SECTION 437 [When] a Person Rents a House to a [Tenant], Upon Whom Does the Obligation to Obliterate Chametz Fall (1-7)

סימן תלז הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ עַל מִי חָל חוֹבַת בִּעוּר וּבוֹ ז' סְעִיפִים:

1 [When a person] rents a house to a [tenant] before the onset of the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan]1 and the tenant acquired [the rights to live in the house] through one of the processes through which the rental of a home is validated,2 i.e., through [the payment of] money, [the transfer of] a document [recording the rental agreement,3 the tenant’s] manifestation of ownership,4 or a kinyan sudar,5and the landlord6 left the house and locked it, but did not give the tenant the key [to the house] until after the onset of the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan], the landlord is obligated to search the house he rented out.7 [This obligation is incumbent on the landlord] even though [a)] he will not enter [the home] throughout the days of Pesach, and thus will not come to eat the chametz [that might be] there,8 and [b)] he does not violate the prohibition against having [chametz] found [in his domain], since he has certainly [already] despaired of recovering [any chametz he left behind], and [has similarly] divested himself of ownership of [any chametz left behind] when he left the house and abandoned his chametz there.9 Nevertheless, [it is incumbent on the landlord to search the house,] since the actual structure of the home belongs to the landlord (and [the home] is only acquired by the tenant to live in it.10 [Furthermore,] the chametz is also [the landlord’s], and at the onset of the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan] – which is the primary time for the search, as stated in sec. 431[:5-6] –) the house was still being withheld by the landlord, for the tenant could not enter it since the key was still in the landlord’s [possession]. Therefore, at this time, i.e., at the onset of the night [of the fourteenth], the obligation to search [for chametz] falls on the landlord and it does not depart from him even after the tenant enters [the house].

After the landlord finishes searching [for chametz], he should nullify [his possession of] all the chametz that he did not find during his search. Although in his heart, [the landlord] already divested himself of ownership of [the chametz he did not find] when he left the house, he is nevertheless obligated to explicitly nullify [his possession of this chametz verbally] after the search, as ordained by the Sages who required that one verbally express his nullification of [his possession of] chametz.11

The tenant is also obligated to nullify [his possession of] all the chametz in the house, even if he will not enter [the house] to dwell in it until after Pesach. [The rationale is that] immediately upon his acquisition of [the rights to] the home through one of the means that real estate is acquired, [the tenant] also acquires the chametz that the landlord abandoned there. [The chametz becomes his] because [a)] the landlord has already declared it ownerless and; [b)] a tenant acquires any ownerless object left in the house that is rented to him, as explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 260.12 If so, the fact that the landlord nullified [his possession of the chametz] is of no consequence with regard to the fulfillment of the obligation [created by] the ordinance of the Sages who required that [the ownership of the chametz] be nullified after the search, for the chametz is no [longer] his, but rather the tenant’s.13 Therefore, the tenant must [also] nullify [his possession of this chametz].

א הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹא קֹדֶם תְּחִלַּת לֵיל י"דב,1 (א) וּקְנָאוֹ הַשּׂוֹכֵר בְּאֶחָד מֵהַדְּרָכִים שֶׁשְּׂכִירוּת בַּיִת נִקְנֶה בּוֹ,ג,2 דְּהַיְנוּ בְּכֶסֶף אוֹ בִּשְׁטָר3 אוֹ בַּחֲזָקָהד,4 אוֹ בְּקִנְיַן סוּדָר,ה,5 וְהַמַּשְׂכִּיר6 יָצָא מִן הַבַּיִת וּסְגָרוֹ וְלֹא מָסַר אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ לְיַד הַשּׂוֹכֵר עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר נִכְנַס לֵיל י"ד – חַיָּב הַמַּשְׂכִּיר לִבְדֹּק אֶת הַבַּיִת שֶׁהִשְׂכִּירו,7 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לֹא יִכָּנֵס בּוֹ כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח וְאִם כֵּן לֹא יָבֹא לֶאֱכֹל מֵחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ,ז,8 וְגַם אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי נִתְיָאֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ וְהִפְקִירוֹ כְּשֶׁיָּצָא מִן הַבַּיִת וְעָזַב שָׁם חָמֵץ,ח,9 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁגּוּף הַבַּיִת שֶׁל הַמַּשְׂכִּיר (וְאֵינוֹ קָנוּי לְהַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶלָּא לָדוּר בְּתוֹכוֹ,10 וְגַם הֶחָמֵץ הָיָה שֶׁלּוֹ,ט וּבִתְחִלַּת לֵיל י"ד שֶׁאָז הוּא עִקַּר זְמַן חִיּוּב הַבְּדִיקָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"אי) הָיָה הַבַּיִת עֲדַיִן מְעֻכָּב אֵצֶל הַמַּשְׂכִּיר, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַשּׂוֹכֵר יָכוֹל לִכָּנֵס לְתוֹכוֹ מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהַמַּפְתֵּחַ הָיָה עֲדַיִן בְּיַד הַמַּשְׂכִּיר,יא לְפִיכָךְ, בְּשָׁעָה זוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ תְּחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַלַּיְלָה, חָל חִיּוּב הַבְּדִיקָה עַל הַמַּשְׂכִּיר, וְשׁוּב לֹא נִפְקָע מִמֶּנּוּ אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנַס הַשּׂוֹכֵר לְתוֹכוֹ.יב

