SECTION 355 The Laws That Apply to a Balcony and an Outhouse (1-17)

סימן שנה דִּינֵי גְזוּזְטְרָא וּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא וּבוֹ י"ז סְעִיפִים:

1 A balcony [located] above [a body of] water to which a window from a home opens1 is deemed a private domain2 even though there are no walls around [the balcony], as stated in sec. 345[:23].3 It is forbidden to draw water [and take it into the home]4 from [the body of water] via [the balcony] because the [body of] water is deemed a karmelis.5 [License is granted] only when a partition ten handbreadths high is made surrounding [the balcony] entirely and one draws water via a hole cut out in [the] middle [of the balcony].6 In such an instance, [drawing the water] is permitted because of the principle of gud achis, i.e., it is considered as if the partitions that surround [the balcony] extend downward until the [water’s] very depths. Thus, the water below [the balcony] is [considered as] surrounded by walls and [hence is considered as] a private domain.7 Alternatively, one may make partitions [only] around the hole,8 [provided] the hole is [at least] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area. It is necessary that the hole be at least this size] because a partition made around a space that is less than four [handbreadths by four handbreadths in area] is not a [valid] partition.9

There is no difference whether one makes this partition below the balcony, connected to [the balcony] from below [and] surrounding its entire perimeter; [or whether he makes this partition] below [the balcony], connected [only] to the space around the hole; or [whether he makes this partition] above [the balcony] in the [previously described] manner. [There is one] proviso: [The partition] must be made with this intent, [i.e.,] to permit the water to be drawn. If, however, [the partition] was made for another purpose, the principle of gud achis is not applied,10 for the reason to be explained.11

Once a partition [of this type] was made for [the balcony], it is also permitted to pour water from [the balcony] through [this] hole,12 even though the water that is poured [will then] flow to a space outside the [area encompassed by the virtual] partition,13 since the person does not intend that [that the water he pours] do so.14

א גְּזוּזְטְרָא שֶׁהִיא לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמַּיִם,א וְחַלּוֹן פָּתוּחַ לָהּ מִן הַבַּיִת1 – שֶׁאָז הִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד2 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת,ב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"הג,3 – אָסוּר לְמַלֹּאת מִמֶּנָּה מַיִם,4 לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּיִם הֵם כַּרְמְלִית,5 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשָׂה לָהּ מְחִצָּה גְּבוֹהָה י' טְפָחִיםד כָּל סְבִיבָהּ,ה וְהוּא מְמַלֵּא בְּנֶקֶב הֶחָקוּק בְּאֶמְצָעִיתָהּ,6 שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר מִשּׁוּם "גּוּד אַחֵת",ו דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָנוּ רוֹאִים הַמְּחִצּוֹת שֶׁסְּבִיבָהּ כְּאִלּוּ נִמְשְׁכוּ לְמַטָּה עַד הַתְּהוֹם,ז וְנִמְצְאוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ מֻקָּפִים מְחִצּוֹת, וּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הֵם.7 אוֹ יַעֲשֶׂה הַמְּחִצָּה סְבִיב הַנֶּקֶב,8 וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא בַּנֶּקֶב ד' עַל ד',ח שֶׁכָּל מְחִצָּה הָעֲשׂוּיָה לְפָחוֹת מֵחָלָל ד' אֵינָהּ מְחִצָּה.ט,9 וְאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין אִם יַעֲשֶׂה לָהּ מְחִצָּה זוֹ לְמַטָּה מְחֻבָּר לָהּ תַּחַת כָּל סְבִיבָהּ, אוֹ מְחֻבָּר תַּחַת סְבִיבוֹת הַנֶּקֶב,3 וּבֵין אִם יַעֲשֶׂנָּה עַל גַּבָּהּ מִלְמַעְלָה בְּעִנְיָן זֶה,י וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂנָּה בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ – כְּדֵי לְהַתִּיר מִלּוּי הַמַּיִם. אֲבָל אִם עֲשָׂאָהּ לְצֹרֶךְ אַחֵר, אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהּ "גּוּד אַחֵת",יא,10 מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.יב,11

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁעָשָׂה לָהּ מְחִצָּה – מֻתָּר גַּם לִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנָּהיג דֶּרֶךְ הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁבָּהּ,12 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשּׁוֹפָכִין הוֹלְכִים לַחוּץ לְהָלְאָה מִכְּנֶגֶד הַמְּחִצָּה,יד,13 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ:טו,14

2 Similarly, when a person is traveling on a boat15 which is [at least] ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area, [the boat] is deemed a private domain.16 [The person] may not draw water from [the body of] water or the river [on which the boat is traveling] unless he takes a board [measuring] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], makes a hole in it, ]extends it over the water,] and draws the water through [the hole. In this instance, the person] need not make a partition around [the board or the hole]. Instead, we apply the principle of gud achis [to the board in its present state], i.e., it is considered as if the sides of the board have extended downward until the very depths,17 and thus, the water below is considered as if it is surrounded by a partition. [The rationale is that our Sages] granted greater leniency18 with regard to a boat than with regard to a balcony in a home because it is impossible to do [everything] one can do at home on a boat.

