SECTION 444 The Laws [that Apply] When the Day Before Pesach Falls on Shabbos (1-20)

סימן תמד דִּין עֶרֶב פֶּסַח שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ' סְעִיפִים:

1 When the fourteenth of Nissan falls on Shabbos – since it is impossible to search [for chametz] on Friday night, for it is [then] forbidden to carry a candle1 to check by its light, and it is also impossible to search during the day, as explained in sec. 433[:1]2 – everyone should therefore move forward their search [and carry it out] on Thursday night, the night [preceding] the thirteenth of Nissan.

[Before the search,] the blessing [praising G‑d “Who commanded us] concerning the obliteration of chametz” should be recited.3 One should nullify [his possession of] all the chametz that remains in his possession that he did not find in this search4 and take precautions regarding the chametz found during the search and the chametz left for consumption, placing it in a hidden location, so that children and crawling animals will not drag away portions of it, as explained in sec. 434[:1-2].

א י"ד בְּנִיסָן שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת,א כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִבְדֹּק בְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל אֶת הַנֵּרב,1 לִבְדֹּק לְאוֹרוֹ, וְגַם בַּיּוֹם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִבְדֹּקג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ג,ד,2 לְפִיכָךְ מַקְדִּימִין הַכֹּל לִבְדֹּק בְּלֵיל שִׁשִּׁי, שֶׁהוּא לֵיל י"ג, וּמְבָרְכִין "עַל בִּעוּר חָמֵץ",3 וּמְבַטְּלִין כָּל חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מְצָאוֹ בִּבְדִיקָה זוֹ,ה,4 וְנִזְהָרִין בֶּחָמֵץ הַנִּמְצָא בַּבְּדִיקָה וּבֶחָמֵץ שֶׁמְּשַׁיְּרִין לַאֲכִילָה לְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּמָקוֹם מֻצְנָע,ו שֶׁלֹּא יִגְרְרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ קְטַנִּים אוֹ שְׁרָצִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ד:ז

2 On Friday, [a person] must obliterate all the chametz in his domain, leaving only food for two Shabbos meals.5 However, [chametz should not be kept aside] for the third [Shabbos] meal. [The rationale is that] since the time [the third meal is eaten] is after midday,6 one may [then] only eat matzah ashirah, [literally, “rich man’s matzah,”] i.e., matzah that was kneaded with wine, oil, honey, milk, other liquids, or mei peiros.7 Any [matzah made with] these substances is not deemed “poor man’s bread.” [Accordingly,] a person may not fulfill his obligation to eat matzah on Pesach with [matzah ashirah].8 Therefore, it is permitted to eat [such matzah] on the day before Pesach. By contrast, on the day before Pesach, it is forbidden to eat any matzah with which a person may fulfill his obligation on Pesach, as will be stated in sec. 471[:4].9

ב וּבְיוֹם עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת צָרִיךְ לְבַעֵר כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, וְלֹא יְשַׁיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ רַק מָזוֹן ב' סְעוּדוֹת לְשַׁבָּת,ח,5 אֲבָל סְעוּדָה שְׁלִישִׁית, כֵּיוָן שֶׁזְּמַנָּהּ הוּא אַחַר חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם,6 אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְאָכְלָהּ רַק מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה,ט דְּהַיְנוּ מַצָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּיַיִן אוֹ שֶׁמֶן אוֹ דְּבַשׁ אוֹ חָלָב אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת,7 שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ אֵינָן נִקְרָאִין "לֶחֶם עֹנִי", וְאֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבַת אֲכִילַת מַצָּה בְּפֶסַח,8 וּלְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח. אֲבָל כָּל מַצָּה שֶׁאָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּפֶסַח אָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"א:י,9

3 In these countries,10 where it is not at all customary to eat matzah ashirah on the day before Pesach from the fifth hour onward for the reason to be explained in sec. 462[:3, 7],11 the [obligation to eat] the third meal should be fulfilled using meat, fish, and other foods [usually served as] accompaniment [for bread. This is acceptable] since there are authorities who maintain that one may fulfill his obligation for the third meal with these foods on all the Shabbasos of the year, as explained in sec. 291[:7].

ג וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ10 שֶׁאֵין נוֹהֲגִין כְּלָל לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה ה' וָאֵילָךְ מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ביא,11 – יְקַיְּמוּ סְעוּדָה שְׁלִישִׁית בְּבָשָׂר וְדָגִיםיב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בִּשְׁאָר מִינֵי לִפְתָּן, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁבִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ אָדָם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבַת סְעוּדָה שְׁלִישִׁית בְּכָל שַׁבְּתוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רצ"א:יג

4 If a person does not have foods [normally served as an] accompaniment [for bread], he should use [different] types of fruit as [the basis of this meal. The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that one may also fulfill the obligation of [eating] the third meal [with fruits], as stated in the above source.12

It would have been appropriate to use matzah that was cooked, but which has not dissolved entirely in the cooking [process], and thus its [pieces] are still intact, i.e., every one [of the pieces is at least] the size of an olive, and thus the blessings of HaMotzi and Grace are recited over them.13 [In this manner, one] can fulfill [the obligation of eating] the third meal according to all opinions, for it is permitted to eat [such matzah] on the day before Pesach. [The rationale is that] a person may not fulfill his obligation [of eating matzah] on Pesach with cooked matzah (as will be explained in sec. 461[:14]).14 Nevertheless, it is not customary to [partake of such matzah at this meal].15