וּלְאַחַר שֶׁיִּגְמֹר הַמַּשְׂכִּיר מִלִּבְדֹּק יְבַטֵּל כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁלֹּא מָצָא בִּבְדִיקָתוֹ.יג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר הִפְקִירוֹ בְּלִבּוֹ כְּשֶׁיָּצָא מִן הַבַּיִת, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חַיָּב הוּא לַחֲזֹר וּלְבַטְּלוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ אַחַר הַבְּדִיקָה כְּתִקּוּן חֲכָמִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ לְהוֹצִיא הַבִּטּוּל בְּפִיו.יד,11

וְגַם הַשּׂוֹכֵר חַיָּב לְבַטֵּל כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבַּבַּיִת,טו וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ נִכְנָס לָדוּר בְּתוֹכוֹ עַד אַחַר הַפֶּסַח, לְפִי שֶׁמִּיָּד שֶׁקָּנָה הַבַּיִת בְּאֶחָד מֵהַדְּרָכִים שֶׁשְּׂכִירוּת קַרְקַע נִקְנֶה בּוֹ – זָכָה גַּם כֵּן בֶּחָמֵץ שֶׁעָזַב שָׁם הַמַּשְׂכִּיר,טז שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר הִפְקִירוֹ הַמַּשְׂכִּיר,יז וְכָל דְּבַר הֶפְקֵר הַמֻּנָּח בַּבַּיִת הַמֻּשְׂכָּר לַשּׂוֹכֵר זָכָה בּוֹ הַשּׂוֹכֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן ר"ס,יח,12 וְאִם כֵּן מַה שֶּׁהַמַּשְׂכִּיר מְבַטֵּל אֵין מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבַת תַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ לְבַטֵּל אַחַר הַבְּדִיקָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹיט אֶלָּא שֶׁל הַשּׂוֹכֵר,13 לְפִיכָךְ חַיָּב הַשּׂוֹכֵר לְבַטְּלוֹ:

2 If, however, [the landlord] gave [the tenant] the key [to the house] before the onset of the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan, the tenant] is obligated to search.14 This ruling applies] even if the tenant returned and entrusted the key to the landlord for safekeeping. [The tenant] is obligated to take [the key back] from [the landlord] and search [for chametz] even if he will not enter [the house] to live in it until after Pesach. [The tenant must conduct the search because he acquired the rental rights to the home and]15 the landlord is not preventing him from entering it, [as evidenced by the landlord] having given him the keys. Similarly, if the house is not locked and thus a key is not necessary, the tenant is obligated to search.