ב וְכֵן הַהוֹלֵךְ בִּסְפִינָהטז,15 שֶׁהִיא עֲמֻקָּה עֲשָׂרָה וּרְחָבָה ד', שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,יז,16 אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְמַלֹּאת מֵהַמַּיִם אוֹ הַנָּהָר שֶׁהוּא כַּרְמְלִית, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה דַף ד' עַל ד' וְעוֹשֶׂה בּוֹ נֶקֶב וּמְמַלֵּא דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם. וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה סְבִיבוֹ,יח אֶלָּא אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים "גּוּד אַחֵת", דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָנוּ רוֹאִים צְדָדֵי הַדַּף כְּאִלּוּ נִמְשְׁכוּ וְיָרְדוּ לְמַטָּה עַד הַתְּהוֹם,יט,17 וְנִמְצְאוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו מֻקָּפִים מְחִצָּה, שֶׁהֵקֵלּוּ18 בִּסְפִינָה יוֹתֵר מִבִּגְזוּזְטְרָא שֶׁבַּבַּיִת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּסְפִינָה מַה שֶּׁיָּכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת בַּבַּיִת:

3 When does the above apply? When less than ten handbreadths of the outer walls of the boat are [exposed above] the water level. [Instead,] only the inner space of [the boat] is ten [handbreadths] deep.19 [Different laws apply] if, however, [the walls of the boat] are ten handbreadths higher than the water level, and thus, when one draws water from above [the boat’s] walls, the bucket passes through space that is more than ten handbreadths above the water. This space is located in a makom p’tur. [In such an instance,] it is not necessary to [erect] a board four [handbreadths by four handbreadths in area]. Instead, it is sufficient [to extend] a projection of even the slightest width [merely] to make a distinction so that one will not come to transfer [an object] from a private domain to a karmelis20 without it passing through the space of a makom p’tur.21 Therefore, it is not necessary to make a hole in the projection to draw [water] through it. Instead, one may draw [water] from [any place on] the entire boat, because of the distinction he [already] made by [extending a] projection from one place on the boat.22

Even the authorities who forbid transferring [an object] from a private domain to a karmelis even when [the object] is placed down in a makom p’tur in the interim,23 as stated in sec. 346[:3], would agree that, in the instance [described] here, [transferring from the sea to the boat] is permitted, [because] there is a projection of at least a minimal size that creates a distinction. [To explain:] The reason [why these authorities] prohibit[transfers from a private domain to a karmelis via a makom p’tur] is only [to create a safeguard] lest one transfer [an object from one of these domains to the other] without [the object] passing through a makom p’tur in the interim, as explained in that source. [Such a safeguard is unnecessary] in this instance, because there is a projection of at least a minimal size that creates a distinction.

(According to the authorities who permit transferring [an object] from a private domain to a karmelis when it is placed down in a makom p’tur [in the interim], but not [directly] through the empty space of a makom p’tur,24 [extending] a projection to create a distinction is not effective when [the projection] is above ten [handbreadths] high, just as it is not effective when it is below ten [handbreadths high]. Therefore, [according to these authorities,] it is necessary to first place the bucket down on the projection which is a makom p’tur. Afterwards, [the person] may lower [the bucket] into the water. [He must follow] the same [pattern] when returning [the bucket from the water].)

ג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁדָּפְנֵי הַסְּפִינָה אֵינָם גְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים מֵעַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם מִבַּחוּץ, אֶלָּא בְּתוֹכָהּ בִּלְבָד הִיא עֲמֻקָּה19 עֲשָׂרָה.כ,16 אֲבָל אִם הֵם גְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים מֵעַל הַמַּיִם, שֶׁנִּמְצָא כְּשֶׁמְּמַלֵּא דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵהַדְּפָנוֹת הוֹלֵךְ הַדְּלִי דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה מֵעַל הַמַּיִם, שֶׁהוּא אֲוִיר מְקוֹם פְּטוּר – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת דַּף ד',כא,16 אֶלָּא דַּי בְּזִיז כָּל שֶׁהוּא לְהֶכֵּר בְּעָלְמָא, שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לְטַלְטֵל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית20 שֶׁלֹּא בְּדֶרֶךְ אֲוִיר מְקוֹם פְּטוּר.כב,21 וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת נֶקֶב בַּזִּיז לְמַלֹּאת דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם,כג אֶלָּא יָכוֹל לְמַלֹּאת בְּכָל הַסְּפִינָה עַל יְדֵי הֶכֵּר זִיז שֶׁעָשָׂה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד מֵהַסְּפִינָה.כד,22

וַאֲפִלּוּ הָאוֹסְרִים לְטַלְטֵל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית אֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ הַנָּחָה בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר בֵּינְתַיִם,23 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ו,כה כַּאן שֶׁיֵּשׁ זִיז כָּל שֶׁהוּא לְהֶכֵּר – מוֹדִים שֶׁמֻּתָּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי טַעַם הָאִסּוּר אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְטַלְטֵל שֶׁלֹּא בְּדֶרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר בֵּינְתַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, וְכַאן הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ הֶכֵּר בְּזִיז כָּל שֶׁהוּא.כו

(וּלְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםכז שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית דֶּרֶךְ הַנָּחָה בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר, אֲבָל לֹא דֶּרֶךְ אֲוִיר מְקוֹם פְּטוּר,24 אֵין הֶכֵּר זִיז מוֹעִיל לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים. וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּאן בִּתְחִלָּה הַנָּחָה לְהַדְּלִי עַל הַזִּיז, שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְשַׁלְשְׁלֶנּוּ לַמַּיִם, וְכֵן בְּהַחֲזָרָתוֹכח):

4 All the above applies with regard to drawing water from the sea to the boat. By contrast, there is no need for a board or a projection [to be made] in order to pour waste water or to throw bones and shells from the boat to the water even if the outer walls of the boat are less than ten handbreadths higher than the surface of the water. Instead, one may pour or throw [the waste] from the top edge of the boat’s walls. That area is deemed the space of a private domain, for as explained in sec. 345[:7], the space on top of the walls of a private domain is also deemed a private domain. [Thus,] from [the upper edge of the boat’s walls, the waste material] will descend via the boat’s sides to the sea. True, [the waste material] will not come to rest on [the boat’s] sides at all, but will immediately descend to the sea; [indeed,] that is [the person’s] intent.25 Nevertheless, since [the person] does not pour or throw [the waste materials] directly from his hand to the sea, but instead, [pours or throws them] on the wall and [then,] because of his power, they descend to the sea, [there is room for leniency. The rationale is that our Sages] did not impose prohibitive decrees in a karmelis regarding [an action that a person did not perform directly, but which came about as a result of] his power.26

If, however, [the person] does (not) desire to pour [the substances] directly on the wall,27 but rather slightly distant from it, straight into the sea, he must make a distinction with a projection28 or with a board [that measures] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] that has a hole, and pour [the waste out] via the hole,29 as explained above with regard to drawing [water].