One who follows [the above] practice and similarly, [Jews residing] in those places where it is customary to eat matzah ashirah, should be careful to partake of this third meal before the tenth hour [of the day],16 for it is forbidden to partake of bread until the evening from that time onward, as will be explained in sec. 471[:1].17

ד וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מִינֵי לִפְתָּןיד – יְקַיְּמֶנָּה בְּמִינֵי פֵּרוֹת,טו שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁגַּם בָּזֶה יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבַת סְעוּדָה שְׁלִישִׁית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.12

וְהָיָה רָאוּי לְקַיְּמָהּ בְּמַצָּה מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת שֶׁלֹּא נִמּוֹחָה לְגַמְרֵי בְּבִשּׁוּלָהּ אֶלָּא פְּרוּסוֹתֶיהָ קַיָּמִין, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן כְּזַיִת בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶן "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,טז,13 וְיָכוֹל לְקַיֵּם בָּהּ סְעוּדָה ג' לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח,יז כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַצָּה מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת (כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"איח,14), אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין נוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן.יט,15

וּמִי שֶׁנּוֹהֵג כֵּן, וְכֵן בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה – צְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיֹּאכַל סְעוּדָה ג' זוֹ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה עֲשִׂירִית,כ,16 שֶׁמִּכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל פַּת עַד הָעֶרֶב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"א:כא,17

5 When [a person] obliterates his chametz on [such a] Friday18 – even though according to law, he could obliterate it close to nightfall, [because] he need not obliterate it before midday as is necessary in other years, for he is permitted to partake of it until the fifth hour on the following day19 – nevertheless, it is desirable to be careful to obliterate [one’s chametz] on Friday before midday, so that he will not err during other years and [also then] obliterate [his chametz] after midday on the day before Pesach.

ה כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,18 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין יָכוֹל לְבַעֲרוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַשָּׁנִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ עַד לְמָחָר בְּשָׁעָה ה',19 מִכָּל מָקוֹם טוֹב לִזָּהֵר לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ לִטְעוֹת בִּשְׁאָר שָׁנִים לְבַעֵר גַּם כֵּן אַחַר חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח:כב

6 However, it is not necessary to nullify [one’s possession of chametz] on Friday at the time he obliterates it as he does every year.20 [The rationale is that the person] already nullified [his possession of] all the chametz in his domain that he did not find and that he did not know about on Thursday night. He may not nullify [his possession of] the chametz that is in his domain that he knows about on Friday, for he must partake of it on Shabbos.21

ו אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַטֵּל בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בִּשְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר הַשָּׁנִים,כג,20 שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר בִּטֵּל בְּלֵיל ו' כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מְצָאוֹ וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּ, וּמַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ מִן הֶחָמֵץ הַיָּדוּעַ לוֹ אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְבַטְּלוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי צָרִיךְ הוּא לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת:כד,21

7 One should caution the sheliach tzibbur not to prolong the prayers on Shabbos morning so [the community] may partake of chametz and not transgress [by eating it after the permitted time].22

ז יֵשׁ לְהַזְהִיר לַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁלֹּא יַאֲרִיךְ בִּתְפִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת שַׁחֲרִית, מִשּׁוּם אֲכִילַת חָמֵץ, שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי אִסּוּר:כה,22

8 For this Shabbos one should not cook grits, different foods [cooked with] flour, or all other types of cooked dishes [containing chametz] that are likely to stick to the pot [in which they were cooked] or the dish [in which they are served],23so that it will not be necessary to wash them thoroughly on Shabbos after eating to remove the chametz adhering to them.24 [Such a safeguard is necessary] because washing these [pots and plates] is not necessary for Shabbos, and it is forbidden to wash dishes that are not necessary for that Shabbos, as explained in sec. 323[:6].

If one violated [these instructions] and cooked these types [of foods], and they became stuck to the utensils in a manner that [the chametz] could not be thoroughly wiped off [the dishes] so that not even the slightest trace [of chametz] will remain on them, it is permitted to wash them thoroughly on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] this washing is necessary for a mitzvah, i.e., to remove chametz from the utensil so that [the chametz] may be obliterated. It is desirable to wash [these dishes]25 even when there is only a small amount of chametz that need not be obliterated according to the letter of the law, as explained in sec. 442[:28].26 If, however, one can thoroughly wipe [the chametz] away, it is forbidden to wash [the utensils] on Shabbos.

ח אֵין לְבַשֵּׁל לְשַׁבָּת זֶה מִינֵי הָרִיפוֹת אוֹ מִינֵי קְמָחִים אוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל מִינֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לִדָּבֵק בַּקְּדֵרָה אוֹ בַּקְּעָרָה,כו,23 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לַהֲדִיחָן בְּשַׁבָּת אַחַר גְּמַר הָאֲכִילָה לְהָסִיר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ הַדָּבוּק בָּהֶן,כז,24 שֶׁהֲרֵי הֲדָחָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת, וְאָסוּר לְהָדִיחַ כֵּלִים שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת,כח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ג.כט

וְאִם עָבַר וּבִשֵּׁל מִינִים אֵלּוּ וְנִדְבְּקוּ בַּכֵּלִיםל בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְקַנְּחָם הֵיטֵב שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר בָּהֶם מְאוּמָה – מֻתָּר לַהֲדִיחָם בְּשַׁבָּת,לא כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּהֲדָחָה זוֹ צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, לְהַעֲבִיר הֶחָמֵץ מֵהַכְּלִי כְּדֵי לְבַעֲרוֹ.לב וְטוֹב לַהֲדִיחָם אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בָּהֶם אֶלָּא מְעַט חָמֵץלג בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין,25 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב.לד,26 אֲבָל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְקַנְּחָם הֵיטֵב – אָסוּר לַהֲדִיחָם בְּשַׁבָּת:לה