After searching, [the tenant] should nullify [his possession of any chametz found in the house], as ordained by our Sages. Similarly, the landlord should explicitly nullify [his possession of that chametz verbally] even though he already nullified [this chametz] in his heart.16

ב אֲבָל אִם מָסַר לוֹ הַמַּפְתֵּחַ קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת תְּחִלַּת לֵיל י"ד,כ אֲפִלּוּ אִם חָזַר הַשּׂוֹכֵר (ב) וְהִפְקִיד הַמַּפְתֵּחַ אֵצֶל הַמַּשְׂכִּיר – מְחֻיָּב הוּא לִטְּלוֹ מִיַּד הַמַּשְׂכִּיר וְלִבְדֹּק,כא,14 אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא יִכְנֹס לָדוּר בּוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הַמַּשְׂכִּיר מְעַכֵּב עַל הַשּׂוֹכֵר מִלִּכָּנֵס לַבַּיִת, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר מָסַר לוֹ הַמַּפְתֵּחַ.15 וְכֵן אִם הוּא בַּיִת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָעוּל, שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ מַפְתֵּחַ, חַיָּב הַשּׂוֹכֵר לִבְדֹּק.כב

וְאַחַר הַבְּדִיקָה יְבַטֵּל (ג) כְּתַקָּנַת חֲכָמִים, וְגַם הַמַּשְׂכִּיר יְבַטֵּל בְּפֵרוּשׁ אַף שֶׁכְּבָר הִפְקִירוֹ בְּלִבּוֹ:כג,16

3 All the above applies when the tenant already acquired [the rental rights to the home] through one of the processes through which the rental rights to a home are acquired17 before the onset of the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan],18 for that is the fundamental time [when the] obligation for the search [takes effect]. If, however, [the tenant] did not acquire [those rights] until after the onset of the night of the fourteenth, [the obligation to search falls on the landlord].

[The above ruling applies] even if [the tenant] acquired [the rental rights to the house] before the night [of the fourteenth], but rented [the house] from the day of the fourteenth and onward, i.e., [the tenant] only has the right to enter the house and dwell in it from the day of the fourteenth until the end of the term of the rental. Thus, on the night of the fourteenth, which is the fundamental time when one is obligated to search [for chametz, the rights to] the house had not yet been acquired by the tenant at all. Therefore, the obligation to search falls on the landlord.

ג וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁכְּבָר קְנָאוֹ הַשּׂוֹכֵר בְּאֶחָד מֵהַדְּרָכִים שֶׁשְּׂכִירוּת בַּיִת נִקְנֶה בּוֹ17 קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת לֵיל י"ד18 שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר זְמַן חִיּוּב הַבְּדִיקָה, אֲבָל אִם לֹא קְנָאוֹ עַד לְאַחַר כְּנִיסַת לֵיל י"ד, וַאֲפִלּוּ קְנָאוֹ קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה אֶלָּא שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם י"ד וּמִמֶּנּוּ וָאֵילָךְ,כד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמִּיּוֹם י"ד וָאֵילָךְ הוּא רַשַּׁאי לִכְנֹס לְהַבַּיִת וְלָדוּר בְּתוֹכוֹ עַד סוֹף מֶשֶׁךְ זְמַן שְׂכִירָתוֹ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁבְּלֵיל י"ד שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר זְמַן חִיּוּב הַבְּדִיקָה לֹא הָיָה עֲדַיִן הַבַּיִת קָנוּי לְהַשּׂוֹכֵר כְּלָל, לְפִיכָךְ חָל עַל הַמַּשְׂכִּיר חוֹבַת הַבְּדִיקָה:

4 All the above [applies when one] rents out [a house]. When, by contrast, one sold a house to another person, left the house and closed it up, and the purchaser acquired it before the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan] through one of the means of acquisition through which a house is acquired, the obligation to search for chametz does not fall on the seller. [This applies] even though [the seller] did not give the purchaser the key [to the house] until after the onset of the night of the fourteenth.19 [The rationale is that] since [the very substance of] the home was acquired by the purchaser, he is obligated to search [the home for chametz] and nullify [his possession of any chametz there. In this instance,] it is sufficient for the seller to [merely verbally] nullify [his possession of the chametz].20

ד וְכָל זֶה בְּמַשְׂכִּיר, אֲבָל הַמּוֹכֵר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְיָצָא מֵהַבַּיִת וּסְגָרוֹ וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ קְנָאוֹ בְּאֶחָד מֵהַדְּרָכִים שֶׁהַבַּיִת נִקְנֶה בּוֹ17 קֹדֶם לֵיל י"ד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא מָסַר הַמַּפְתֵּחַ לְיַד הַלּוֹקֵחַ עַד לְאַחַר כְּנִיסַת לֵיל י"ד, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא חָל עַל הַמּוֹכֵר חוֹבַת הַבְּדִיקָה,19 כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִקְנָה גּוּף הַבַּיִת לְהַלּוֹקֵחַ – הוּא חַיָּב לִבְדֹּק וּלְבַטֵּל,כה וְהַמּוֹכֵר דַּי לוֹ בְּבִטּוּל בִּלְבַד:כו,20