ד וְכָל זֶה לְמַלֹּאת מֵהַיָּם לִסְפִינָה.22 אֲבָל לִשְׁפּוֹךְ שׁוֹפָכִין מֵהַסְּפִינָה לַיָּם,כט אוֹ לִזְרוֹק מִמֶּנָּה עֲצָמוֹת וּקְלִפִּיןל – אֵין צָרִיךְ לֹא דַף וְלֹא זִיז, אֲפִלּוּ אִם דָּפְנֵי הַסְּפִינָה אֵינָם גְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים מֵעַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם מִבַּחוּץ,לא,22 אֶלָּא שׁוֹפְכָן אוֹ זוֹרְקָן עַל חֻדֵּי דָּפְנֵי הַסְּפִינָה מִלְמַעְלָה, שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא אֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד – כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"הלב שֶׁמְּחִצּוֹת שֶׁל רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד – וּמִשָּׁם הֵם יוֹרְדִים דֶּרֶךְ דָּפְנוֹתֶיהָ לַיָּם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נָחִים כְּלָל עַל הַדֹּפֶן אֶלָּא יוֹרְדִים מִיָּד לַיָּם, וּלְכָךְ הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן,לג,25 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹפְכָן וְזוֹרְקָן בְּיָדָיו לַיָּם אֶלָּא לַדֹּפֶן, וּמִכֹּחוֹ הֵם בָּאִים לַיָּם, וְכֹחוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית לֹא גָזְרוּ.לד,26

אֲבָל אִם (אֵינוֹ) רוֹצֶה לִשְׁפּוֹךְ עַל הַדֹּפֶן מַמָּשׁ,27 אֶלָא מֵרָחוֹק קְצָת לְתוֹךְ הַיָּם מַמָּשׁ, צָרִיךְ גַּם כֵּן הֶכֵּר זִיזלה,28 אוֹ דַף ד' עַל ד' נָקוּב, וְיִשְׁפּוֹךְ דֶּרֶךְ הַנֶּקֶבלו,29 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּמִלּוּי:

5 All the above applies when the walls of the boat are ten handbreadths high, in which instance, [the boat] is deemed a private domain.30 If, however, [the walls] are not ten [handbreadths] high, [the boat] is deemed a karmelis even though it is a k’li. [In that instance,] it is permitted to draw [water and] pour water from [the boat] to the sea in all cases without [extending] a board or a projection, because it is permitted transfer [articles] from one karmelis to another.31 The statement that a k’li is not deemed a karmelis32 was made only with regard to a k’li located in the public domain, because [a k’li located in the public domain] becomes batel to the public domain and is placed in that category. When, by contrast, [the k’li] is located in a karmelis,33 it is deemed a karmelis.

ה וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁדָּפְנֵי הַסְּפִינָה הֵם גְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים, שֶׁאָז הִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.30 אֲבָל אִם אֵינָן גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה – כַּרְמְלִית הִיאלז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא כְּלִי, וּמֻתָּר לְמַלֹּאת לִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנָּה לַיָּם בְּכָל עִנְיָן בְּלֹא דַף וּבְלֹא זִיז, שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִכַּרְמְלִית לְכַרְמְלִית.לח,31 וְלֹא אָמְרוּלט שֶׁאֵין כַּרְמְלִית בְּכֵלִים32 אֶלָּא בִּכְלִי הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁהוּא בָּטֵל לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְנַעֲשֶׂה כָּמוֹהָ, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁעוֹמֵד בְּכַרְמְלִית,33 כַּרְמְלִית הוּא:מ

6 Therefore, [when the walls of the boat are that low,] one must be careful not to move articles inside it more than four cubits, as is the law with regard to a karmelis.34 Should the boat have a dwelling on it, it is forbidden to carry from the dwelling to the [other parts of the] boat.35

ו לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטֵל בְּתוֹכָהּ יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת כְּדִין כַּרְמְלִית.מא,34 וְאִם יֵשׁ בַּיִת בִּסְפִינָה, אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא מֵהַבַּיִת לִסְפִינָה:מב,35

7 Similar [laws] apply with regard to small boats whose bases narrow at their hull until they are [as narrow] as the tip of a knife36 and their narrow portion is the height of three handbreadths. [As such, these boats] lack an area of four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in their lower portions before they rise three handbreadths from their hull. It is forbidden to carry an object more than four cubits in [such a boat] even if its walls extend ten handbreadths upward from the point where its area expands to being more than four [handbreadths by four handbreadths. The rationale is that,] in its narrow place, [at its bottom, the boat] does not have any walls – for any walls made to encompass a space less than four [handbreadths by four handbreadths wide] are not considered as walls, as stated above.37 Hence, [in] the portion [of the boat] where [the area encompassed] (by the walls) became four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] or more [wide], the walls are considered as walls hanging in the air,38 which are not considered as valid walls.39 The principle of gud achis40 is not applied regarding these [walls. It is applied] only when the [walls that are hanging] were made to permit carrying in the water, as will be explained.41

If, however, [the inner space of the boat] expanded to four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] within three handbreadths [of the water], it is considered as if [the boat’s] bottom was raised until [this height], and hence, its walls are considered as valid walls.42 Similarly, if one filled the bottom [of the boat’s hollow] with reeds until the point where its area reached the required width, [the walls] are considered as valid walls (above [that point]) if they extend for ten [handbreadths] or more.