9 After one completes eating the morning meal on this Shabbos, before the fifth hour, he should thoroughly shake out the tablecloth on which he ate, ]removing any] fine crumbs that were left on it. [The person] should [use] his finger [to] thoroughly wipe the pots, the plates, the spoons, and [any] other utensils that were used for chametz, so that no chametz will remain visible there during all the days of Pesach. (During the days of Pesach, he should store away the tablecloth together with the other chametz utensils in a room that he is not accustomed to entering as will be explained in sec. 451[:1].) [The person] should cast [down the chametz] he cleaned [from the utensils] and the fine crumbs [from the tablecloth] in a place where they will be tread upon; [he may do so] even inside his house. [Thus,] when the sixth hour arrives, [the crumbs and the bits of chametz] will already have been obliterated because [people will have] trodden [upon them].27

If, however, larger [pieces of chametz] remain, [the person] must give them to a non-Jew as an outright gift. True, on Shabbos, it is forbidden to give a gift that is not necessary for [that] Shabbos, as explained in sec. 306[:15]; consult that source. Nevertheless, [in this instance,] since he is [giving the gift] in order to obliterate chametz from his domain so that he will not violate the prohibition of having chametz seen [in one’s domain] on Pesach, this gift is being given for the sake of a mitzvah, and it is permitted to give a present [on Shabbos] for the sake of a mitzvah,28 as stated in that source.

Nevertheless, [the Jewish householder] should be careful not to tell [the non-Jew] to remove [the chametz] from [the Jew’s] home [and bring it] to a place where it is forbidden to carry it on Shabbos according to Scriptural Law.29 Although [the Jew] knows that the non-Jew will take out [the chametz from the Jew’s domain] – and, [indeed,] he is giving it to [the non-Jew specifically] for that reason – nevertheless, since [the Jew] does not explicitly tell [the non-Jew] to remove it,30 the non-Jew does so on his own initiative and he is not considered as the Jew’s agent.31

Similarly, [the Jewish householder] should be careful to only give [the non-Jew] a small amount [of food], i.e., food [sufficient] for one meal. [Thus,] if the non-Jew would so desire, he could eat the entire amount in the Jew’s home.32 If the non-Jew removed [the food] and then returned to the Jew’s home, [the Jew] may give him enough [chametz] for another meal. [This pattern may be repeated] even 100 times. It is forbidden, however, to give [the non-Jew] more than the food for one meal at any one time. [The rationale is that] since [the non-Jew] cannot eat [all the food] in the Jew’s home at this time, it is obvious that [the Jew] is giving [the non-Jew the food] with the intent that he take it out [of the Jew’s house]. Thus, it is as if [the Jew] explicitly told him to take it out.

ט אַחַר שֶׁגָּמַר מִלֶּאֱכֹל סְעוּדַת שַׁחֲרִית בְּשַׁבָּת זֶה קֹדֶם שָׁעָה חֲמִישִׁית, יְנַעֵר הֵיטֵב הַמַּפָּה שֶׁאָכְלוּ עָלֶיהָ מִן הַפֵּרוּרִין הַדַּקִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ בָּהּ, וְהַקְּדֵרוֹת וְהַקְּעָרוֹת וְהַכַּפּוֹת וּשְׁאָר הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ יְקַנְּחֵם הֵיטֵב בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר בָּהֶם חָמֵץ בְּעֵיןלו (וְיַטְמִין הַמַּפָּה עִם שְׁאָר כְּלֵי הֶחָמֵץ בְּחֶדֶר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח,לז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"אלח), וְיַשְׁלִיךְ הַקִּנּוּחַ וְהַפֵּרוּרִין הַדַּקִּים בִּמְקוֹם דְּרִיסַת הָרַגְלַיִם אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, דִּכְשֶׁתַּגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית כְּבָר הֵן מְבֹעָרִין עַל יְדֵי דְּרִיסַת הָרַגְלַיִם.לט,27

אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁאֲרוּ לוֹ פֵּרוּרִין גְּדוֹלִים, צָרִיךְ לִתְּנֵם לְנָכְרִימ בְּמַתָּנָה גְּמוּרָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לִתֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת מַתָּנָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ צֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ומא עַיֵּן שָׁם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה כֵן כְּדֵי לְבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּפֶסַח בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה", הֲרֵי יֵשׁ בִּנְתִינָה זוֹ צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, וּמֻתָּר לִתֵּן מַתָּנָה לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָהמב,28 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.מג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לוֹ לְהוֹצִיאָן מִבֵּיתוֹ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת מִן הַתּוֹרָה.מד,29 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יוֹצִיאֶנּוּ וְעַל מְנָת כֵּן הוּא נוֹתֵן,מה מִכָּל מָקוֹם (א) כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר לוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁיּוֹצִיאֶנּוּ,30 הֲרֵי הַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה כֵן מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ וְאֵינוֹ שְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל.מו,31

וְכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן לוֹ אֶלָּא דָּבָר מוּעָט,מז דְּהַיְנוּ מְזוֹן סְעוּדָה אַחַת, שֶׁאִם הָיָה הַנָּכְרִי רוֹצֶה הָיָה יָכוֹל לְאָכְלָהּ כֻּלָּהּ בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל.מח,32 וְאִם הוֹצִיאוֹ הַנָּכְרִי וְחָזַר וּבָא לְבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר וְלִתֵּן לוֹ מְזוֹן סְעוּדָה אַחַת, וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה פְּעָמִים. אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתֵּן לוֹ בְּפַעַם אַחַת יוֹתֵר מִמְּזוֹן סְעוּדָה אַחַת, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱכֹל כֻּלּוֹ עַכְשָׁו בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, הֲרֵי נִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁנּוֹתֵן לוֹ עַל מְנָת לְהוֹצִיאוֹ, וַהֲרֵי כְּאִלּוּ אָמַר לוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ:מט

10 All the above33 [only] applies when the non-Jew will take [the chametz]out [of the Jew’s house] via a public domain, in which it is forbidden to carry according to Scriptural Law.34 If, however, [the non-Jew] will take [the chametz]out [of the Jew’s domain] via a karmelis,35 [to which] it is forbidden [to transfer from a private domain] only according to Rabbinic Law, it is permitted to give [the non-Jew] much [food] at one time and explicitly tell him to remove it [from the Jew’s domain. The rationale is that] for the sake of a mitzvah, [our Sages] permitted instructing a non-Jew to perform an act that is only forbidden according to Rabbinic Law, as explained in sec. 307[:12].36

י וְכָל זֶה33 כְּשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי מוֹצִיאוֹ דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל בּוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה,34 אֲבָל אִם הוּא מוֹצִיאוֹ (ב) דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית35 שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לוֹ הַרְבֵּה בְּבַת אַחַת, וְלוֹמַר לוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁיּוֹצִיאֶנּוּ,נ שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה הִתִּירוּ לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ז:נא,36

11 If there is no non-Jew to whom to give [the chametz], or the sixth hour already commenced, when it is forbidden to give [the chametz] to a non-Jew [as a gift,37 the owner] should cover [the chametz] with a utensil until after the conclusion of the sacred day(s) of the festival and obliterate it [at that time], as stated in sec. 446[:5]. Consult that source with regard to all the details regarding this law.

יא וְאִם אֵין נָכְרִי לִתֵּן לוֹ,נב אוֹ שֶׁכְּבָר הִגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית שֶׁאָסוּר לִתְּנָהּ לְנָכְרִי, יִכְפֶּה עָלָיו כְּלִי עַד מוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב וִיבַעֲרֶנּוּ,נג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ו,נד,37 עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

12 [The following law applies] if [a Jew] forgot to separate challah38on Friday from the bread that is chametz that he baked for this Shabbos, and he did not remember until night fell on Friday: On the other Shabbasos of the year, a person in the Diaspora has a means of rectifying [the error made with] this loaf. [In the Diaspora], it is permitted to partake [of such a loaf] without separating challah,as long as he leaves over the required measure [for] challah and an additional small amount from [the loaf], so that after Shabbos he can separate challah from this portion that was left over, [separating it] also for the bread that he ate on Shabbos.

[Partaking of the loaf is permitted because] our Sages ruled leniently regarding [the obligation to separate] challah in the Diaspora,39 [allowing one] to continue to eat [from the bread as long as] he separates [challah] afterwards.40 On this Shabbos, however, it is impossible to do this, for it is necessary to give the [entire] remainder [of the loaf] to the non-Jew as an outright gift before the onset of the sixth hour. [Moreover,] it is forbidden for [the Jew] to caution the non-Jew not to eat [the chametz] and [rather] return it to him after Pesach,41 as will be explained in sec. 448[:18].42 And if the non-Jew does not return [the chametz] to [the Jew] after Pesach so that he may separate challah from it, [the Jew] is considered retroactively to have eaten tevel43on this Shabbos. Therefore, there is no way of rectifying this tevel. Instead, [this bread cannot be eaten by the Jew on Shabbos]; it must be given as an outright gift to the non-Jew in its entirety before the sixth hour.

יב אִם שָׁכַח לְהַפְרִישׁ חַלָּה38 בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מִלֶּחֶם חָמֵץ שֶׁאָפָה לְשַׁבָּת זֶה וְלֹא נִזְכַּר עַד שֶׁחָשְׁכָה לֵיל שַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם אֵרַע כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר שַׁבְּתוֹת הַשָּׁנָה יֵשׁ תַּקָּנָה לְלֶחֶם זֶה אִם הוּא בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לֶאֱכֹל בְּלֹא הַפְרָשַׁת חַלָּה רַק שֶׁיְּשַׁיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁעוּר חַלָּה וְעוֹד מַשֶּׁהוּ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת יַפְרִישׁ חַלָּה מִן הַמְשֻׁיָּר הַזֶּה גַּם עַל הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁאָכַל בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֵקֵלּוּ חֲכָמִים בְּחַלַּת חוּץ לָאָרֶץ39 לִהְיוֹת אוֹכֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַפְרִישׁ,נה,40 אֲבָל בְּשַׁבָּת זֶה אִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, שֶׁהֲרֵי צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן הַמְשֻׁיָּר הַזֶּה לְנָכְרִי בְּמַתָּנָה גְּמוּרָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, וְאָסוּר לוֹ לְהַזְהִיר אֶת הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ וְשֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח41 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ח,נו,42 וְאִם לֹא יַחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח לְהַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ חַלָּה נִמְצָא שֶׁלְּמַפְרֵעַ אָכַל טֶבֶל43 בְּשַׁבָּת זֶה, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לְטֶבֶל זֶה תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לִתְּנָהּ כֻּלָּהּ בְּמַתָּנָה גְּמוּרָה לְנָכְרִי קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית:נז

13 It is permitted to move chametz during the fifth hour on this Shabbos, even though it is not fit for [the householder] since it is forbidden for him to eat. [The rationale is that although it is forbidden for him to eat the chametz at this time], he may nevertheless feed it to a domesticated animal, a non-domesticated animal, or a fowl, or give it to a non-Jew. Thus, [this chametz] is governed by the same laws that apply to the meat of an animal corpse or the meat of an animal that was discovered to be unfit [after ritual slaughter], which is only fit to be fed to dogs or given to a non-Jew, and [yet] it is permitted to be moved on Shabbos, as explained in sec. 324[:5];44 consult that source.