5 [The following laws apply when] a tenant rents a house from another person on the day of the fourteenth [of Nissan] or in the middle of the night of the fourteenth, after the time when the landlord could have searched his house [for chametz] passed, but the tenant does not know whether or not the landlord [actually] searched it: If the landlord, his wife, or the members of his household are in the town, [the tenant] should ask them whether they [already] searched [the house]. Even though the accepted conduct of virtuous [Jews] is to search [for chametz] at the beginning of the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan], as ordained by our Sages, and it is an accepted presumption that all Jews are virtuous,21 and thus, it can be assumed that [the landlord already] searched [the house], nevertheless, [the tenant] is obligated to ask [and verify the matter. The rationale is that] it can be absolutely assumed that there was chametz in the house throughout the entire year.22 [Now,] it is on [the basis of] the assumption that [the landlord] already searched the house that [the tenant] is seeking to [change the status of the house and] remove the presumption that chametz existedin it. As an initial preference, we do not rely on that assumption [as a basis to change the status of the house] when verification is possible.23

If, however, neither the landlord nor one of the members of his household is in town, [the tenant] may rely on the assumption [that the landlord searched the house and he need not search [the house]. It is sufficient that [the tenant] nullify [his possession of the chametz].24

Even if it is known that the landlord did not personally search [the house], but one of the members of his household is in the town and [this person] says that he searched [the house], his word is accepted. [This rule applies] even if [that person] is a bondman, a minor mature enough to search,25 or a woman. There is no necessity to search again. [The rationale is that] since the search for chametz is a Rabbinic [obligation], the Sages trusted [their word].26

ה הַשּׂוֹכֵר בַּיִת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בְּיוֹם י"דכז אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ לֵיל י"ד לְאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר עָבַר זְמַן שֶׁהָיָה יָכוֹל הַמַּשְׂכִּיר לִבְדֹּק בֵּיתוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ זְמַןכח וְהַשּׂוֹכֵר אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אִם בְּדָקוֹ הַמַּשְׂכִּיר אִם לָאו,14 אִם הַמַּשְׂכִּירכט אוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹל בָּעִיר – יִשְׁאַל לָהֶם אִם בָּדְקוּ.14 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַכְּשֵׁרִים לִבְדֹּק בִּתְחִלַּת לֵיל י"ד כְּתִקּוּן חֲכָמִים, וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּחֶזְקַת כָּשֵׁר21 הוּא,לא וּמִן הַסְּתָם בָּדַק כְּבָר, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חַיָּב לִשְׁאֹל, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל הַשָּׁנָה הָיָה הַבַּיִת בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חָמֵץלב,22 וּבַחֲזָקָה זוֹ שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם בָּדְקוּ אַתָּה בָּא לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מֵחֶזְקַת חָמֵץ – אֵין אָנוּ סוֹמְכִין עַל הַחֲזָקָה לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְבָרֵר.לג,23

וְאִם אֵין הַמַּשְׂכִּיר וְלֹא אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ בָּעִיר – סוֹמְכִין עַל הַחֲזָקָהלד וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִבְדֹּק, אֶלָּא מְבַטְּלוֹ וְדַיּוֹ.לה,24

וְאִם יֵשׁ מִבְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ בָּעִיר, אֲפִלּוּ אִם יָדוּעַ לָנוּ שֶׁהַמַּשְׂכִּיר בְּעַצְמוֹ לֹא בָּדַק וְאֶחָד מִבְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ אוֹמֵר שֶׁבָּדַק הוּא, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עֶבֶד אוֹ קָטָןלו שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דַּעַתלז,25 לִבְדֹּק אוֹ אִשָּׁה – הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נֶאֱמָנִים,14 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִבְדֹּק, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבְּדִיקַת חָמֵץ הוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הֶאֱמִינוּם חֲכָמִים:לח,26