ז וְכֵן סְפִינוֹת קְטַנּוֹת (א) שֶׁמִּתְקַצְּרוֹת לְמַטָּה עַד כְּחֻדּוֹ שֶׁל סַכִּין,36 וְהַקָּצָר שֶׁלָּהֶן גָּבוֹהַּ ג' טְפָחִים, שֶׁאֵין רֹחַב ד' טְפָחִים לְמַטָּה בְּעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא הִגְבִּיהוּ ג' טְפָחִים מִקַּרְקָעִיתוֹ – אֵין מְטַלְטְלִים בְּתוֹכוֹ יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בִּמְחִצּוֹתֶיהָ גֹּבַהּ י' טְפָחִים מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִרְחִיבוּ ד' וּלְמַעְלָה, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם הַקָּצָר אֵין לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת כְּלָל – שֶׁכָּל מְחִצָּה הָעֲשׂוּיָה לְחָלָל פָּחוֹת מִד' טְפָחִים אֵינָהּ מְחִצָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהמג,37 – אִם כֵּן38 מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִרְחִיבוּ (הַמְּחִצּוֹת) ד' טְפָחִים וּלְמַעְלָה הֵן כִּמְחִצּוֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בָּאֲוִיר, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם דִּין מְחִצָּה,מד,39 וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶן "גּוּד אַחֵת"40 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נַעֲשׂוּ לְהַתִּיר טִלְטוּל בְּמַיִם,מה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.מו,41

אֲבָל אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִגְבִּיהוּ ג' הִרְחִיבוּ ד', הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁקַּרְקְעִיתָן עוֹלָה עַד כַּאן וּמְחִצּוֹתֵיהֶן מְחִצּוֹת.מז,42 וְכֵן אִם מִלֵּא קָנִים בְּקַרְקָעִיתָן עַד מְקוֹם רָחְבָּן, הֲרֵי הֵן מְחִצּוֹת כְּשֵׁרוֹת (לְמַעְלָהמח) אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן י' מִשָּׁם וּלְמַעְלָה:מט

8 When two boats are [located] next to each other and there is less than four handbreadths – the [minimum] measure of a karmelis – between them,43 it is permitted to carry from one [boat] to the other.

If [the boats] belong to two different people, one may not carry from one [boat] to another unless an eruv was established between them. An eruv is only valid when [the boats] are tied to each other.44 [The rationale is that] if [the boats] are not tied together, they can drift away and separate. [Then the open space of] a karmelis will intervene between them; thus, they will not be joined domains.

If [initially the boats] were tied together and their connection was severed on Shabbos, the eruv is nullified. In this instance, the principle – since [carrying between them] was permitted [at the onset of the Shabbos], it is permitted [for the entire Shabbos]45– is not applied. See sec. 362[:8].46

ח ב' סְפִינוֹת סְמוּכוֹת זוֹ לְזוֹנ שֶׁאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם ד' טְפָחִיםנא כְּשִׁעוּר כַּרְמְלִית,נב,43 מְטַלְטְלִין מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ.

וְאִם הֵם שֶׁל ב' בְּנֵי אָדָם, אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עֵרְבוּ יַחַד.נג וְאֵין הָעֵרוּב מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵן קְשׁוּרוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ,נד,44 שֶׁאִם אֵינָן קְשׁוּרוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ, הֲרֵי הֵן יְכוֹלוֹת לָנוּד וּלְהִתְפָּרֵד זוֹ מִזּוֹ וּתְהֵא כַּרְמְלִית מַפְסֶקֶת בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְאֵין זֶה עֵרוּב רְשֻׁיּוֹת.נה

וְאִם הָיוּ קְשׁוּרוֹת וְנִפְסְקוּ בְּשַׁבָּת – בָּטֵל הָעֵרוּב, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים בְּזֶה "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה",נו,45 עַיֵּן סִמָּן (שמ"ט) [שס"בנז]:46

9 If the walls of the [two boats] are ten handbreadths above the water level from the outside,47 it is permitted to transfer articles from one [boat] to the other even if they are very distant from each other. [The rationale is that one] is transferring from one private domain to another private domain through [an intervening area] more than ten [handbreadths] high, which is a makom p’tur.48 Even if the boats belong to two [people], it is permitted [to transfer] from one to the other without an eruv according to the authorities who permit transferring an object [from one domain to another] via the empty space of a makom p’tur [since a makom p’tur is] a domain defined by Rabbinic Law, as stated in sec. 346[:4].49 It was already explained there50 that, fundamentally, the halachah follows the authorities who forbid such [a transfer].

ט וְאִם דָּפְנֵי הַסְּפִינָה גְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים מֵעַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם מִבַּחוּץ,47 מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מֻפְלָגוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מְטַלְטֵל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר.נח,48 וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם, מֻתָּר בְּלִי עֵרוּב לְהַמַּתִּירִים לְטַלְטֵל דֶּרֶךְ אֲוִיר מְקוֹם פְּטוּר בִּרְשֻׁיּוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם,נט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ו.ס,49 וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר שָׁם50 שֶׁהָעִקָּר כְּהָאוֹסְרִים בְּזֶה:

10 When an outhouse51 is positioned over water, it is permitted to relieve oneself there [on Shabbos] by constructing a barrier that hangs down and surrounds it in the manner described with regard to a balcony.52 The principle of gud achis is applied with regard to such a barrier since it was constructed for this specific purpose – to allow [people] to relieve themselves there on Shabbos.

