SECTION 356 The Laws that Apply to an Irrigation Ditch that Passes through a Courtyard (1-4)

סימן שנו דִּין אַמַּת הַמַּיִם הָעוֹבֶרֶת בְּחָצֵר וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 When an irrigation ditch ten handbreadths deep and four [handbreadths] wide passes through a courtyard, [water] may not be drawn from it unless one makes a partition ten [handbreadths] high across its width at its entrance and exit.1 One handbreadth [of the partition’s height] must descend into the water. If the entire partition is located in the water, one handbreadth must project above the water. In that way, a distinction will be made between the water outside [the courtyard,] which is a karmelis,2 and the water inside it.

[The need for such a distinction can be explained as follows:] The irrigation ditch is not contained within the courtyard. Instead, it passes through [the courtyard, entering from] one side [and exiting from] the other.3 [Hence, the irrigation ditch] is not considered as batel4to the courtyard. Instead, since [the ditch] is ten handbreadths deep and four handbreadths wide, it is defined as a domain in its own right,5 for that measure comprises the criteria [for the size of a space] that is defined as a separate domain.

Since [the irrigation ditch] is not batel to the courtyard, it is deemed as a karmelis within the courtyard, as it is deemed a karmelis before it enters the courtyard and after it leaves [the courtyard]. Therefore, it is necessary to make partitions that distinguish between the water in the courtyard and the water outside [the courtyard].

True, the water [situated inside the courtyard and that located outside of it] are connected either below or above6 the partition.7 Nevertheless, this is not of [any] consequence, because our Sages ruled leniently with regard to water, permitting a hanging partition because of the principle of gud achis,8 as stated in sec. 355[:1, 10]. Nevertheless, the fact that the courtyard wall may pass over [the irrigation ditch] is of no consequence even if [the wall] extends a handbreadth into the water. [The rationale is that our Sages] granted leniency regarding [a partition for] water only when the partition has been made [specifically] for the sake of the water, i.e., to permit carrying [the water],9 as explained in that source.

א אַמַּת הַמַּיִם הָעוֹבֶרֶת בְּחָצֵרא עֲמֻקָּה י' טְפָחִים וּרְחָבָה ד'ב – אֵין מְמַלְּאִים הֵימֶנָּה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשָׂה עָלֶיהָ לְרָחְבָּהּ מְחִצָּה גָּבוֹהַּ י' בִּכְנִיסָתָהּ וּבִיצִיאָתָהּ,ג,1 וְיִהְיֶה טֶפַח מִמֶּנָּה מְשֻׁקָּע בְּמַיִם. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמְּחִצָּה כֻּלָּהּ יוֹרֶדֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא טֶפַח מִמֶּנָּה יוֹצֵא לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמַּיִם,ד כְּדֵי לַחֲלוֹק בֵּין הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּחוּץ שֶׁהֵם כַּרְמְלִית2 לַמַּיִם שֶׁבִּפְנִים,ה לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהָאַמָּה אֵינָהּ מִתְעַכֶּבֶת בֶּחָצֵר אֶלָּא עוֹבֶרֶת מִצַּד לְצַד,3 אֵינָהּ בְּטֵלָה4 לְגַבֵּי הֶחָצֵר וְחוֹלֶקֶת רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמָהּ,ו הוֹאִיל וְהִיא עֲמֻקָּה עֲשָׂרָה וּרְחָבָה ד',5 שֶׁזֶּהוּ שִׁעוּר חִלּוּק רְשֻׁיּוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ;ז וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּטֵלָה לֶחָצֵר, הֲרֵי הִיא כַּרְמְלִית בֶּחָצֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִיא כַּרְמְלִית קֹדֶם כְּנִיסָתָהּ לֶחָצֵר וְאַחַר יְצִיאָתָהּ מִמֶּנָּה.ח וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת הַמַּפְסִיקוֹת בֵּין הַמַּיִם שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר לְהַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּחוּץ.ט