From the sixth hour and onward, by contrast, when one is forbidden to benefit from [the chametz], it is muktzeh as are wood and stones.45 [The rationale is that the chametz] is not fit [for the householder] for any purpose. Therefore, it is forbidden to move [the chametz], even via another entity, e.g., to push it with a reed, unless [the person] needs its place, in which instance, it is permitted to push [the chametz] with a reed, as explained in sec. 311[:14].46 It is, however, forbidden to touch [the chametz] by hand [after the beginning of the sixth hour], even when the day before Pesach falls during the week. [The rationale is that once chametz becomes forbidden, one may not touch it] except when he is involved in obliterating it from existence, as will be explained in sec. 446[:7]. See the rationale [explained] there.47

יג מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל חָמֵץ בְּשָׁעָה חֲמִישִׁית בְּשַׁבָּת זֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי הוּא יָכוֹל לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לִבְהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף אוֹ לִתְּנוֹ לְנָכְרִי, וַהֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כִּבְשַׂר נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי אֶלָּא לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לִכְלָבִים אוֹ לִתְּנוֹ לְנָכְרִי, וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,נח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"דנט עַיֵּן שָׁם.44

אֲבָל מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, הֲרֵי הוּא מֻקְצֶה כְּעֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים,45 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לוֹ לִכְלוּם,ס וּלְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר, כְּגוֹן לְדָחֳפוֹ בְּקָנֶה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא צָרִיךְ לִמְקוֹמוֹ, שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר לְדָחֳפוֹ בְּקָנֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"א.סא,46

אֲבָל לִגַּע בּוֹ בְּיָדָיו אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ חָל עֶרֶב פֶּסַח בִּימוֹת הַחֹל, אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמִּתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ו,סב עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם:47

14 Even when no chametz remained in [a person’s] domain after [eating] the morning meal on this Shabbos, when the end of the fifth hour arrives,48 he must nullify [his possession of] all his chametz, as he does every [year] on the day before Pesach.49 He should say, “May all chametz and all s’or that exists in my property – whether I have seen it or have not seen it...,” as explained in sec. 434[:12].

יד אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִשְׁאַר לוֹ שׁוּם חָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹסג אַחַר סְעוּדַת שַׁחֲרִית שַׁבָּת זֶה, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כְּשֶׁתַּגִּיעַ סוֹף שָׁעָה חֲמִישִׁית צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבַטֵּל כָּל חֲמֵצוֹסד,48 כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּבַטֵּל בִּשְׁאָר עַרְבֵי פְּסָחִים,49 שֶׁאוֹמֵר: "כָּל חֲמִירָא וַחֲמִיעָא דְּאִכָּא בִרְשׁוּתִי דַּחֲזִיתֵיהּ וּדְלָא חֲזִיתֵיהּ כוּ'", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ד:סה

15 [The following rules apply when] a person left his house on the morning of the fourteenth [of Nissan]– whether [that date] fell during the week or on Shabbos – and before the time for the obliteration [of chametz] arrived, he remembered that he has chametz at home that he had not obliterated, but he did not have in mind to return home until after the time for the obliteration [of chametz]:50 If he is going for the sake of a mitzvah that can be fulfilled throughout the day, he need not return home and obliterate the chametz unless there is sufficient time during the day for him to return home, obliterate the chametz,51 and [still] be able to return and fulfill the mitzvah. If, however, there is not sufficient time during the day [to do both], he should nullify [his possession of his chametz] in the place where he is located.

[The rationale is that] once [a person] has nullified [his possession of his chametz], it is only necessary to obliterate it according to Rabbinic Law. When [the observance of] a mitzvah is involved, our Sages allowed the words of the Torah to stand as is, [without requiring the observance of the additional stringencies they applied in other instances].

Examples [of a mitzvah that can be fulfilled throughout the day that would supersede the need to obliterate one’s chametz are]: the circumcision of one’s son or going to a feast [celebrating] a mitzvah,52 e.g., a circumcision, the redemption of a [firstborn] son, a consecration and a marriage53 of the daughter of a Torah scholar to a Torah scholar, or the daughter of an unlearned person to an unlearned person. By contrast, [a feast celebrating the consecration or marriage of] the daughter of a Torah scholar to an unlearned person or the daughter of a kohen to an Israelite54 is not considered a feast [celebrating] a mitzvah,55 since their marriage is not associated with a favorable mazal.56 [However, when a marriage is associated with a favorable mazal,] even the feast [held] when the groom [to be] sends presents to the bride [to be], which is called “the feast of kinyan,57is also deemed a feast [celebrating] a mitzvah.