This principle of gud achis is not, however, applied with regard to the walls of the outhouse, since they were not constructed for that [particular] purpose, but rather for the sake of modesty.53 [The rationale is that,] according to the letter of the law, it would not be appropriate even to permit a barrier that is hanging below [the outhouse], because the principle of gud achis is not applied to barriers that are hanging more than three handbreadths above the ground since goat kids can pass under them, as explained in sec. 345[:4. True,] in this instance, [since the barrier is constructed over] water, goat kids cannot pass under it. Nevertheless, fish can pass under it.54 For this reason,55 a balcony [over land] is not considered a private domain unless a window opens up to it.56 Our Sages, however, granted leniency [with regard to domains hanging over and positioned in] water57 and applied [the principle of] gud achis, since the passage of the fish [in the water below the barrier] is not apparent. They did not, [however,] grant the leniency unless the barrier was constructed for the sake of [transferring to and from] the water.58 [The barrier creates] a distinction and a reminder that the water below is a karmelis, and it is only permitted to transfer [to and from the water] when there is a barrier. When the barrier, however, was not erected for this purpose, there is no distinction [or reminder] whatsoever.

י בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא51 שֶׁעַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם, מֻתָּר לִפָּנוֹת בּוֹ עַל יְדֵי מְחִצָּה תְּלוּיָה שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂנָּה לְמַטָּה סְבִיבוֹ, עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בִּגְזוּזְטְרָא,52 שֶׁבִּמְחִצָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִים בָּהּ "גּוּד אַחֵת", הוֹאִיל וְהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ – כְּדֵי לְהַתִּיר לִפָּנוֹת שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת.

אֲבָל בִּמְחִצּוֹת בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא עַצְמָן, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיוֹת לְהַתִּיר אֶלָּא לִצְנִיעוּת, אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶם "גּוּד אַחֵת",סא (ב) לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין לֹא הָיָה רָאוּי לְהַתִּיר כְּלָל מִשּׁוּם "גּוּד אַחֵת" אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְחִצָּה תְּלוּיָה לְמַטָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּמְחִצּוֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בְּיַבָּשָׁה הַגְּבוֹהוֹת ג' טְפָחִים מִן הָאָרֶץ אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶם "גּוּד אַחֵת", לְפִי שֶׁהַגְּדָיִים יְכוֹלִים לִבְקוֹעַ תַּחְתֵּיהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"הסב – וְכַאן בְּמַיִם, אַף שֶׁאֵין הַגְּדָיִים יְכוֹלִים לִבְקוֹעַ שָׁם,53 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי דָגִים יְכוֹלִים לִבְקוֹעַ שָׁםסג,54 – וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה55 אֵין הַגְּזוּזְטְרָא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חַלּוֹן פָּתוּחַ לָהּ.סד,56 אֶלָּא קַל הוּא שֶׁהֵקֵלּוּ חֲכָמִים בְּמַיִם57 לוֹמַר "גּוּד אַחֵת",סה הוֹאִיל וְאֵין בְּקִיעַת הַדָּגִים נִרְאֵית,סו וְלֹא הֵקֵלּוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁעָשָׂה הַמְּחִצָּה לְשֵׁם הַמַּיִם,סז,58 כְּדֵי לְהַתִּיר בָּהֶם הַטִּלְטוּל,סח שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּזֶה הֶכֵּרסט וְזִכָּרוֹן שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁתַּחְתֵּיהֶם כַּרְמְלִית הֵם, וְאֵין הַטִּלְטוּל מֻתָּר שָׁם אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי מְחִצָּה. אֲבָל מְחִצָּה שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, אֵין בָּהּ הֶכֵּר כְּלָל:

11 If the person made a board – or even [fashioned] a thin reed – on which the excrement will fall before it falls into the water, there is no need for a barrier at all if [the reed or the board] is within three [handbreadths] of the hole,59 for then [the principle of] lavud [is applied. Thus, the board or the reed] is considered like a hole [which opens to] a private domain that is [also] deemed a private domain.60 Thus, [the person] is transferring the excrement from a private domain to another private domain, and then it falls into the water, which is a karmelis, because of his power. [This is permitted, because our Sages] did not impose a decree forbidding [an indirect transfer caused by a person’s] power in a karmelis.61The same laws apply if the outhouse is constructed in a manner where the excrement first falls on the side of the wall of the outhouse, which is a private domain, and then rolls and falls below into a karmelis. All the above [leniencies only] apply with regard to a karmelis that is outside a town, as will be explained in sec. 357[:7].62

If the reed or the board [placed above the hole in the outhouse] breaks on Shabbos, it is [still] permitted to relieve oneself there. [The rationale is that] in consideration of human dignity,63 [our Sages] did not impose a decree prohibiting [a transfer in] a karmelis, as stated in sec. 312[:4].64

יא וְאִם עָשָׂה דַףע אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ קָנֶה דַקעא שֶׁתִּפּוֹל הַצּוֹאָה עָלֶיהָ קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּפּוֹל לַמַּיִם – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחִצָּה כְּלָל אִם הֵם בְּפָחוֹת מִג' לַנֶּקֶב,59 שֶׁכְּלָבוּד הֵם,עב וַהֲרֵי הֵם כְּחוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִידעג שֶׁנִּדּוֹנִים כִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,60 וְנִמְצָא הוּא מוֹצִיא הַצּוֹאָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וּמִכֹּחוֹ הִיא נוֹפֶלֶת לַמַּיִם שֶׁהֵם כַּרְמְלִית, וְכֹחוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית לֹא גָזְרוּ.עד,61 וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא עָשׂוּי כָּךְ שֶׁהַצּוֹאָה נוֹפֶלֶת עַל צִדֵּי הַכֹּתֶל שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא שֶׁהוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מִתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת וְנוֹפֶלֶת לְמַטָּה בְּכַרְמְלִית.עה וְכָל זֶה בְּכַרְמְלִית שֶׁחוּץ לָעִיר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ז.עו,62

וְאִם נִשְׁבַּר הַקָּנֶה אוֹ הַדַּף בְּשַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לִפָּנוֹת שָׁם, שֶׁמִּשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת63 לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל אִסּוּר הַכַּרְמְלִית,עז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"ב:עח,64

12 If an outhouse projects outward from the walls of a town and the excrement falls into a ditch around the town that is larger than the space necessary to sow two seah65– in which instance, [the ditch] is [considered] a karmelis, as will be explained in sec. 358[:1] – it is not permitted [to relieve oneself] in [the outhouse] using a partition that hangs down [below the outhouse].66 [The rationale is that our Sages] only permitted [such a partition] with regard to water for the reason explained,67 but not [over] dry land. Nevertheless, it is permitted [to relieve oneself there using] a board or a reed.68 [The rationale is that an indirect transfer caused by a person’s] power is permitted in any karmelis that is not located in a town.69

According to the authorities who permit transferring from a private domain to a karmelis via the empty space of a makom p’tur,70 there is no need for a barrier at all, nor [is there a need for] a board or a reed [to relieve oneself] in any outhouse that is located ten [handbreadths] above the ground of a karmelis. [However,] it was already explained71 that, fundamentally, the halachah follows the authorities who differ [and forbid such a transfer].

There are authorities who maintain that if there already was excrement in [the ditch] in the karmelis while it was day [on Friday], it is permitted to relieve oneself upon [that excrement] in any instance, even though afterwards, [the excrement] falls to the ground of the karmelis. [The rationale is that the pile of] excrement that was there while it was day [on Friday] is deemed a makom p’tur (if it is not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths]) (and it is three [handbreadths] high, or even if [the pile of excrement] is not three handbreadths high, but it is four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area and thus people do not step or jump over it,72 but rather walk around it).73 Nevertheless, according to the explanation in sec. 345[:25] – that fundamentally, the halachah follows the opinion that the concept of a makom p’tur does not apply in a karmelis – no leniency should be taken in such an instance.

According to the explanation in that source – that all authorities agree that [the concept of] a makom p’tur does not apply in a private domain – when there is an outhouse located between two homes and an eruv was not established between them,74 all authorities agree that it is forbidden to relieve oneself [in that outhouse] even if there was excrement [below it] while it was still day [on Friday], except when one constructs a board or a reed [below the hole leading from the outhouse].75 In such an instance, license was granted, even though [the outhouse] was located in a town.76 [The rationale is that our Sages] did not impose a decree forbidding [an indirect transfer caused by a person’s] power in a courtyard that is not joined with an eruv, even when [the courtyard] is located in a town, as stated in sec. 357[:7].

יב אִם בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא בּוֹלֵט חוּץ לְחוֹמַת הָעִיר, וְצוֹאָה נוֹפֶלֶת בַּחֲפִירָה שֶׁסָּבִיב הָעִיר, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּחֲפִירָה זוֹ יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם65 וַהֲרֵי הִיא כַּרְמְלִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ח – אֵינוֹ מֻתָּר עַל יְדֵי מְחִצָּה תְּלוּיָה מִלְּמַטָּה,66 שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּהָ אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,67 אֲבָל לֹא בְּיַבָּשָׁה.עט אֲבָל עַל יְדֵי דַף אוֹ קָנֶה מֻתָּר,פ,68 שֶׁכֹּחוֹ מֻתָּר בְּכָל כַּרְמְלִית שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר.פא,69

וּלְפִי דִּבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִיםפב לְטַלְטֵל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לְכַרְמְלִית דֶּרֶךְ אֲוִיר מְקוֹם פְּטוּר,70 אֵין צָרִיךְ מְחִצָּה כְּלָל וְלֹא דַף אוֹ קָנֶה בְּכָל בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא שֶׁהִיא לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה מִקַּרְקַע הַכַּרְמְלִית.פג וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר71 שֶׁהָעִקָּר כְּהַחוֹלְקִים עֲלֵיהֶם.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפד שֶׁאִם הָיְתָה שָׁם צוֹאָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בְּכַרְמְלִית וְהוּא נִפְנֶה עַכְשָׁו עָלֶיהָפה – מֻתָּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹפֶלֶת מֵעָלֶיהָ לְקַרְקַע הַכַּרְמְלִית, לְפִי שֶׁהַצּוֹאָה שֶׁמִּבְּעוֹד יוֹם הִיא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר (אִם אֵין בָּהּ ד' עַל ד'פו) (וְהִיא גְבוֹהָה ג', אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ גְּבוֹהָה ג' אֶלָּא שֶׁרְחָבָה ד', שֶׁאֵין רַבִּים פּוֹסְעִים וּמְדַלְּגִים עָלֶיהָ72 אֶלָּא מַקִּיפִין אוֹתָהּפז).73 אֲבָל לְפִי מַה שֶּׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"הפח שֶׁהָעִקָּר כְּהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין מְקוֹם פְּטוּר בְּכַרְמְלִית, אֵין לְהָקֵל בְּזֶה.פט