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הֵם מְחֻבָּרִים תַּחַת הַמְּחִצָּה7 אוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ,6 אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,י שֶׁהֵקֵלּוּ חֲכָמִים בְּמַיִם לִהְיוֹת מְחִצָּה תְּלוּיָה מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם "גּוּד אַחֵת",יא,8 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ה.יב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כֹּתֶל הֶחָצֵר שֶׁעוֹבֵר שָׁם עֲלֵיהֶם אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם אַף אִם הָיָה מְשֻׁקָּע בַּמַּיִם טֶפַח,יג לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הֵקֵלּוּ בְּמַיִם אֶלָּא בִּמְחִצָּה הַנַּעֲשֵׂית לְשֵׁם הַמַּיִםיד כְּדֵי לְהַתִּיר הַטִּלְטוּל בָּהֶם,טו,9 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:

2 It is, however, permitted to carry in the courtyard itself, even if a partition was not made for the irrigation ditch [that passes] within it. [True,] the irrigation ditch is a karmelis. Nevertheless, it does not cause [carrying in] the courtyard to be forbidden, even though [the irrigation ditch and the courtyard] are entirely open to each other and there is no partition separating them. [The rationale is that] the trench of the irrigation ditch itself constitutes a partition between its water and the courtyard, for [the irrigation ditch] is ten [handbreadths] deep, and any ditch that is ten [handbreadths] deep is deemed a partition.

[The above law applies] even if [the irrigation ditch] is not ten [handbreadths] deep at its edge and only [reaches that depth] as it inclines. As long as the gradient reaches a depth of ten [handbreadths] within four cubits, [the irrigation ditch] is deemed a partition. If, however, it takes more than four cubits for the gradient to reach [a depth of ten handbreadths, the irrigation ditch] is not deemed a partition, as stated in sec. 345[:2, 15, 19].

When [the irrigation ditch] is deemed as a partition for the courtyard, it is permitted to carry in [the courtyard] even though the wall of the courtyard is [entirely] open over the width of the irrigation ditch at its entrance and exit, and [even though] this opening is more than ten cubits wide.10 [Such a wide opening] would [usually] cause [carrying in] the courtyard to be forbidden were it not for the presence of the irrigation ditch, which is considered as [the courtyard’s] partition. Thus, because of the irrigation ditch, [the courtyard is deemed a private domain since] it [is considered to] have four partitions on either side of the ditch.

ב אֲבָל בֶּחָצֵר עַצְמָהּ מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל אֲפִלּוּ לֹא עָשָׂה מְחִצּוֹת לָאַמָּה שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ, וַהֲרֵי הָאַמָּה הִיא כַּרְמְלִית, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת אֶת הֶחָצֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן פְּרוּצוֹת זוֹ לְזוֹ בְּמִלּוּאָן וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶן מְחִצָּה, לְפִי שֶׁחֲפִירַת הָאַמָּה עַצְמָהּ נַעֲשֵׂית מְחִצָּה בֵּין הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהּ וּבֵין הֶחָצֵר, שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא עֲמֻקָּה עֲשָׂרָה, וְכָל חָרִיץ שֶׁהוּא עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה נִדּוֹן מִשּׁוּם מְחִצָּה.טז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינָהּ עֲמֻקָּה עֲשָׂרָה בִּשְׂפָתָהּ אֶלָּא בְּשִׁפּוּעַ, אִם הַשִּׁפּוּעַ מִתְלַקֵּט עֹמֶק עֲשָׂרָה מִתּוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹת – נִדּוֹן מִשּׁוּם מְחִצָּה. אֲבָל אִם מִתְלַקֵּט כֵּן מִתּוֹךְ יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת, אֵינָהּ נִדּוֹן כִּמְחִצָּה,יז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה.יח וּכְשֶׁהוּא נִדּוֹן מִשּׁוּם מְחִצָּה לֶחָצֵר, מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ נִפְרַץ כֹּתֶל הֶחָצֵר בְּרֹחַב הָאַמָּה בִּכְנִיסָתָהּ וּבִיצִיאָתָהּ, וּפִרְצָה זוֹ הִיא יוֹתֵר מִי' אַמּוֹת,10 שֶׁהִיא אוֹסֶרֶת אֶת הֶחָצֵר אִם לֹא חֲפִירַת הָאַמָּה שֶׁבָּהּ שֶׁנִּדּוֹנָה לָהּ כִּמְחִצָּה, וַהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לָהּ ד' מְחִצּוֹת מִצַּד הָאַמָּה מִכַּאן וְד' מְחִצּוֹת מִצַּד הָאַמָּה מִכַּאן:יט

3 [The following law applies when a person] begins making a partition at the edge of the irrigation ditch on all sides across its width11 but does not join it in the center of its width.12 [Instead, the person] leaves an empty space in the center of the partition [on the side where the water] enters and [on the side where it] departs so that the water can enter and depart through [that space]. If there are less than three handbreadths [of empty space] between the sides, it is permitted [to draw water from the irrigation ditch to the courtyard] because of the principle of lavud.13 [See fig. 46.]If there are three handbreadths [or more of space between the sides, carrying] is forbidden.