טו מִי שֶׁהָלַךְ מִבֵּיתוֹסו בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂרסז שַׁחֲרִית, בֵּין שֶׁחָל בְּחֹל בֵּין שֶׁחָל בְּשַׁבָּת,סח וְקֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר נִזְכַּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בִּעֲרוֹ, וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר,50 אִם הוּא הוֹלֵךְ לִדְבַר מִצְוָה שֶׁזְּמַנָּהּ כָּל הַיּוֹם, כְּגוֹן לָמוּל אֶת בְּנוֹ,סט אוֹ שֶׁהָלַךְ לִסְעוּדַת מִצְוָה,52 כְּגוֹן סְעוּדַת מִילָהע וּפִדְיוֹן הַבֵּן,עא וּסְעוּדַת אֵרוּסִין וְנִשּׂוּאִיןעב,53 שֶׁל בַּת תַּלְמִיד חָכָם לְתַלְמִיד חָכָםעג וּבַת עַם הָאָרֶץ לְעַם הָאָרֶץ,עד אֲבָל בַּת תַּלְמִיד חָכָם לְעַם הָאָרֶץ אוֹ בַּת כֹּהֵן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל54 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין זִוּוּגָן עוֹלֶה יָפֶה56 אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת סְעוּדַת מִצְוָה,עה,55 וַאֲפִלּוּ הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁעוֹשִׂין כְּשֶׁהֶחָתָן מְשַׁלֵּחַ סִבְלוֹנוֹת לְכַלָּתוֹ שֶׁקּוֹרִין אוֹתָהּ סְעוּדַת קִנְיָן57 גַּם הִיא נִקְרֵאת סְעוּדַת מִצְוָהעו – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ וּלְבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שְׁהוּת בַּיּוֹםעז שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ וִיבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ וְיוּכַל לַחֲזֹר לֵילֵךְ וּלְקַיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה.51 אֲבָל אִם אֵין שְׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם כָּל כָּךְ – יְבַטְּלֶנּוּ בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא, שֶׁהֲרֵי אַחַר הַבִּטּוּל אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,עח וּבִמְקוֹם מִצְוָה הֶעֱמִידוּ חֲכָמִים עַל דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה:עט

16 [The following rules apply] when, however, [the person] remembers that he has chametz at home after the time for its obliteration arrived,58 in which instance, he can no longer nullify [his possession of] it, as stated in sec. 434[:12. If the day before Pesach fell] on a weekday,59 [the person] is obligated to return to his home immediately to obliterate the chametz from existence entirely. Even though afterwards he will not have the opportunity to return and fulfill the mitzvah, nevertheless, no [other] positive commandment supersedes the positive commandment of obliterating chametz. [The rationale is that] every moment that [the owner] does not obliterate the chametz, he violates the positive commandment, “Obliterate s’or from your homes.”60 This does not apply with regard to all other positive commandments.61

[There is one] exception [to this general rule]: a meis mitzvah, [i.e.,] a corpse that [it is a mitzvah to bury for] there is no one [else] to bury it, and it is lying in an open field in a manner that disgraces it.62 [In such an instance,] anyone who encounters [the corpse] is obligated to bury it immediately. [This obligation applies even] when [the person] remembers that he possesses chametz in his home and it is in the midst of Pesach when he cannot nullify [his possession of] it, and he violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz every moment he does not obliterate it. Furthermore, this obligation applies] even when there is [enough] time in the day for [the person] to return home, obliterate the chametz, and then come back and bury the corpse that very day. [Even in such a situation, the person] may not leave [the corpse] until he buries it. [The rationale is that the concern for] the dignity of the created beings is so great that it supersedes all the mitzvos of the Torah63 when [the other mitzvos are violated] passively (i.e., [the person] does not perform an act that violates a negative command, but [the mitzvah] is violated as a matter of course64 as a result of his involvement in the burial of the deceased).

טז אֲבָל אִם לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר58 נִזְכַּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבַטְּלוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"דפ – חַיָּב לַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ מִיָּד כְּדֵי לְבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי אִם הוּא חֹל.59 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ לֹא יִהְיֶה לוֹ שְׁהוּת לֵילֵךְ וּלְקַיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין שׁוּם מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה דּוֹחָה מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה דְּהַשְׁבָּתַת חָמֵץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל רֶגַע וְרֶגַע שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ הוּא עוֹבֵר עַל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל "תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ שְּׂאֹר מִבָּתֵּיכֶם",פא,60 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר כָּל מִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה.פב,61

חוּץ מִמֵּת מִצְוָה שֶׁאֵין לוֹ קוֹבְרִין וְהוּא מוּטָל עַל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בְּבִזָּיוֹן,פג,62 שֶׁכָּל הַפּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ חַיָּב לְקָבְרוֹ מִיָּד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּזְכַּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבַטְּלוֹ וְהוּא עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",פד וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ שְׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיּוּכַל לַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ וּלְבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ וְלַחֲזֹר וְלֵילֵךְ וּלְקָבְרוֹ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לוֹ לָזוּז מִמֶּנּוּ עַד שֶׁיִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ,פה שֶׁגָּדוֹל כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת שֶׁדּוֹחֶה אֶת כָּל מִצְוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָהפו,63 בְּשֵׁב וְאַל תַּעֲשֶׂהפז (כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עַל לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה בַּיָּדַיִם, אֶלָּא מֵאֵלֶיהָ הִיא מִתְבַּטֶּלֶתפח,64 עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהוּא מִתְעַסֵּק בִּקְבוּרַת הַמֵּת):

17 When [a person] was going to save [the life of another Jew] from a river, a fire, a landslide, or from thieves,65 and he remembered that he had chametz at home66 before the time for the obliteration [of chametz], he should not return home even if there is sufficient time in the day that he could return home, obliterate the chametz, and then return and save [the other Jew’s life]. Instead, he should nullify [his possession of] the chametz [while remaining] in the place where he is [located. The rationale is that] since [the person] is going to save the life [of a fellow Jew], the Sages allowed the words of the Torah to stand [without the stringencies they applied in other instances. Thus,] the [person’s] nullification of [his possession of chametz] is sufficient.67

If, however, [the person] remembered after [the beginning of] the sixth hour, at which time, he can no longer nullify [his possession of his chametz], he must return home and obliterate [his chametz] if there is time during the day to return and save [the life of the other Jew].