וּלְפִי מַה שֶּׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם שֶׁלְּדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין מְקוֹם פְּטוּר בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אִם כֵּן בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא הָעוֹמֵד בֵּין ב' בָּתִּים, אִם לֹא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד74 – אֲסוּרִים לִפָּנוֹת שָׁם לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה שָׁם צוֹאָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,צ אִם לֹא עַל יְדֵי דַף וְקָנֶה,צא,75 שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר,76 לְפִי שֶׁבְּחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר,צב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ז:צג

13 All the above applies as an initial preference. After the fact, by contrast, i.e., [the homeowners] forgot and did not establish an eruv,77 it is permitted [to use the outhouse] in consideration of human dignity.78

יג וְכָל זֶה לְכַתְּחִלָּה. אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד, שֶׁשָּׁכְחוּ וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ77 – מֻתָּר מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת:צד,78

14 Seafarers are accustomed to relieve themselves from the meshitah79into the sea. [This is permitted] since the meshitah is not ten [handbreadths] above the water.80 Even though it is four [handbreadths by four handbreadths or more] in area, [the meshitah] is only deemed a karmelis. [Hence, relieving oneself from it into the sea is considered] transferring from one karmelis to another [which is permitted].81

יד הוֹלְכֵי סְפִינוֹת נָהֲגוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת צָרְכֵיהֶם מִן הַמְּשִׁיטָה79 לְיָם, הוֹאִיל וְהַמְּשִׁיטָה אֵינָהּ גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָהצה מֵהַמַּיִםצו,80 – אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרְחָבָה ד' – אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִית, וּמוֹצִיא מִכַּרְמְלִית לְכַרְמְלִית:81


Fig. 44: A ship with two decks. a) The upper deck; b) The lower deck (the meshitah).
Fig. 44: A ship with two decks. a) The upper deck; b) The lower deck (the meshitah).

15 ([Our Sages] permitted the use of a partition hanging [over water]82 only when people do not pass through [the water] because of its depth, even though its depth is less than ten [handbreadths].83 When, [however,) many people walk through [a body of] water, a hanging partition does not cause [carrying] in it to be permitted (even if [the water] is ten [handbreadths] deep and even if it is located in a karmelis). [The rationale is: The fact] that many people pass through [the water]prevents the application of the principle of gud achis.84Similarly, if the water dries up, the hanging partition is no longer effective with regard to permitting [carrying] in that area. [The rationale is that] a hanging partition does not cause [carrying] to be permitted on dry land even in a deep groove, as stated [above].85

טו (לֹא הִתִּירוּ בְּמַיִם מְחִצָּה תְּלוּיָה82 אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵין (ג) דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל עוֹבֶרֶת שָׁם בָּהֶם מֵחֲמַת עָמְקָם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם עֲמֻקִּים עֲשָׂרָה.צז,83 אֲבָל) מַיִם שֶׁהָרַבִּים בּוֹקְעִים בָּהֶן אֵין מְחִצָּה תְּלוּיָה מַתֶּרֶת בָּהֶם (אֲפִלּוּ אִם הֵם עֲמֻקִּים עֲשָׂרָה,צח וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם בְּכַרְמְלִית), לְפִי שֶׁבְּקִיעַת הָרַבִּים מְעַכֶּבֶת מִלּוֹמַר "גּוּד אַחֵת".84 וְכֵן אִם יָבְשׁוּ הַמַּיִם, אֵין מְחִצָּה תְּלוּיָה מַתֶּרֶת שָׁם מֵעַכְשָׁו,צט שֶׁאֵין מְחִצָּה תְּלוּיָה מַתֶּרֶת בַּיַּבָּשָׁה אֲפִלּוּ בְּחָרִיץ עָמֹק, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:ק,85

16 [The following rules apply when there are] two balconies, one on top of the other,86 whether they are situated within ten handbreadths of each other or whether there is a height of more than ten cubits between them. [If] a partition and a hole were made for the upper balcony,87 but not for the lower one, [a difficulty could arise] on Shabbos [in the following situation]: The lower balcony is not situated directly under [the upper one, but rather a slight distance away from it, and thus it is possible for] the residents of the lower [dwelling] to throw a bucket over the walls of the higher [balcony] and have it lowered through the hole [in the upper balcony], lowering [the bucket] and then pulling and lifting it up.88 [Accordingly, the residents of] both domains are forbidden to draw water [through that hole] unless they make an eruv,89 since they both share control over the hole.90 [See fig. 45.]

The above applies when [the residents of both dwellings] partner in making the partition. If, however, the [people dwelling] above make a partition [around the balcony or the hole] by themselves, [the people in] the lower dwelling do not cause [the use of the hole by those in the upper dwelling] to be forbidden even if [the people in the lower dwelling] are accustomed to also using [that hole] during the week, since they are using it in a manner not sanctioned by law.91

Similarly, if [a partition and a hole] are made for the lower [balcony], but not for the upper one, those dwelling above do not cause [the use of the hole] to be forbidden [for those dwelling below] unless [the residents of both dwellings] make [the partition] in partnership.92

If they [each] make [holes and partitions for] their [balconies], or even if [the people from both dwellings] make them in partnership (but each one only uses his own,) (in which instance, explanation is necessary [regarding the rationale given by our Sages]93 – that [the residents of the lower dwelling] need to reveal their intent)94 – [the residents of] neither [dwelling] cause the other [hole] to be forbidden.95 [It must be concluded that] they are making the partnership for another reason.96