6 When does the above27 apply? When the tenant28 nullified [his possession of] all the chametz in the rooms rented to him [before the onset of] the sixth hour [on the day of the fourteenth of Nissan]. If [however, the tenant] did not nullify [his possession of the chametz and the onset of that] hour arrived, he can no longer nullify [his possession of chametz] and he may not rely on the search of women, bondmen, and minors. [The tenant] is obligated to search all the rooms that are required to be searched according to Scriptural Law.29 (See sec. 433[:12].)30

True, women are trusted even with regard to Scriptural prohibitions whenever they have the potential to correct the prohibition. For example, a woman in the niddah state is trusted when she states that she immersed herself [in a mikveh], since she has the potential to immerse herself.31 Similarly, [women] are trusted with regard to ritual slaughter and the removal [of forbidden fats and the sciatic nerve] when they say that they slaughtered an animal and removed [the forbidden fats and the sciatic nerve] as required by law, because they have the potential to slaughter [animals] and remove [these forbidden substances].32 Nevertheless, [the] word [of women] is not accepted when they say that they searched [a room for chametz as required] in accordance with [all] the laws for searching, even though they have the potential to search as required by law. [The rationale is that] the search [for chametz] in accordance with [all] the laws involves great exertion33 and women are indolent. [Hence, women] will search cursorily and say that they searched thoroughly.34 Therefore, the Sages only accepted their word in instances where the search [for chametz] is required only according to Rabbinic Law.35

ו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?27 כְּשֶׁהַשּׂוֹכֵר28 בִּטֵּל כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַחֲדָרִים הַמֻּשְׂכָּרִים לוֹ, אֲבָל אִם לֹא בִּטֵּל וּכְבָר הִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל עוֹד לְבַטֵּל – אֵין לוֹ לִסְמֹךְ עַל בְּדִיקַת נָשִׁים וַעֲבָדִים וּקְטַנִּים, וְחַיָּב הוּא לַחֲזֹר וְלִבְדֹּק בְּכָל הַחֲדָרִים הַצְּרִיכִים בְּדִיקָה מִן הַתּוֹרָהלט,29 (עַיֵּן סִימָן תל"גמ).30

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים נֶאֱמָנוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּאִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה כָּל שֶׁהָיָה בְּיָדָן לְתַקֵּן הָאִסּוּר,מא כְּגוֹן נִדָּה נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹמַר שֶׁטָּבְלָהמב הוֹאִיל וְהָיָה בְּיָדָהּ לִטְבֹּל,31 וְכֵן נֶאֱמֶנֶת עַל הַשְּׁחִיטָה וְעַל הַנִּקּוּר לוֹמַר שֶׁשָּׁחֲטָה וְנִקְּרָה כְּהִלְכָתָם הוֹאִיל וְהָיָה בְּיָדָהּ לִשְׁחֹט וּלְנַקֵּר כְּהִלְכָתָם,מג,32 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינָהּ נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹמַר שֶׁבָּדְקָה כְּהִלְכוֹת הַבְּדִיקָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה בְּיָדָהּ לִבְדֹּק כַּהֲלָכָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַבְּדִיקָה כְּהִלְכָתָהּ יֵשׁ בָּהּ טֹרַח גָּדוֹל,מד,33 וְהַנָּשִׁים עַצְלָנִיּוֹת הֵן,מה וְהֵן בּוֹדְקוֹת קִמְעָא וְאוֹמְרוֹת "יָפֶה בָּדַקְנוּ",34 לְפִיכָךְ לֹא הֶאֱמִינוּ לָהֶן חֲכָמִים אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ בְּדִיקָה כִּי אִם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:35

7 [The following rule applies when] a landlord rents out a house to a tenant under the assumption [that it had been] searched [for chametz] – i.e., [the tenant] explicitly stipulated that [he was renting the house] on the condition that it was [already] searched – and [the tenant] discovered that [the house] had not been searched.36 Even though [the landlord] rented [the home] to [the tenant] on the day of the fourteenth [of Nissan], and thus the landlord was already obligated to search it,37 even so, if the landlord said, “I do not want to perform the mitzvah,” or [the landlord] was not present because he departed on his way, the tenant becomes obligated to search.38 [The tenant] cannot retract from the transaction, claiming that [the rental] was conducted under false pretenses.

