SECTION 429 The Customs [Observed During] the Days of Nissan (1-19)

סימן תכט מִנְהַג יְמֵי נִיסָן וּבוֹ י"ט סְעִיפִים:

1 In the era of the Beis HaMikdash, the Sages of the early generations1 ordained that communal lecturers begin publicly expounding the laws of the [three pilgrimage] festivals 30 days before the festival, i.e., from Purim onward2 [the lecturers] should expound the laws of Pesach,3 from the fifth of Iyar onward, they should expound the laws of Shavuos, and from the fourteenth of Elul, they should expound the laws of Sukkos.4

[The rationale is that] everyone who lives in Eretz Yisrael5is obligated to bring three sacrifices on the pilgrimage holidays:6 a burnt-offering [when] presenting oneself [in the Beis HaMikdash], festive peace-offerings, and peace-offerings of rejoicing. Every [animal offered as a] sacrifice must be free from any [disqualifying] blemish or other factor that would invalidate it. The Sages therefore ordained that the laws of the [pilgrimage] festivals be expounded 30 days before [the festival] to remind the people of the [upcoming] festival, so that they would not forget to prepare animals fit to be sacrificed, and so that they would have time [to do so over the duration of] all [these] 30 days.

א חֲכָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִיםא,1 תִּקְּנוּב בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיָה קַיָּם,ג שֶׁיַּתְחִילוּ הַדַּרְשָׁנִים לִדְרֹשׁ בָּרַבִּיםד הִלְכוֹת הָרֶגֶל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לִפְנֵי הָרֶגֶל, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמִּפּוּרִים וָאֵילָךְה,,2 יִדְרְשׁוּ הִלְכוֹת פֶּסַח,3 וּמֵחֲמִשָּׁה בְּאִיָּר וָאֵילָךְ יִדְרְשׁוּ הִלְכוֹת עֲצֶרֶת, וּמִי"ד בֶּאֱלוּל וָאֵילָךְ יִדְרְשׁוּ הִלְכוֹת הֶחָג,ו,4 לְפִיז שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד הַדָּר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵלח,5 חַיָּב לְהָבִיא בָּרֶגֶל ג' קָרְבָּנוֹת,6 עוֹלַת רְאִיָּה וְשַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה וְשַׁלְמֵי שִׂמְחָה, וְכָל קָרְבָּן צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת נָקִי מִכָּל מוּם וּמִשְּׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַפּוֹסְלִים אֶת הַקָּרְבָּן, לְפִיכָךְ תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים לִדְרֹשׁ הִלְכוֹת הָרֶגֶל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לְפָנָיו, כְּדֵי לְהַזְכִּיר הָעָם אֶת הָרֶגֶל, שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכְּחוּ לְהָכִין בְּהֵמוֹת הַכְּשֵׁרִים לְקָרְבָּן, וְיִהְיֶה לָהֶם שְׁהוּת כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם:ט

2 This ordinance did not cease [to be observed] among the Jewish people even after the destruction of the Beis HaMikdash:7 Every sage would teach his students the laws of the festival 30 days before [the festival],8 so [the students] would be knowledgeable in [the] laws [pertaining to the upcoming festival], and be aware of the actions they must perform. To the general populace, [the sages] would expound the laws of the festival on the Shabbos preceding [the festival],for on this Shabbos all the people from all the [surrounding] villages would gather to listen to the laws of the festival as [taught] by the [local] sage.

Therefore, it has become customary in [these later] generations that the [local] sage expounds the laws of Pesach on the Shabbos preceding [Pesach], if that Shabbos is not the day preceding Pesach.9 The laws [pertaining to Sukkos] are expounded on Shabbos Shuvah.10 ([Shavuos], however, has no unique laws11 [pertaining to it alone,] for all the prohibitions and permitted actions practiced on [Shavuos] are also practiced on Pesach and Sukkos.)