If the holes [in the wall of the courtyard] through which [water from] the irrigation ditch enters are less than three handbreadths wide, a partition is not even required. [The courtyard is considered] as entirely closed because of [the principle of] lavud.

ג אִם הִתְחִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַמְּחִצָּה אֵצֶל הַשָּׂפָה מִכָּל צַד לְרֹחַב הָאַמָּה,11 וְלֹא חִבֵּר אוֹתָהּ בְּאֶמְצַעכ רָחְבָּהּ,12 וְהִנִּיחַ מָקוֹם פָּנוּי בְּאֶמְצָעִית הַמְּחִצָּה שֶׁל כְּנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַמַּיִם נִכְנָסִים וְיוֹצְאִים דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם,כא אִם אֵין שָׁם בֵּינֵיהֶם ג' טְפָחִים – מֻתָּר מִשּׁוּם לָבוּד,13 וְאִם יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם ג' טְפָחִים – אָסוּר. וְאִם הַנְּקָבִים שֶׁהָאַמָּה נִכְנֶסֶת וְיוֹצֵאת בָּהֶם אֵינָם רְחָבִים ג' טְפָחִים, אֲפִלּוּ מְחִצָּה אֵין צָרִיךְ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵם כִּסְתוּמִים לְגַמְרֵי מִשּׁוּם לָבוּד:כב


Fig. 46: A partition that allows carrying to be permitted in a courtyard through which an irrigation ditch passes. a) An irrigation ditch, at least 10 handbreadths deep and 4 handbreadths wide; b) A partition at least 10 handbreadths high; at least one handbreadth extends over the water; c) An empty space in the midst of the partition, less than 3 handbreadths wide; d) The courtyard’s walls, at least 10 handbreadths high
Fig. 46: A partition that allows carrying to be permitted in a courtyard through which an irrigation ditch passes. a) An irrigation ditch, at least 10 handbreadths deep and 4 handbreadths wide; b) A partition at least 10 handbreadths high; at least one handbreadth extends over the water; c) An empty space in the midst of the partition, less than 3 handbreadths wide; d) The courtyard’s walls, at least 10 handbreadths high

4 [The following law applies when the wall of] a courtyard is breached and an inlet of the sea passes over the breached portion.14 As long as [the wall] is not breached in its entirety and the breached portion is not more than ten cubits wide, it does not [cause carrying] to be forbidden in the courtyard, because [this breach] is considered as an entrance to [the courtyard],15 as will be stated in sec. 362[:18]. It is permitted to draw water from the inlet [of the sea] that entered the courtyard, and the water may be brought into the house. Even though [the inlet] is ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths] wide, it is not considered as a domain in its own right.16 [The rationale is that] since [sea water merely] enters the courtyard but does not depart from it,it is considered as a cistern in the courtyard17 and the partitions around the courtyard [cause drawing the water from the inlet to the courtyard] to be permitted. It is not forbidden despite [the fact that the courtyard] is open to the sea, which is a karmelis.18

If, however, [the wall] was breached in its entirety or it has a breach more than ten [cubits wide], it is forbidden to draw water from [the breach in the wall] to the courtyard, since there is no partition above [the inlet that separates] between it and the water outside, for [the wall] is breached in its entirety or it has a breach more than ten [cubits wide] in that place. People at large should be cautioned concerning this, for they err in this regard in places where rivers run close to courtyards.

It is, however, permitted to carry in the courtyard itself, provided the inlet reaches a depth of ten [handbreadths] within four cubits, which is considered as a partition.19 [This leniency applies only] if [the inlet] is [sufficiently] removed from the seashore or the remnants [of the courtyard’s wall]20 are very high,21 in which instance, there is no concern that perhaps the sea will wash up [mud and rocks]22 and thereby reduce the depth of [the inlet or the courtyard’s partitions] to less than ten [handbreadths],23 and [as a result, it is feared that notwithstanding the diminished depth, people] will carry in the courtyard as they did originally, as will be stated in sec. 363[:35].

