SECTION 361 The Laws [Governing] a Roof that Borders on a Public Domain (1-6) (1-8)

סימן שסא דִּין גַּג הַסָּמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּבוֹ ו' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following laws apply to] a roof that borders on a public domain:1 [If] it is not ten handbreadths high on the side that borders on the public domain, but it is ten [handbreadths] high on its other sides which are located in a courtyard, it is a private domain in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, since [the portion of the roof bordering the public domain] is within a ten [handbreadth height] of the public domain2 and many people use it – they place hats and small utensils on it – [the roof] bears a resemblance to a public domain.3 It is [therefore] forbidden for the roof’s owner to use [the roof] from the courtyard,4 unless he makes a permanent ladder [leading] to it from his courtyard. Then, [by doing so, the owner] reveals his intent – that he is removing the roof from the influence of [the passersby in] the public domain. Instead, it is convenient for [the owner] to use [the roof] for his own purposes.5 [See fig. 50. Placing] a ladder there temporarily, however, does not remove [the roof from the influence of the public domain]. Since [the owner] will ultimately remove the ladder, it is as if [the ladder] does not exist.6

א גַּג הַסָּמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםא,1 וְאֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִיםב בְּצִדּוֹ שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וּבִשְׁאָר צְדָדִין שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר הוּא גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָהג – רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה.ד וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא בְּתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים2 וְרַבִּים מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ, שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים בּוֹ כּוֹבָעִים וְכֵלִים קְטַנִּיםה,1 – הֲרֵי זֶה כִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,3 וְאָסוּר לְבַעַל הַגַּג לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ מֵחָצֵרו,4 עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לוֹ סֻלָּם קָבוּעַ מֵחֲצֵרוֹ,ז שֶׁאָז גִּלָּה דַעְתּוֹ שֶׁסִּלֵּק לְגַג זֶה מִכֹּחַ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֶלָּא נוֹחַ לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּעַצְמוֹ עָלָיו.ח,5 אֲבָל סֻלָּם עֲרַאי – אֵין כַּאן סִלּוּק, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁסּוֹפוֹ לִטּוֹל הַסֻּלָּם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ הוּא:ט,6

Fig. 50: A house that adjoins the public domain. a) The roof, 20 handbreadths above the courtyard; b) An embankment 14 handbreadths high, separating the public domain from the house and the courtyard; c) The public domain; d) The courtyard
Fig. 50: A house that adjoins the public domain. a) The roof, 20 handbreadths above the courtyard; b) An embankment 14 handbreadths high, separating the public domain from the house and the courtyard; c) The public domain; d) The courtyard

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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2 What is meant by a permanent ladder? One that is affixed there both on Shabbos and during the week. If, however, [the ladder] is affixed there only on Shabbos and not during the week, or the reverse, it is not considered [a] permanent [ladder].7

ב וְאֵיזֶהוּ סֻלָּם קָבוּעַ? כֹּל שֶׁקְּבָע[וֹ] שָׁם בֵּין לְשַׁבָּת בֵּין לְחֹל. אֲבָל אִם קְבָעוֹ לְשַׁבָּת וְלֹא לְחֹלי אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ,יא אֵין זֶה קָבוּעַ:7

3 If, however, [the roof] is [also] raised [ten handbreadths] on the side [bordering] on the public domain, not even a ladder is necessary.8

If, however, [the roof] is less than ten [handbreadths high on both sides of the roof, i.e.,] on the side [above] the public domain [and] on the side [adjoining] the courtyard, even though the inner space of the home [between the floor and the roof] is ten handbreadths [high],9 the roof is not deemed a private domain, but rather a karmelis, and a ladder is not at all effective [in having the roof deemed as the owner’s domain].10

ג אֲבָל אִם מִצִּדּוֹ שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הוּא גָבוֹהַּ, אֲפִלּוּ סֻלָּם אֵין צָרִיךְ.יב,8