[What is] fundamentally [important] is to expound upon and instruct [the people] in the paths of G‑d,12 and to teach them what actions must be performed, in contrast to [the common practice] at present.13

ב וְתַקָּנָה זוֹ לֹא נִתְבַּטְּלָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ,י,7 שֶׁכָּל חָכָם הָיָה שׁוֹנֶה לְתַלְמִידָיו הִלְכוֹת הָרֶגֶליא,8 שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לְפָנָיו,8 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בְּקִיאִים בְּהִלְכוֹתָיו וְיֵדְעוּ הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשׂוּן, וְלַהֲמוֹן עַם הָיוּ דּוֹרְשִׁים הִלְכוֹת הָרֶגֶל בַּשַּׁבָּת שֶׁלְּפָנָיו,יב שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת זוֹ הָיוּ מִתְקַבְּצִין כָּל הָעָםיג מִכָּל הַכְּפָרִים לִשְׁמֹעַ הִלְכוֹת הָרֶגֶל מִפִּי הֶחָכָם.יד לְפִיכָךְ, נָהֲגוּ בַּדּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים שֶׁהֶחָכָם דּוֹרֵשׁ הִלְכוֹת פֶּסַח בַּשַּׁבָּת שֶׁלְּפָנָיוטו אִם אֵינוֹ עֶרֶב פֶּסַח,טז,9 וְהִלְכוֹת הֶחָג דּוֹרֵשׁ בְּשַׁבַּת שׁוּבָהיז,10 (אֲבָל עֲצֶרֶת אֵין בּוֹ הֲלָכוֹת מְיֻחָדוֹת,11 שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּר וְהֶתֵּר הַנּוֹהֲגִין בּוֹ נוֹהֲגִין גַּם כֵּן בְּפֶסַח וְסֻכּוֹתיח).

וְהָעִקָּר לִדְרֹשׁ וּלְהוֹרוֹת לָהֶם דַּרְכֵי ה'12 וּלְלַמֵּד לָהֶם הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשׂוּן,יט וְלֹא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין עַכְשָׁו:כ,13

3 In these generations, when a sage does not [primarily] teach his students Torah Law (because everything is written down in texts),14 it is a mitzvah for every individual to study the laws of the festival before the festival, until [the person is] thoroughly knowledgeable concerning [these laws], and knows what actions he must carry out.

ג וּבַדּוֹרוֹת הַלָּלוּ שֶׁאֵין הֶחָכָם שׁוֹנֶה לְתַלְמִידָיו הֲלָכוֹתכא (לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּל כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶרכב),14 מִצְוָה עַל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד שֶׁיִּלְמֹד הִלְכוֹת הָרֶגֶל קֹדֶם הָרֶגֶלכג עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּקִי בָּהֶם וְיֵדַע הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה:

4 Our teacher Moshe established [the practice] for the Jewish people that the sage of every town should lecture to the residents of his town on every festival15 concerning the [unique dimension of that] day [and] the miracle that transpired on that day. For example, on Pesach, [the sage should discuss] the Exodus from Egypt; on [Shavuos, the sage should discuss] the Giving of the Torah; and on [Sukkos, the sage should discuss] the Clouds of Glory that surrounded [the Jews during their journey through the desert].

On each festival, [the sage] should also lecture to [the residents of his town] concerning the laws [they] need [to know] for that day, teaching them what is permitted [on that day] and what is prohibited [on that day],16 [i.e., the sage should teach the residents of his town] the laws of Pesach on Pesach, the laws of [Shavuos] on [Shavuos], and the laws of [Sukkos] on [Sukkos], even though he lectured to [the residents of his town] concerning the laws of the festival 30 days [before the festival].

In the present [era], it is not customary to lecture on the laws of the festival on the festival itself (since everything is written in texts).17 Instead, the lecture [should be] Aggadic18[in nature, focusing] on the theme of the day, as will be explained in sec. 529[:10].

ד מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם תִּקֵּן לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כָּל חֲכַם הָעִיר דּוֹרֵשׁ לִבְנֵי עִירוֹ בְּכָל רֶגֶלכד,15 בְּעִנְיָנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם נֵס הַנַּעֲשָׂה בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם, כְּגוֹן בְּפֶסַח בִּיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם, וּבַעֲצֶרֶת בְּמַתַּן תּוֹרָה, וּבֶחָג בְּהֶקֵּף עַנְנֵי כָּבוֹד.כה

וְגַם כֵּן יִדְרֹשׁ לָעָם בְּכָל רֶגֶל הֲלָכוֹת הַצְּרִיכוֹת לְבוֹ בַּיּוֹם, שֶׁיּוֹדִיעַ לָהֶם הָאָסוּר וְהַמֻּתָּר בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם,כו,16 הִלְכוֹת פֶּסַח בְּפֶסַח, וְהִלְכוֹת עֲצֶרֶת בַּעֲצֶרֶת, וְהִלְכוֹת חַג בֶּחָג, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדָּרַשׁ לָהֶם הִלְכוֹת הָרֶגֶל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לְפָנָיו.

וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין נוֹהֲגִין לִדְרֹשׁ הֲלָכוֹת בַּחַג עַצְמוֹכז (לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּל כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶרכח),17 אֶלָּא דּוֹרְשִׁין בְּאַגָּדָה18 מֵעִנְיָנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקכ"ט:כט

5 It is a [universally accepted] custom throughout the Jewish people that every community [levies] a tax on the inhabitants of their town for the purpose of purchasing wheat for Pesach and distributing it to the poor inhabitants of the town.19 Anyone living in the town for twelve months is considered a resident of the town, and is obligated to pay the tax together with [the other townsfolk].20 Even Torah scholars, who are exempt from [other] taxes,21 [must] pay their share [of this levy], since this [levy] is tzedakah.22Any poor person who lives in the town for twelve months is considered as one of the local poor, and the townsfolk are obligated to provide him with wheat for Pesach.

In the present era, because of the many [hardships and tribulations of the] Diaspora, it has become customary [to reduce that period from 12 months to] 30 days, i.e., anyone who dwells in a town for 30 days is considered as an inhabitant of the town, and is compelled to contribute with [the townspeople] for the purpose of [purchasing] wheat for Pesach. Similarly, any poor person who dwells in a town for 30 days is considered as [one of the] local poor, and the inhabitants of the town are obligated to [provide] him with wheat for Pesach.

ה מִנְהָג פָּשׁוּט בְּכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁכָּל קָהָל וְקָהָל מְשִׂימִים מַס עַל בְּנֵי עִירָן לְצֹרֶךְ חִטִּים לְפֶסַח לִקְנוֹתָם וּלְחַלְּקָם לַעֲנִיֵּי עִירָן.ל,19 וְכָל מִי שֶׁדָּר בָּעִיר י"ב חֹדֶשׁ נַעֲשָׂה כִּבְנֵי הָעִיר, וְחַיָּב לִתֵּן מַס עִמָּהֶם לָזֶה.לא,20 וַאֲפִלּוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים הַפְּטוּרִין מִמַּס21 נוֹתְנִין חֶלְקָם,לב לְפִי שֶׁצְּדָקָה הִיא זוֹ.לג,22 וְכָל עָנִי הַדָּר בָּעִיר י"ב חֹדֶשׁ נַעֲשָׂה כַּעֲנִיֵּי הָעִיר, וְחַיָּבִין בְּנֵי הָעִיר לִתֵּן לוֹ חִטִּים לְפֶסַח.לד

וְעַכְשָׁו מֵרֹב הַגָּלוּת נָהֲגוּ הָעָם דִּין שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם,לה שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁדָּר בָּעִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם נַעֲשָׂה כִּבְנֵי הָעִיר, וְכוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִתֵּן עִמָּהֶם לְצֹרֶךְ חִטִּים לְפֶסַח. וְכֵן כָּל עָנִי הַדָּר בָּעִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם נַעֲשָׂה כַּעֲנִיֵּי הָעִיר, וְחַיָּבִים בְּנֵי הָעִיר לִתֵּן לוֹ חִטִּים לְפֶסַח:

6 All [the above applies regarding] a person who comes to dwell in a town, but states that he does not desire to live there permanently. [If,] however, one comes to a town [with the intention of] becoming a permanent resident, he is considered as a local inhabitant immediately, and he is compelled to contribute for the sake of [purchasing] wheat [for the local poor] for Pesach.23 [Similarly,] a poor person who comes to a town with the intention of becoming a permanent resident, is considered as one of the local poor [immediately] and [the local inhabitants] are obligated to provide him with wheat for Pesach.

ו וְכָל זֶה שֶׁבָּא לָעִיר לָגוּר שָׁם וְאוֹמֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שָׁם. אֲבָל מִי שֶׁבָּא לָעִיר לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שָׁם, נַעֲשָׂה כִּבְנֵי הָעִיר מִיָּד,לו וְכוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִתֵּן עִמָּהֶם לְצֹרֶךְ חִטִּים לְפֶסַח.23 וְכֵן עָנִי שֶׁבָּא לָעִיר כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שָׁם נַעֲשָׂה כַּעֲנִיֵּי הָעִיר,לז וְחַיָּבִים לִתֵּן לוֹ חִטִּים לְפֶסַח:

7 Even though the inhabitants of a town are not required to provide wheat [for Pesach] to a poor person who does not intend to dwell permanently in the town, and [who] has not lived [in the town] for 30 days, they are obligated to provide him with matzah for Pesach, just as they are obligated to provide him with bread during all the [other] days of the year. [The residents of the town must provide the poor person] with food for two meals for every weekday that he remains in the town, and food for three meals on Shabbos, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 256.24 Consult that source.

