SECTION 354 The Laws that Apply To a Cistern and a Rubbish Dump Located in a Public Domain (1-3)

סימן שנד דִּין בּוֹר וְאַשְׁפָּה בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּבוֹ ג' סְעִיפִים:

1 It is permitted to draw water into a private domain from a cistern located in a public domain, which is situated within four handbreadths of that private domain.1 [The rationale is that] the cistern is also deemed a private domain, for it is ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area. Thus, the person will be transferring [the water] from one private domain to another private domain via a makom p’tur. The space between [the private domain and the cistern] is deemed a makom p’tur, because it is less than four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] in area.

True, generally, a space [with an area of] less than four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] in a public domain is not deemed a makom p’tur, unless it is more than three handbreadths above the ground. By contrast, if [the space] is within three [handbreadths of the ground], it is [part of] the public domain because people at large tread upon it. Nevertheless, people at large will not pass through the space between the cistern and the private domain,2 because [that space] is not easily accessible, since it is not four handbreadths wide. [Hence, it is not considered as part of the public domain. See fig. 42.]

If, however, the [space between the cistern and the private domain] is four [handbreadths] wide, it is [deemed as part of] the public domain3 and one may not [draw water] from this cistern to the private domain next to it, unless the cistern has a barrier ten handbreadths high around it. In such an instance, it is permitted to draw [water] from [the cistern] to a private domain via a window that is [at least] ten handbreadths above [ground level. License is granted] because while the bucket is passing [over] the barrier [from the cistern] to the window [through the space above] the public domain, it is passing more than ten [handbreadths above the ground, i.e., it is passing through a space] that is a makom p’tur.

[The above applies] provided the cistern and the private domain are not in the same row with the length of the public domain [intervening] between them,4 but rather [they are on opposite sides and separated by] the width of the public domain, as explained in sec. 347[:10].

If, however, the barrier [around the cistern] is less than ten [handbreadths] high, it is forbidden to [draw water from it], even from a window that is ten [handbreadths] above [ground level. See fig. 43. The rationale is that] the bucket passes within ten [handbreadths of the ground], which is the open space of the public domain. [Doing so] is forbidden even though the other end of the rope tied to the bucket is in his hand,5 as explained in sec. 352[:4]. If, however, a karmelis [intervenes between the cistern and the private domain, drawing water] in such a manner is permitted, as explained in that source.6

א בּוֹר בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםא הָעוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְ ד' טְפָחִים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִידב – מֻתָּר לְמַלֹּאת מִמֶּנּוּ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד זוֹ,1 שֶׁהַבּוֹר גַּם כֵּן רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, שֶׁעָמְקוֹ עֲשָׂרָהג וְרָחְבּוֹ ד', וְנִמְצָא מוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר, שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם פָּנוּי שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם מְקוֹם פְּטוּר הוּא, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין בְּרָחְבּוֹ ד'.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֵינוֹ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן גָּבוֹהַּ ג' טְפָחִים מֵהָאָרֶץ, אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הוּא, לְפִי שֶׁרַבִּים דּוֹרְסִים עָלָיו,ד אֲבָל הֶפְסֵק זֶה שֶׁבֵּין הַבּוֹר לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֵין רַבִּים בּוֹקְעִים בּוֹ,2 לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹחַ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הֲלִיכָתוֹ, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין בּוֹ רֹחַב ד'.ה

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ רֹחַב ד' – רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הוּא,ו,3 וְאֵין מְמַלְּאִים מִבּוֹר זֶה לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד זוֹ שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לַבּוֹר חֻלְיָא גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים סְבִיבוֹ, שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר לְמַלֹּאת מִמֶּנּוּ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד דֶּרֶךְ חַלּוֹןז,3 הַגָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים,ח לְפִי שֶׁהַדְּלִי שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִן הַחַלּוֹן עַל הַחֻלְיָא, הוּא הוֹלֵךְ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר.

וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַבּוֹר וּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד זוֹ בִּדְיוּטָא אַחַת וְאֹרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם,4 אֶלָּא רֹחַב רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,ט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ז.י

אֲבָל אִם הַחֻלְיָא אֵינָהּ גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה – אָסוּר לְמַלֹּאת אֲפִלּוּ מֵחַלּוֹן גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַדְּלִי הוֹלֵךְ בְּתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁהוּא אֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.יא וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֹאשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁל הַחֶבֶל הַקָּשׁוּר בַּדְּלִי הוּא בְּיָדוֹ – אָסוּר,יב,5 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ב.יג אֲבָל בְּכַרְמְלִית מֻתָּר בְּעִנְיָן זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:יד,6

2 When there is a rubbish dump in a public domain that is ten [handbreadths] high and four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] wide, it is permitted to throw [items] into it from a private domain7 that is within four handbreadths of [the rubbish dump], or from a window that is ten handbreadths above ground level, as explained [above]. There is no need for concern that perhaps the item that [the person] threw into [the rubbish dump] will roll into the public domain, and he will bring it [back into the private domain],8 because one only throws items into a rubbish dump when he has no [further] use for them at all.

ב אַשְׁפָּה בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וּרְחָבָה ד' – מֻתָּר לִזְרוֹק לָהּ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִידטו,7 הַקָּרוֹב לָהּ פָּחוֹת מד' טְפָחִים, אוֹ שֶׁזּוֹרֵק דֶּרֶךְ חַלּוֹן הַגָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים,טז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר. וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִתְגַּלְגֵּל מִמֶּנָּה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מַה שֶּׁזָּרַק לָהּ וִיבִיאֶנּוּ,יז,8 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין זוֹרְקִים לְאַשְׁפָּה אֶלָּא דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכִים לָהֶם כְּלָל:יח


Fig. 42: Drawing water from a cistern within 4 handbreadths of a home. a) The window in the home; b) A public domain; c) A cistern; d) A space of 3 handbreadths
Fig. 42: Drawing water from a cistern within 4 handbreadths of a home. a) The window in the home; b) A public domain; c) A cistern; d) A space of 3 handbreadths

Fig. 43: Drawing water from a cistern surrounded by a barrier. a) A window in a private domain, 10 handbreadths or more above the ground; b) A public domain; c) A cistern surrounded by a wall, at least ten handbreadths high; d) The space between the wall and the cistern, at least 4 handbreadths wide
Fig. 43: Drawing water from a cistern surrounded by a barrier. a) A window in a private domain, 10 handbreadths or more above the ground; b) A public domain; c) A cistern surrounded by a wall, at least ten handbreadths high; d) The space between the wall and the cistern, at least 4 handbreadths wide

3 When does the above apply? When one throws [the item] into a communal rubbish dump. If, however, the rubbish dump [is utilized only by] a private individual, it is forbidden to throw anything into it from the public domain.9 [The rationale is that] it is common practice for a private individual to [totally] clear out his rubbish dump. Thus, [it is possible that one] will throw [items] to that place as he was accustomed to doing even after the rubbish dump was cleared out. Consequently, [the person] will be throwing [the garbage] into the public domain. (Even [if the private rubbish dump is located] in a karmelis, it is forbidden [to throw items into it on Shabbos].)

ג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּאַשְׁפָּה שֶׁל רַבִּים. אֲבָל בְּשֶׁל יָחִיד – אָסוּר לִזְרוֹק לָהּ כְּלוּם מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,9 לְפִי שֶׁהַיָּחִיד עָשׂוּי לְפַנּוֹת אַשְׁפָּה שֶׁלּוֹ,יט וְיָבֹאוּ לִזְרוֹק שָׁם כְּדַרְכָּן גַּם אַחַר שֶׁתִּנָּטֵל הָאַשְׁפָּה,כ וְנִמְצְאוּ זוֹרְקִים לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים (וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּכַרְמְלִית אָסוּרכא):