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה בֵּין מִצַּד רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בֵּין מִצַּד הֶחָצֵר,יג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבַּיִת שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ יֵשׁ בּוֹ י' טְפָחִים9 – אֵינוֹ נִקְרֵאת עַל הַגַּג רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִית הוּא, וְאֵין סֻלָּם מוֹעִיל לוֹ כְּלָל:יד,10

4 When a courtyard opens up entirely11 – or has an opening of more than ten cubits – to a public domain, the place where the wall [is open] is deemed as “an area adjacent to a public domain,”12 which is categorized as a karmelis.13 It is permitted to bring [an object] from the courtyard to the place where the wall [is open], but not to the public domain, nor to a private domain, nor [to carry] more than four cubits [in the courtyard itself. The rationale is that] a courtyard that is open to a public domain is considered as a karmelis, for it is like a corner adjacent to a public domain, as explained in sec. 345[:20].

If [a courtyard] is open to a karmelis, it is deemed a karmelis according to Rabbinic Law. (Even though, according to Scriptural Law, [the courtyard] is a private domain, it is permitted to carry from [the courtyard] to [an area that is] a karmelis in a complete sense14 for the reason explained in sec. 346[:6-7].)15

If, however, the open portion [of the wall] is less than ten [cubits wide] and [the courtyard] is not entirely open [from this side], it does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden, because [the open portion] is considered as an entrance.16

ד חָצֵר שֶׁנִּפְרְצָהטו בְּמִלּוּאָהּ11 אוֹ בְּיָתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹתטז לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – מְקוֹם מְחִצָּהיז נִדּוֹן כְּצִדֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים12 שֶׁהֵן כַּרְמְלִית,13 וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִתּוֹךְ הֶחָצֵר לִמְקוֹם הַמְּחִצָּה,יח אֲבָל לֹא לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםיט וְלֹא לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִידכ וְלֹא לְחוּץ לְד' אַמּוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁתּוֹךְ הֶחָצֵר שֶׁנִּפְרְצָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים נַעֲשָׂה גַם כֵּן כַּרְמְלִית,כא שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא כְּקֶרֶן זָוִית הַסְּמוּכָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה.כב

וְאִם נִפְרְצָה לְכַרְמְלִית, הֲרֵי הוּא כַּרְמְלִית מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים (וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן, אַף שֶׁהוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד מִן הַתּוֹרָה,כג מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִמֶּנּוּ לְכַרְמְלִית גְּמוּרָהכד,14 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"וכה,15).

אֲבָל אִם הַפִּרְצָה הִיא פָּחוֹת מֵעֶשֶׂר וְאֵינָהּ בְּמִלּוּאָהּ – אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כְּפֶתַח:כו,16

5 If [the wall around a courtyard] is breached in a corner, i.e., there is open space on both sides [of the walls that would meet] at the corner, even [an opening] that is less than ten [cubits wide17 causes carrying] to be forbidden. [The rationale is that] it is not common to make an entrance at a corner.18

Similar [laws apply] if [the walls of] a house are breached at their corner19[and open] to a public domain or a karmelis.20Even [an opening] that is less than ten [cubits wide causes carrying] to be forbidden, provided the roof is also open above the corner, i.e., the remainder of [the roof] runs diagonally from one wall to the wall next to it. In such an instance, the principle “the edge of the roof descends and closes off [the area]”21 is not applied. [The reason this principle is not applied is] because its [motivating] rationale is that [when an open part of a wall is covered by a roof], it appears as an entrance. [That rationale is not applicable in the case at hand,] because it is not at all common to make an entrance in a corner.

When, however, an opening [in a wall] is not at a corner, the principle “the edge of the roof descends and closes off [the area]” is applied, even if [the opening] is more than ten [cubits wide], as long as [the wall] is not entirely [open].