[This ruling applies] even in a place where it is not customary for each person to search his own home [for chametz]. Instead, other people are hired to carry out the search. Accordingly, the tenant will suffer a financial loss, for he will be required to hire someone else to search this house. Nevertheless, [the tenant] may not retract from [the rental agreement. It is assumed that] his intent was certainly that the agreement would stand even though the house had not been searched, for the accepted presumption is that a person is pleased to perform a mitzvah [both] with his physical person and with his financial resources.39 The reason [the tenant] is retracting now is [not because of his original stipulation, but] because of a [new and] additional factor.40

There are authorities who maintain that the landlord is, [nevertheless,] required to reimburse [the tenant] for [the expenses] he would have to incur for the search, since [the tenant] explicitly stipulated that [the house] should [have been] searched. Even though [the tenant’s] intent was that the [rental] agreement should stand even if [the house] would not be searched, he did not intend to waive [the expenses] he would have to incur for the search. [The rationale is that] a person is pleased to perform a mitzvah with his physical person and/or with his financial resources only when he does not suffer a financial loss. For example, [a person is pleased to lend another person his tallis so that person] may recite a blessing over the tallis [when putting it on].41 However, one is not at all pleased [to perform a mitzvah] when doing so involves financial loss.42

With regard to the halachah, the person in possession of the money [i.e., the landlord] can say, “I am certain [the halachah follows] the first opinion.”43

ז הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת בָּדוּק,מו דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ עַל מְנָת שֶׁהוּא בָּדוּקמז וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּדוּק,36 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִשְׂכִּיר לוֹ בְּיוֹם י"ד וְנִמְצָא שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְחַיֵּב הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּבְּדִיקָה,37 אֲפִלּוּ הָכִי אִם אוֹמֵר הַמַּשְׂכִּיר "אֵינִי רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה", אוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ לְפָנֵינוּ שֶׁהָלַךְ לְדַרְכּוֹמח – חַיָּב הַשּׂוֹכֵר לִבְדֹּק,38 וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר מִמִּקָּחוֹ וְלוֹמַר שֶׁמִּקָּחוֹ הָיָה בְּטָעוּת.

אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין נוֹהֲגִין שָׁם לִבְדֹּק כָּל אִישׁ בְּבֵיתוֹ אֶלָּא שׂוֹכְרִין לָהֶן אֲנָשִׁים אֲחֵרִים שֶׁיִּבְדְּקוּ לָהֶם,מט וְנִמְצָא שֶׁשּׂוֹכֵר זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ מִזֶּה הֶפְסֵד מָמוֹן, שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לִשְׂכֹּר מִי שֶׁיִּבְדֹּק לוֹ בַּיִת זֶה – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁוַּדַּאי בְּדַעְתּוֹ הָיָה שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא יִהְיֶה בָּדוּק יִתְקַיֵּם הַמִּקָּח, שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם21 נוֹחַ לְאָדָם לַעֲסֹק בְּמִצְוֹת בֵּין בְּגוּפוֹ (ד) בֵּין בְּמָמוֹנוֹ,39 וּמַה שֶּׁחָזַר בּוֹ עַכְשָׁו הוּא מִפְּנֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר.40

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנ שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם חַיָּב הַמַּשְׂכִּיר לְהַחֲזִיר מַה שֶּׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְהוֹצִיא שָׂכָר בְּעַד הַבְּדִיקָה, הוֹאִיל וְהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁיְּהֵא בָּדוּק. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ הָיָה שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא יִהְיֶה בָּדוּק יִתְקַיֵּם הַמִּקָּח, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִמְחֹל שְׂכַר הַבְּדִיקָה, שֶׁאֵין נוֹחַ לְאָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה בְּגוּפוֹ אוֹ בְּמָמוֹנוֹ אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס, כְּגוֹן לְבָרֵךְ עַל טַלִּית שֶׁלּוֹ,41 אֲבָל בְּחֶסְרוֹן כִּיס אֵין נוֹחַ לוֹ כְּלָל.נא,42

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, יָכוֹל הַמֻּחְזָק לוֹמַר "קִים לִי כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה".נב,43