ז וְעָנִי שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ בָּעִיר וְלֹא שָׁהָה שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּנֵי הָעִיר חַיָּבִים לִתֵּן לוֹ חִטִּים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם חַיָּבִים לִתֵּן לוֹ מַצָּה בְּפֶסַחלח כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁחַיָּבִים לִתֵּן לוֹ פַּת בְּכָל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה,לט מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעוּדוֹת לְכָל יוֹם וְיוֹם מִימוֹת הַחֹל שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹהֶה בָּעִיר, וּבְשַׁבָּת מְזוֹן שָׁלֹשׁ סְעוּדוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן רנ"ומ,24 עַיֵּן שָׁם:

8 It is customary in these countries25 throughout the month of Nissan not to recite [the following prayers]: Tachanun,26[the supplicatory prayers beginning] Vehu Rachum [usually recited] Mondays and Thursdays, the y’hi ratzon [prayer] that follows the reading of the Torah,27 nor Tzidkoscha Tzedek during the Shabbos Minchah [Service].28 Souls are not recalled at all [during this month],29 (and similarly, [the passage] Av HaRachamim30 is not recited) except on the last day of Pesach.31

[During the entire month, the passage known as] Tziduk HaDin32 and the Kaddish that follows it33 is not recited [at a funeral] even if the departed is a distinguished Torah scholar and the most prominent sage of the generation. Instead, a lecture is delivered in honor [of the deceased], and Kaddish is recited afterwards.34 [This rule applies] if [the deceased] was a Torah scholar, even if he was not uniquely distinguished. If, however, [the departed] was not a Torah scholar, a lecture should not be delivered in his honor, nor should he be eulogized, because eulogies are not [delivered] at all during this month except for a scholar in his presence,35 i.e., before he was buried.

ח נוֹהֲגִיןמא בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּמב,25 שֶׁבְּכָל חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן אֵין אוֹמְרִים תַּחֲנוּן,26 וְלֹא "וְהוּא רַחוּם" בְּב' וְה',מג וְלֹא "יְהִי רָצוֹן" שֶׁאַחַר קְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה,מד,27 וְלֹא צו"צמה שֶׁבְּמִנְחָה בְּשַׁבָּת.מו,28 וְאֵין מַזְכִּירִין נְשָׁמוֹת כְּלָלמז,29 (וְהוּא הַדִּין שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים "אָב הָרַחֲמִים"מח,30), חוּץ מִבַּיּוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח.מט,31

וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים צִדּוּק הַדִּיןנ,32 וְקַדִּישׁ שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו,נא,33 אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַמֵּת תַּלְמִיד חָכָם מֻפְלָג וּגְדוֹל הַדּוֹר,נב אֶלָּא דּוֹרְשִׁין עָלָיונג וְאוֹמְרִים קַדִּישׁ אַחַר הַדְּרָשָׁהנד,34 אִם הוּא תַּלְמִיד חָכָםנה אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מֻפְלָג. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם, אֵין דּוֹרְשִׁין עָלָיו וְאֵין מַסְפִּידִין עָלָיו, שֶׁאֵין מַסְפִּידִין בְּכָל הַחֹדֶשׁנו אֶלָּא לְחָכָם בְּפָנָיו,נז,35 דְּהַיְנוּ בְּעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא נִקְבַּר:נח

9 One should not fast – [this applies] even to individual fasts – throughout the month of Nissan.36 Needless to say, a communal fast is not decreed throughout this month.

All these matters are not fundamental matters of Torah Law, but rather customs that were [traditionally] followed in the later generations.37 [The rationale for instituting these customs is that the later Sages] relied on the words of our [earlier] Sages, that the princes [of the twelve tribes] began to offer their sacrifices for the dedication of the Altar on the first of Nissan, “one prince each day,”38 until the thirteenth of Nissan.39 For each prince, the day on which he would bring his sacrifices was a personal festival. And the day before Pesach was a festival for the entire Jewish people because they would bring the Paschal [sacrifice].40 Thus, only the thirteenth [day of Nissan] was free, without a festival.41 After [these fourteen days], the eight days of Pesach are festive days.42 Thus, the majority of the month [was conducted] in holiness. Hence, it became customary to make [the month of Nissan] holy in its entirety, like a festival.