There are authorities who maintain that even if [the side of an enclosure] is open in its entirety – [indeed,] even if two adjoining sides [of an enclosure] are entirely open, [when] there is a roof above them, the principle, “the edge of the roof descends and closes off [the area],” is applied,22 provided there remain two adjoining walls. If, by contrast, two [opposite] sides [of an enclosure] are entirely open – or [have openings wider] than ten [cubits, even though] there are two complete walls on the [other] opposite sides,23 the principle “the edge of the roof descends and closes off [the area]” is not applied, since there is open space and a passageway from one opening to the other.24 Fundamentally, the halachah follows this view. Nevertheless, it is desirable [to be stringent] and give weight to the first opinion, as stated in sec. 346[:12].

ה אִם נִפְרְצָה בְּקֶרֶן זָוִית מַמָּשׁ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהַפִּרְצָה תּוֹפֶסֶת מִשְׁתֵּי רוּחוֹתֶיהָ אֵצֶל הַזָּוִיּוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֶשֶׂר17 אָסוּר, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּתַח בְּקֶרֶן זָוִית.כז,18

וְכֵן בֵּית שֶׁנִּפְרַץ בְּקֶרֶן זָוִית מַמָּשׁכח,19 לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לְכַרְמְלִית,כט,20 אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֶשֶׂר19 אָסוּר אִם גַּם הַקֵּרוּי נִפְרַץ מֵעַל הַזָּוִית, עַד שֶׁהַנִּשְׁאָר הוּא בַּאֲלַכְסוֹן מִכֹּתֶל זֶה לְכֹתֶל שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁאָז אֵין אוֹמְרִים בּוֹ "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם",ל,21 לְפִי שֶׁהַטַּעַם שֶׁאוֹמְרִים "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם" הוּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְפֶתַח, וּבְקֶרֶן זָוִית אֵין דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שָׁם פֶּתַח כְּלָל.לא

אֲבָל פֶּתַח שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּקֶרֶן זָוִית אוֹמְרִים בָּהּ "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם", אֲפִלּוּ הִיא יְתֵרָה מֵעֶשֶׂרלב,19 רַק שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּמִלּוּאָהּ.לג,19

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלד שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הִיא בְּמִלּוּאָהּ, אֲפִלּוּ נִפְרְצוּ ב' מְחִצּוֹת זוֹ אֵצֶל זוֹ בְּמִלּוּאָםלה וְנִשְׁאַר קֵרוּי עֲלֵיהֶם – אוֹמְרִים בּוֹ "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם"22 אִם נִשְׁאָר שָׁם ב' מְחִצּוֹת דְּבוּקוֹת זוֹ בְּזוֹ.לו אֲבָל אִם נִפְרְצוּ ב' מְחִצּוֹת זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ בְּמִלּוּאָהּ אוֹ בְּיוֹתֵר מֵעֲשָׂרָה, וְנִשְׁאָר ב' מְחִצּוֹת שְׁלֵמוֹת זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹלז,23 – כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם פִּלּוּשׁלח וְקַפַּנְדַּרְיָאלט מִפִּרְצָה זוֹ לְפִרְצָה שֶׁכְּנֶגְדָּהּ, אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶן "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם".24 וְכֵן עִקָּר.מ וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן טוֹב לָחוּשׁ לִסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,מא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ו:מב

6 There are authorities who maintain that the principle, “the edge of the roof descends and closes off [the area],” is not applied – even if only one side of a structure is open – unless the roof is four handbreadths wide.25

There are other authorities who maintain that [for this principle to be applied], the roof must not be slanted like our roofs are today, for then they do not have edges and [our Sages] only said “the edge of the roof descends and closes off [the area” and that is not applicable in this instance.26

ו יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמג שֶׁאֵין פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם אֲפִלּוּ לְפִרְצָה שֶׁמֵּרוּחַ אֶחָד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בְּרֹחַב הַקֵּרוּי ד' טְפָחִים.מד,25

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ גַּם כֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא פִּי הַתִּקְרָה מְשֻׁפָּע כְּגַגִּין שֶׁלָּנוּ,מו שֶׁאָז אֵין בָּהֶם פֶּה, וְלֹא אָמְרִינָן אֶלָּא "פִּי תִקְרָה יוֹרֵד וְסוֹתֵם":26