This [ruling applies only] when [the person] is certain that he will be able to save [the other Jew’s life] when he does so later, just as he can save [that Jew’s life] at the present time. If, however, there is [even the slightest] doubt as to whether he would have a better [opportunity] to save [the other Jew’s life] were he to go at the present time rather than [attempt] to save his life later, he should not return home. [Instead, he should immediately set out to save the other Jew’s life. This imperative applies] even during Pesach, when, [by failing to obliterate chametz, the person] violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz. The rationale is that] any question of a threat to [a Jew’s] life supersedes even the Shabbos [prohibitions that are very] severe.68

יז הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ לְהַצִּיל מִן הַנָּהָר אוֹ מִן הַדְּלֵקָה אוֹ מִן הַמַּפֹּלֶת אוֹ מִן הַלִּסְטִים, וְקֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר נִזְכַּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ,פט,66 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שְׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיּוּכַל לַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ וּלְבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ וְלַחֲזֹר וְלֵילֵךְ וּלְהַצִּיל,צ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא יַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ,65 אֶלָּא יְבַטֵּל הֶחָמֵץ בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ לְהַצָּלַת נְפָשׁוֹת הֶעֱמִידוּ חֲכָמִים עַל דִּין תּוֹרָה שֶׁדַּי לוֹ בְּבִטּוּל בִּלְבַד.צא,67

אֲבָל אִם נִזְכַּר אַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבַטְּלוֹ – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ לְבַעֲרוֹ אִם יֵשׁ שְׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיּוּכַל לַחֲזֹר וְלֵילֵךְ וּלְהַצִּיל. וְהוּא שֶׁבָּרִי לוֹ שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהַצִּיל כָּל כָּךְ כְּשֶׁיֵּלֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיַּצִּיל כְּשֶׁיֵּלֵךְ עַכְשָׁו, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא כְּשֶׁיֵּלֵךְ עַכְשָׁו יוּכַל לְהַצִּיל יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁיּוּכַל לְהַצִּיל אַחַר כָּךְ – לֹא יַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", לְפִי שֶׁכָּל סְפֵק נְפָשׁוֹת דּוֹחֶה אֲפִלּוּ שַׁבָּת הַחֲמוּרָה:צב,68

18 If, while going to tend to his own affairs,69 [a person] remembers that he has chametz at home, he is obligated to return home and obliterate it immediately, as the Sages commanded. [This obligation applies] even when the time to obliterate [chametz] has not yet arrived and [the person] could still nullify [his possession of the chametz while remaining in the other place].70 [The rationale is that] a person’s own affairs do not supersede [the observance of] a mitzvah [ordained by] the Sages.71

Even if the person is going to study Torah from his teacher, it is considered as “his own affairs” in relation to the obliteration of chametz, which is a mitzvah [ordained by] the Sages. [The rationale is that] the performance of a mitzvah supersedes [Torah] study72 when it is impossible for the mitzvah to be fulfilled by another person.73 True, the positive mitzvah of Torah study applies every single moment.74 Thus, by fulfilling the mitzvah of the Sages [to obliterate chametz, the person] is nullifying the fulfillment of the positive commandment of Torah study. Moreover, even if the mitzvah [of obliterating chametz] would be of Scriptural origin, and thus both [commandments] would be of equal weight and hence the person could fulfill whichever one he desired [and be exempt from the performance of the other] – because one who is occupied with [the performance of] one mitzvah is exempt from [the obligation to perform] another mitzvah75– [he would still be obligated to cease his study and obliterate his chametz. The rationale is that] the mitzvah [to obliterate chametz must be fulfilled] at a given time, and if [a person] occupies himself in Torah study and does not fulfill it [at its proper time], that mitzvah would be nullified entirely. [In contrast,] if he fulfills the mitzvah [to obliterate chametz], the positive mitzvah of Torah [study] will not be nullified entirely, since he can study afterwards. Therefore, [the obligation of] Torah study is superseded by all the mitzvos, even those of Rabbinic origin when they cannot be fulfilled by others, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 246.76

יח וְאִם הוֹלֵךְ לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת69 וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִגִּיעַ עֲדַיִן זְמַן הַבִּעוּר, שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל עֲדַיִן לְבַטְּלוֹ,70 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חַיָּב הוּא לַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ מִיָּד66 וּלְבַעֵר כְּמִצְוַת חֲכָמִים, שֶׁאֵין דּוֹחִין מִצְוַת חֲכָמִים71 מִפְּנֵי דְּבַר הָרְשׁוּת.צג,69

וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא הוֹלֵךְ לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה אֵצֶל רַבּוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה כִּדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת אֵצֶל בִּעוּר חָמֵץ שֶׁהִיא מִצְוָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, לְפִי שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂה הַמִּצְוֹת הוּא גָּדוֹל מֵהַתַּלְמוּדצד,72 כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְקַיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים.73 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּצְוַת הַלִּמּוּד הוּא בְּכָל רֶגַע וְרֶגַע,צה,74 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁבַּעֲשִׂיַּת מִצְוָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הוּא מְבַטֵּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם גַּם הַמִּצְוָה הִיא שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, הֲרֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם שְׁקוּלִין וְאֵיזֶה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יַעֲשֶׂה, שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה פָּטוּר מִמִּצְוָה אַחֶרֶת,צו,75 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמִּצְוָה הִיא עוֹבֶרֶת, שֶׁאִם יַעֲסֹק בַּתּוֹרָה וְלֹא יְקַיְּמֶנָּה תִּתְבַּטֵּל הַמִּצְוָה לְגַמְרֵי, וּבַעֲשִׂיַּת הַמִּצְוָה לֹא תִּתְבַּטֵּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה לְגַמְרֵי, שֶׁהֲרֵי יָכוֹל לִלְמֹד אַחַר כָּךְ,צז לְפִיכָךְ תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה נִדְחֶה מִפְּנֵי כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת אֲפִלּוּ הֵן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן רמ"ו:צח,76

19 Even when one is going to tend to a matter that is definitely his own affair, he does not have to return [home and obliterate his chametz] unless there is an egg-sized amount of chametz in his home. If, however, there is less than an egg-sized amount [of chametz] there, the Sages did not trouble [the person] to return [home] immediately. Instead, it is sufficient to nullify his ownership [of the chametz],77 provided the sixth hour has not commenced [on the day before Pesach].

Nevertheless, if the sixth hour has already commenced, [at which time one] can no longer nullify [his possession of chametz], he must return [home] immediately [and obliterate the chametz. This stringency applies] even when there is no more than an olive-sized portion78 of chametz there. [The rationale is that] as long as [the person] does not obliterate [this chametz] from existence entirely, he violates a positive Scriptural commandment.79 If, however, there is less than an olive-sized portion [of chametz] there – [in which instance, through failing to obliterate it,] he does not violate a Scriptural [commandment, but] only a Rabbinic one80 – the Sages did not trouble him to return [home] even though he can no longer nullify [his possession of this chametz]. Instead, he may go on his way, and when he returns home, he will obliterate [the chametz] immediately upon his arrival. If [he returns home on] festivals or on Shabbos [on one of] the sacred days of the festival, he should cover [the chametz] with a utensil until the evening, as will be explained in sec. 446[:5-6].81

יט וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹלֵךְ לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת מַמָּשׁ,צט אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ כְּבֵיצָה חָמֵץ,66 אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁם כְּבֵיצָה לֹא הִטְרִיחוּהוּ חֲכָמִים לַחֲזֹר מִיָּד, אֶלָּא דַּי לוֹ בְּבִטּוּלק,77 אִם לֹא הִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית.

אֲבָל אִם הִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבַטֵּל – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר מִיָּד אֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא כְּזַיִת78 חָמֵץ,קא שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי הוּא עוֹבֵר עַל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.79

אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת, שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקב,80 – לֹא הִטְרִיחוּהוּ חֲכָמִים לַחֲזֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבַטְּלוֹ,קג אֶלָּא יֵלֵךְ לְדַרְכּוֹ וּכְשֶׁיַּחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ יְבַעֲרוֹ מִיָּד בְּבוֹאוֹ, וְאִם הוּא יוֹם טוֹב אוֹ שַׁבָּת יִכְפֶּה עָלָיו אֶת הַכְּלִי עַד הָעֶרֶב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ו:קד,81

20 It was already explained in several places,82 that after the sixth hour commences on the day before Pesach, a person is unable to nullify his [possession of] chametz. [The rationale is that the chametz] is no longer his, since it is forbidden to benefit from it.

When does the above apply? When the chametz has already leavened. Before [a dough] becomes chametz, however, [the owner] has the potential to nullify [his possession of] it83 so that after [the dough] leavens he will not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] according to Scriptural Law.84 Therefore, after the sixth hour [on the day before Pesach],85 when a person who has a dough [intended to be baked as] matzah at home86 is preoccupied in another place87 and it is impossible for him to return home immediately to bake [the dough] and he fears that it will become chametz before he returns,88 he should nullify [his possession of this dough] before it leavens.89 [The rationale is that] after [the dough] leavens, he will not be able to nullify [his possession of] it, and [due to his possession of it], he will violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] according to Scriptural Law.90

כ כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹתקה,82 שֶׁמִּשֶּׁהִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אֵין אָדָם יָכוֹל לְבַטֵּל חֲמֵצוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר בַּהֲנָאָה.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁכְּבָר נִתְחַמֵּץ הֶחָמֵץ, אֲבָל קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ יָכוֹל לְבַטְּלוֹקו,83 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבֹר בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" מִן הַתּוֹרָה לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ.84 לְפִיכָךְ, מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עִסָּה שֶׁל מַצָּה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ86 מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וּלְמַעְלָה85 וְהוּא טָרוּד בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵרקז,87 וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לָבֹא לְבֵיתוֹ מִיָּד לֶאֱפוֹתָהּקח וּמִתְיָרֵא שֶׁמָּא תַּחְמִיץ עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ88 – יְבַטְּלֶנָּהקט קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּחְמִיץ,89 שֶׁמִּשֶּׁתַּחְמִיץ אֵין בְּיָדוֹ לְבַטְּלָהּ, וְעוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" מִן הַתּוֹרָה.קי,90