Even on the day before Rosh Chodesh Iyar,43 one should not fast. [Indeed,] one should not even fast on the day on which his father or mother passed away ([i.e., their] yahrzeit) throughout this month. Nevertheless, a groom and a bride customarily fast on the day of their wedding44 – even on Rosh Chodesh Nissan45 – for the reason to be explained in sec. 573.46

ט וְאֵין מִתְעַנִּין בְּכָל חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָןנט אֲפִלּוּ תַּעֲנִית יָחִיד.ס,36 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין גּוֹזְרִין תַּעֲנִית עַל הַצִּבּוּר בְּכָל הַחֹדֶשׁ.סא

וְכָל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ אֵינָם מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֶלָּא הֵם מִנְהָגסב שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ בַּדּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים,סג,37 וְסָמְכוּ עַל מַה שֶּׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִיםסד,26 שֶׁבְּא' בְּנִיסָן הִתְחִילוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִים לְהַקְרִיב אֶת קָרְבְּנֵיהֶם לַחֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ,סה "נָשִׂיא אֶחָד לַיּוֹם"סו עַד י"ג בְּנִיסָן,39 וְכָל נָשִׂיא בְּיוֹם שֶׁהִקְרִיב קָרְבָּנוֹ הָיָה יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלּוֹ,סז וְעֶרֶב פֶּסַח הוּא יוֹם טוֹב לְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיוּ מַקְרִיבִין הַפֶּסַח,סח,40 וְאֵין כָּאן פָּנוּי אֶלָּא יוֹם י"ג שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בּוֹ יוֹם טוֹב,סט,41 וְאַחַר כָּךְ ח' יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח הֵן יָמִים טוֹבִים,42 אִם כֵּן יָצָא רֹב הַחֹדֶשׁ בִּקְדֻשָּׁה, לְפִיכָךְ נוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת כֻּלּוֹ קֹדֶשׁ כְּעֵין יוֹם טוֹב.ע

וְאֵין מִתְעַנִּין אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אִיָּר.43 וַאֲפִלּוּ תַּעֲנִית יוֹם שֶׁמֵּת בּוֹ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין יָארְ־צַייט) אֵין מִתְעַנִּין בְּכָל הַחֹדֶשׁ.עא אֲבָל הֶחָתָן וְהַכַּלָּה בְּיוֹם חֻפָּתָם44 נוֹהֲגִין לְהִתְעַנּוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן,עב,45 מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקע"ג:עג,46

10 The prohibition against fasting throughout the month [of Nissan] with the exception of Shabbasos, festivals, Rosh Chodesh, and Chol HaMoed is only a custom. Therefore, one who undertakes a fast because of a disturbing dream (such a fast is permitted even on Shabbos or a festival, as explained in sec. 288[:3])47 need not fast in the month of Iyar to atone for the sin of fasting because of his dream in the month of Nissan, as [does] one who [undertook such] a fast on Shabbos, a festival, Rosh Chodesh, and Chol HaMoed. One who [fasts on these days] must fast [in atonement] for his fast, as stated in sec. 418.48

י וּלְפִי שֶׁאִסּוּר הַתַּעֲנִית בְּכָל חֹדֶשׁ זֶה, חוּץ מִשַּׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים וְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִנְהָג, לְפִיכָךְ הַמִּתְעַנֶּה בּוֹ תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹםעד (שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב מֻתָּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רפ"חעה)47 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לֵישֵׁב בְּתַעֲנִית בְּחֹדֶשׁ אִיָּר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּכֻפַּר לוֹ עַל מַה שֶּׁחָטָא שֶׁהִתְעַנָּה בְּחֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן עַל חֲלוֹמוֹ,עו כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מִי שֶׁמִּתְעַנֶּה תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב וְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לֵישֵׁב בְּתַעֲנִית עַל תַּעֲנִיתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תי"ח:עז,48

11 When a person fasts on Shabbos in the month of Nissan because of a disturbing dream, he is permitted to fast on the following day, [i.e.,] Sunday [in atonement] for fasting on Shabbos. [The person is permitted to do so] because the prohibition against fasting [during the month of Nissan] is merely a custom. Even if Rosh Chodesh Nissan falls on Sunday, and one fasted on the preceding Shabbos because of a disturbing dream, he is permitted to fast on Rosh Chodesh Nissan [in atonement] for fasting on Shabbos, as stated in sec. 288[:3]. See the rationale given there.49

יא מִי שֶׁהִתְעַנָּה תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁבְּחֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן, מֻתָּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת לְמָחָר בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן עַל מַה שֶּׁהִתְעַנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִסּוּר הַתַּעֲנִית זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִנְהָג. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם חָל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן בְּאֶחָד בַּשַּׁבָּת וּבְשַׁבָּת שֶׁלְּפָנָיו הִתְעַנָּה תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם, מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵישֵׁב בְּתַעֲנִית בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן עַל מַה שֶּׁהִתְעַנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,עח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רפ"ח,עט עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם:49

12 Even though Tachanun is not recited during the entire month [of Nissan],50 Lamenatzei’ach… yaancha51is recited, and on Mondays and Thursdays, E-l erech apayim52is recited.53 However, on the day preceding Pesach, [these prayers] are not recited, [since] the day before Pesach does not resemble the day preceding other festivals, because [the day before Pesach] is a festival in its own right, as stated in sec. 468[:1].54

יב בְּכָל הַחֹדֶשׁ, אַף שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים תַּחֲנוּן,50 אוֹמְרִים "לַמְנַצֵּחַ יַעַנְךָ וְגוֹ'",51 וּבְשֵׁנִי וַחֲמִישִׁי אוֹמְרִים53 "אֵל אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם",פ,52 אֲבָל בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אֵין אוֹמְרִים "לַמְנַצֵּחַ" וְ"אֵל אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם",פא וְאֵין עֶרֶב פֶּסַח דּוֹמֶה לִשְׁאָר עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, כִּי הוּא עַצְמוֹ יוֹם טוֹב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ח:פב,54

13 The psalm Mizmor LeTodah55 is not recited on the day preceding Pesach, nor during Chol HaMoed, for the reason given in sec. 51[:1].56 Consult that source.

יג בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד אֵין אוֹמְרִים "מִזְמוֹר לְתוֹדָה",פג,55 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"א,פד,56 עַיֵּן שָׁם:

14 If there is a great need to do so, it is permitted to declare a ban of excommuni­cation (cheirem) in the synagogue on any day in the month of Nissan, even though doing so is forbidden in Tishrei, for the reason to be explained in sec. 602[:5].57

יד לִתֵּן חֵרֶם בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת לְאֵיזֶה צֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל מֻתָּר בְּכָל חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן,פה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר בְּתִשְׁרֵי, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תר"ב:פו,57

15 From Rosh Chodesh Nissan onward, it is customary to read the passage [describing the sacrifices of] the prince who offered [his sacrifices] on that day.58 On the thirteenth [of Nissan, the beginning of] Parshas Bahaaloscha until kein asa es hamenorah59(Bamidbar 8:1-4) [is read], for it corresponds to the tribe of Levi.

טו נוֹהֲגִין מֵרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וָאֵילָךְ לִקְרוֹת פָּרָשַׁת הַנָּשִׂיא שֶׁהִקְרִיב בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם,58 וּבְיוֹם י"ג פָּרָשַׁת "בְּהַעֲלֹתְךָ" עַד "כֵּן עָשָׂה אֶת הַמְּנֹרָה",59 שֶׁהוּא נֶגֶד שֵׁבֶט לֵוִי:פז

16 On the day before Pesach, one should rise early to go to the synagogue so that he [can return and] complete his [morning] meal before the fourth hour [of the day has passed].60 See sec. 443[:1-4].61

טז בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח שַׁחֲרִית מַשְׁכִּימִין לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּגְמֹר סְעוּדָתוֹ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה ד',פח,60 עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"ג:פט,61

17 Anyone who brings about an issur (i.e., a bonding)62 to a festival by eating and drinking – i.e., [the person] increases slightly [the amount he] eats and drinks – on the day following the festival, and [in this way,] makes [that day] ancillary to the festival, is considered by Scripture like one who built an altar and offered a sacrifice on it, as [alluded to by] the verse,63 “Bind to the festival with avosim (i.e., heavy and fat [sacrificial] animals) until [you bring them to] the horns of the altar.”64

Accordingly, in these countries it is customary to increase slightly one’s eating and drinking on the day after each of the three festivals. One should not fast [on these days. This restriction includes] even a groom and a bride on their wedding day, and one who fasts on the date his father and/or mother died, as will be explained in sec. 568 and sec. 573.65 This prohibition is merely a custom. According to the fundamental principles of the law, there is no prohibition against fasting [on these days]. Nevertheless, one who refrains [from doing so] is praiseworthy, as explained.