טז הָיוּ ב' גְּזוּזְטְרָאוֹת זוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִזּוֹ,קא בֵּין אִם עוֹמְדוֹת תּוֹךְ י' טְפָחִים זוֹ לְזוֹ בֵּין יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶן גֹּבַהּ יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת,קב וְעָשׂוּ לָעֶלְיוֹנָה הַמְּחִצָּה וְהַנֶּקֶב87 וְלֹא עָשׂוּ לַתַּחְתּוֹנָה, וּבְשַׁבָּת זוֹרְקִין בְּנֵי הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה דְּלִי שֶׁלָּהֶם עַל מְחִצּוֹת הָעֶלְיוֹנָה, וְיוֹרֵד לַנֶּקֶב וּמְשַׁלְשֵׁל וּמוֹשֵׁךְ וְעוֹלֶה,קג,88 כְּגוֹן שֶׁזּוֹ מְשׁוּכָה מִכְּנֶגֶד זוֹ מְעַטקד וְאֵינָהּ תַּחְתֶּיהָ מַמָּשׁ – הֲרֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶם אֲסוּרוֹת לְמַלֹּאת עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ,89 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרְשׁוּת שְׁתֵּיהֶן שׁוֹלֶטֶת שָׁם.קה,90

וּכְגוֹן שֶׁעָשׂוּ אוֹתָהּ מְחִצָּה בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת.קו אֲבָל אִם הָעֶלְיוֹנָה עָשְׂתָה הַמְּחִצָּה לְבַדָּהּ – אֵין הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה אוֹסֶרֶת עָלֶיהָ, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא רְגִילָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ גַּם בְּחֹל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֶּשֶׁת בָּהּ שֶׁלֹּא כַדִּין.קז,91

וְכֵן אִם עָשׂוּ לַתַּחְתּוֹנָה וְלֹא עָשׂוּ לָעֶלְיוֹנָה – אֵין הָעֶלְיוֹנָה אוֹסֶרֶת עָלֶיהָ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשְׂתָה עִמָּהּ בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת.קח,92 וְאִם עָשׂוּ בִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן, אֲפִלּוּ עָשׂוּ בְּכָל אֶחָד בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּל אַחַת מִשְׁתַּמֶּשֶׁת בְּשֶׁלָּהּקט) (וְצָרִיךְ עִיּוּן טַעְמָא93 דְגִלּוּי דַּעַתקי),94 אֵין אַחַת אוֹסֶרֶת עַל חֲבֶרְתָּהּ,קיא,95 וּמַה שֶּׁעֲשָׂאוּהָ בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת הוּא מֵאֵיזֶה טַעַם אַחֵר:קיב,96


Fig. 45: Drawing water through a hole in an adjacent balcony. a) balcony located on top of water, with a hole to draw water and a partition of 10 handbreadths surrounding it; b) lower balcony within 4 handbreadths of the upper balcony. The inhabitants of the lower dwelling, throw a bucket over the walls of the higher balcony and have it lowered through the hole in it.
Fig. 45: Drawing water through a hole in an adjacent balcony. a) balcony located on top of water, with a hole to draw water and a partition of 10 handbreadths surrounding it; b) lower balcony within 4 handbreadths of the upper balcony. The inhabitants of the lower dwelling, throw a bucket over the walls of the higher balcony and have it lowered through the hole in it.

17 All the above [restrictions] apply when [the two balconies] are only separated from each other by [a short distance],97 i.e., less than four handbreadths. If, however, [the balconies] are separated from each other by four handbreadths [or more, the residents of] both [dwellings] are permitted to draw [water] without an eruv, and the people in the [dwelling] without [the hole]do not cause the one who [made the hole] to be forbidden to use it.

[This leniency applies] whether [a hole and a partition] were made for the upper [balcony] and not for the lower one or for the lower one and not for the upper one.

[The rationale is that] since [one balcony] is separated from [the other] by a width of four handbreadths [or more], the only way [the residents of one dwelling] can make use of [the hole in the other dwelling’s balcony] is by throwing a bucket across a space that is four handbreadths wide. And a person does not cause another person to be forbidden to use his property when [the second person’s property] is [separated from the first person’s property] by a [significant] space, as will be stated is sec. 376[:3].98 [The rationale is that] using [property] by throwing [something] a distance of four handbreadths [or more] is not considered [ordinary] usage at all.99

יז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁזּוֹ אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּכָה מִכְּנֶגֶד זוֹ אֶלָּא מְעַט,קיג,97 דְּהַיְנוּ פָּחוֹת מִד' טְפָחִים.קיד אֲבָל אִם מְשׁוּכָה מִכְּנֶגְדָּהּ ד' טְפָחִים, בֵּין שֶׁעָשׂוּ לָעֶלְיוֹנָה וְלֹא לַתַּחְתּוֹנָה בֵּין שֶׁעָשׂוּ לַתַּחְתּוֹנָה וְלֹא לָעֶלְיוֹנָה – מֻתָּרוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם לְמַלֹּאת בְּלִי עֵרוּב, וְאֵין אוֹתָהּ שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ אוֹסֶרֶת עַל אוֹתָהּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא מְשׁוּכָה מִכְּנֶגְדָּהּ ד' טְפָחִים בְּרֹחַב, הֲרֵי אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי זְרִיקַת הַדְּלִי לָאֲוִיר בְּרֹחַב ד' טְפָחִים,קטו וְאֵין אָדָם אוֹסֵר עַל חֲבֵרוֹ דֶּרֶךְ אֲוִיר בְּרֹחַב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ו,קטז,98 לְפִי שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁ שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זְרִיקָה בַּאֲוִיר ד' טְפָחִים בְּרֹחַב אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב תַּשְׁמִישׁ כְּלָל:99