If remnants [of the wall] ten [handbreadths] high remain at the bottom in the place where the wall of the courtyard was breached, but [these remnants] are covered by water, it is permitted to draw water from [the inlet] to the courtyard, but is forbidden to take [the water] into the house24 unless a partition ten [handbreadths] high over the water was constructed. [The rationale is that] the remnants covered by water are considered a partition for the courtyard, but not for the house, because sometimes [these remnants] are apparent and visible from the courtyard when the water subsides,25 but they are never apparent and visible from the house.26 Therefore, it is forbidden to carry anything from the courtyard to the house unless the inlet is ten [handbreadths] deep.

ד חָצֵר שֶׁנִּפְרְצָה וּלְשׁוֹן יָם עוֹבֵר עַל הַפִּרְצָה,כג,14 אִם לֹא נִפְרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּכד וְאֵין בַּפִּרְצָה יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת10 – שֶׁפִּרְצָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת הֶחָצֵר מִלְּטַלְטֵל בָּהּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא לָהּ כְּפֶתַח,כה,15 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"בכו – מֻתָּר לְמַלֹּאת מֵהַלָּשׁוֹן שֶׁנִּכְנָס בָּהּ וּלְהַכְנִיס הַמַּיִם לַבַּיִת. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָמְקוֹ עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחְבּוֹ ד', אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ,16 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנָס לֶחָצֵר וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ,16 הֲרֵי הוּא כְּבוֹר שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר,17 וּמְחִצּוֹת הֶחָצֵר מַתִּירוֹת אוֹתוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱסָר מֵחֲמַת שֶׁפָּרוּץ לַיָּם שֶׁהוּא כַּרְמְלִית.כז,18

אֲבָל אִם נִפְרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ, אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּפִּרְצָה יוֹתֵר מֵעֲשָׂרָה – אָסוּר לְמַלֹּאת מִמֶּנּוּ לֶחָצֵר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין מְחִצָּה עַל גַּבָּיו בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּחוּץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי שָׁם נִפְרְצָה הֶחָצֵר בְּמִלּוּאָהּ אוֹ יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר.כח וְצָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לָרַבִּים שֶׁנִּכְשָׁלִים בְּזֶה בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנָּהָר מְהַלֵּךְ סָמוּךְ לַחֲצֵרוֹת.כט

אֲבָל בֶּחָצֵר עַצְמָהּ מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל אִם הַלָּשׁוֹן הוּא עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָהל מִתּוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹת,לא שֶׁהוּא נֶחְשָׁב לִמְחִצָּה.19 וּכְגוֹן שֶׁהוּא רָחוֹק מִשְּׂפַת הַיָּם, אוֹ שֶׁגִּדּוּדָיו20 גְּבוֹהִים בְּיוֹתֵר,21 בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא יַעֲלֶה הַיָּם שִׂרְטוֹן22 וְיִתְמַעֵט עָמְקוֹ מֵעֲשָׂרָה23 וִיטַלְטְלוּ בֶּחָצֵר כְּבַתְּחִלָּה,לב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ג.לג

וְאִם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנִּפְרַץ כֹּתֶל הֶחָצֵר נִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם לְמַטָּה גִּדּוּדִין גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה, וְהַמַּיִם מְכַסִּים אוֹתָם – מֻתָּר לְמַלֹּאת מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם לֶחָצֵר. אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַכְנִיסָם לַבַּיִתלד,24 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשׂוּ לוֹ מְחִצָּה גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה עַל הַמַּיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַגִּדּוּדִים הַמְּכֻסִּים בַּמַּיִם חֲשׁוּבִים מְחִצָּה לְגַבֵּי הֶחָצֵר, אֲבָל לֹא לְגַבֵּי הַבַּיִת,לה לְפִי שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר פְּעָמִים שֶׁהֵם נִכָּרִים וְנִרְאִים כְּשֶׁהַמַּיִם שׁוֹקְעִים,25 אֲבָל בַּבַּיִת אֵין נִכָּרִים וְנִרְאִים לְעוֹלָם.לו,26 וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל שׁוּם דָּבָר מֵחָצֵר לַבַּיתלז אִם אֵין הַלָּשׁוֹן עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה: