects, and was touched by a non-Jew, rinsing it three times is sufficient, even though the vessel was made to hold wine for a long time.

יט

כְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ יַיִן שֶׁלָּנוּ וְעֵרוּ אֶת הַיַּיִן, וּבְעוֹד שֶׁהָיָה הַכְּלִי טוֹפֵחַ עַל מְנָת לְהַטְפִיחַ נָגַע שָׁם עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים סָגֵּי לֵהּ בַּהֲדָחָה שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין בּוֹ לְקִיּוּם.

20

The process of rinsing or of 'emptying' for three days is permissible only when cold wine was stored in them, but if the wine was hot, it must be made kosher only by the process of boiling water as if they contained any other forbidden food.

כ

הָא דְּמַהֲנִי הֲדָחָה אוֹ עֵרוּי, זֶהוּ כְּשֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ יַיִן רַק בְּצוֹנֵן. אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּחַמִּין, צָרִיךְ הַגְעָלָה כְּמוֹ מִשְּׁאָר אִסּוּרִין.

21

Vessels used in the wine press, even though they are not used for storing wine, nevertheless, since they are used for an abundance of wine, we deal with them more stringently and a Rabbinic authority should be consulted for the proper way to kasher them.

כא

כְּלֵי הַגַּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מַכְנִיסִין בָּהֶם יַיִן לְקִיּוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בָּהֶם יַיִן בְּשֶׁפַע, חֲמִירֵי, וּצְרִיכִין שְׁאֵלַת חָכָם אֵיךְ לְהַכְשִׁירָן.

22

Any vessels that have not been used for twelve months may be used [without any kashering process], because we are certain that no moisture of wine was left in them. Even if water was poured in them during the twelve month period, it does not matter.

כב

כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּתְיַשְׁנוּ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, מֻתָּרִים, כִּי בְּוַדַּאי כָּלָה כָּל לַחְלוּחִית יַיִן שֶׁבָּהֶם. וַאֲפִלּוּ נָתַן לְתוֹכָן מַיִם תּוֹךְ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.