יז כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה אִסּוּרצ (פֵּרוּשׁ אֲגֻדָּהצא)62 לֶחָג בַּאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמַּרְבֶּה קְצָת בַּאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה62 בַּיּוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחַר הֶחָג,צב וְעוֹשֵׂהוּ טָפֵל לֶחָג, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ בָּנָה מִזְבֵּחַ וְהִקְרִיב עָלָיו קָרְבָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרצג,63 "אִסְרוּ חַג בַּעֲבֹתִים (וּפֵרוּשׁוֹ, בְּהֵמוֹת עָבוֹת וּשְׁמֵנוֹתצד)62 עַד קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ".64 לְפִיכָךְ נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לְהַרְבּוֹת קְצָת בַּאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה בַּיּוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחַר הֶחָגצה בְּכָל שָׁלֹשׁ רְגָלִים.

וְאֵין מִתְעַנִּין אֲפִלּוּ חָתָן וְכַלָּה בְּיוֹם חֻפָּתָם, וְלֹא תַּעֲנִית יוֹם שֶׁמֵּת בּוֹ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ,צו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקס"חצז וְתקע"ג.צח,65 וְאִסּוּר זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִנְהָג, אֲבָל מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין אִסּוּר כְּלָל לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בּוֹ,צט אֶלָּא שֶׁהַמּוֹנֵעַ הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:

18 When does the above apply? On the days that follow Pesach and Sukkos. However, on the day that follows Shavuos it is forbidden to fast according to law, for the rationale to be explained in sec. 494[:19].66

יח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בַּיּוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְשֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסֻּכּוֹת, אֲבָל בַּיּוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחַר חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת, מִן הַדִּין אָסוּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בּוֹ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תצ"ד:ק,66

19 One of the great halachic instructors67 would instruct the people of his generation to separate some of the flour that was ground to be used for [matzos on] Pesach and bake bread or cook food from it, and eat [this food] before Pesach. It is desirable to give [this food] to the poor so that they eat it before Pesach.

The rationale for this custom is that if there is a suspicion that there was a trace of chametz in the flour, it can be assumed and said that the entire trace of chametz was in the small portion that was already eaten before Pesach (as will be exped in sec. 453:1268 and sec. 466:10).69 Nevertheless, this custom is only a stringency, for according to the fundamental principles of the law, we do not assume that any adversity occurred70 so that it would be necessary to be concerned about the possibility of a trace [of flour] leavening.

יט יֵשׁ מִגְּדוֹלֵי הַמּוֹרִים67 שֶׁהָיָה מַנְהִיג לִבְנֵי דּוֹרוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מַפְרִישִׁין מְעַט קֶמַח מִן הַקֶּמַח שֶׁנִּטְחַן לְפֶסַח וְיַעֲשׂוּ מִמֶּנּוּ פַּת אוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל וְיֹאכְלוּהוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.קא וְטוֹב לִתֵּן לַעֲנִיִּים שֶׁיֹּאכְלוּהוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.קב וְטַעַם מִנְהָג זֶה הוּא, כְּדֵי שֶׁאַף אִם יֵשׁ חֲשַׁשׁ חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַקֶּמַח הַזֶּה נוּכַל לִתְלוֹת וְלוֹמַר שֶׁאוֹתוֹ הַחֲשַׁשׁ חָמֵץ הָיָה כֻּלּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּקְצָת שֶׁנֶּאֱכַל כְּבָר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח (כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"גקג,68 וְתס"וקד,69). וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מִנְהָג זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא חֻמְרָא בְּעָלְמָא,קה שֶׁמֵּעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין אָנוּ מַחֲזִיקִין רֵעוּתָאקו,70 לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ בַּקֶּמַח חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ מַשֶּׁהוּ.