SECTION 353 The Laws that Apply to Projections [that Jut Out] into the Public Domain (1-5)

סימן שנג דִּיני זִיזִין בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּבוֹ ה' סְעִיפִים:

1 When there are two houses on opposite sides of the public domain that belong to one person, or that belong to two people, but they established an eruv together (as will be explained in sec. 373[:1] regarding balconies), it is permitted to throw an object from one [house] to the other1 [as long as the object remains] more than ten [handbreadths] above [the ground at all times. The reason this is permitted is that the person] is transferring from one private domain to another private domain via a makom p’tur,2 [which is a permitted act].

If the roof of one house is higher than that of the other, it is forbidden to throw an object from one roof to the other – neither from the higher [roof] to the lower [one] nor from the lower [roof] to the higher [one. The rationale is that] one who throws from a higher place to a lower place or the converse must aim his hand [precisely when throwing]. It is possible that [the person] will not be able to aim his hand [sufficiently] and the object will fall into the public domain. [The person may] then forget and bring it [back] to a private domain.

Therefore, if the article [being thrown] will break when it falls, e.g., it is an earthenware or glass vessel or the like, it is permitted to throw [the vessel] from one [roof] to the other. For if it will fall and break, there is no concern that [the person] will go and bring the broken pieces to a private domain.3 Nor does the fact that [the object] fell and came to rest in the public domain constitute [a violation of] the prohibition against taking an object from a private domain to a public domain according to Scriptural Law, since [the person] did not intend to throw [the object] into the public domain.4

All the above applies when a public domain intervenes between [the two houses]. If, however, a karmelis intervenes between [the two houses], it is permitted [to throw the object] regardless.5 [Our Sages] did not impose this decree in a karmelis, because that would be a decree safeguarding a decree.6

א שְׁנֵי בָתִּים בִּשְׁנֵי צִדֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,א וְהֵם שֶׁל אָדָם אֶחָדב אוֹ שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם (א) וְעֵרְבוּ יַחַדג (עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"גד בִּגְזוּזְטְרָאוֹת), מֻתָּר לִזְרוֹק מִזֶּה לְזֶה1 דֶּרֶךְ מַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה,ה שֶׁזֶּהוּ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד דֶּרֶךְ מְקוֹם פְּטוּר.2

וְאִם הָיָה גַּג זֶה גָּבוֹהַּ מִגַּג זֶה – אָסוּר לִזְרוֹק מִגַּג זֶה לְגַג זֶה, בֵּין מֵהַגָּבוֹהַּ לְהַנָּמוּךְ וּבֵין מֵהַנָּמוּךְ לְהַגָּבוֹהַּ,ו לְפִי שֶׁהַזּוֹרֵק מִגָּבוֹהַּ לְנָמוּךְ אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ צָרִיךְ לְאַמֵּן יָדָיו, וְשֶׁמָּא לֹא יוּכַל לְאַמֵּן יָדָיוז וְיִפּוֹל הַחֵפֶץ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.ח

וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם הֵם כֵּלִים הַנִּשְׁבָּרִים כְּשֶׁנּוֹפְלִים, כְּגוֹן כְּלֵי חֶרֶס וּזְכוּכִית וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם – מֻתָּר לְזָרְקָם מִזֶּה לְזֶה,ט שֶׁאִם יִפְּלוּ וְיִשָּׁבְרוּ, אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יָבִיא שִׁבְרֵיהֶם לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד. י,3 וּבְמַה שֶּׁנָּפְלוּ וְהֻנְּחוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֵין בְּזֶה אִסּוּר הוֹצָאָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִן הַתּוֹרָה, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לִזְרוֹק לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, יא,4

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים עוֹבֶרֶת בֵּינֵיהֶם. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה כַּרְמְלִית עוֹבֶרֶת בֵּינֵיהֶם – מֻתָּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן, יב,5 שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ גְּזֵרָה זוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהִיא גְּזֵרָה לִגְזֵרָה:יג,6

2 When a projection juts out from a wall to the public domain, if [the projection] is more than ten [handbreadths above the ground] and a window of the home opens up to it, it is permitted to use [the projection] from the home7 via the window because [the projection] is considered like an aperture that opens up to a private domain, as described in sec. 345[:23].8

[The above applies provided that] the window opens up within {the height of ten handbreadths}{three}9 [handbreadths of the projection].10 If [the window] is not [that] close to [the projection, the projection] is not considered as an aperture of a private domain. [Instead, the projection] is deemed a karmelis if it is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths].

[The following law applies] if the projection is within ten [handbreadths] of the ground: Since [the projection] is in the space of the public domain, it is [as if] the public [has] acquired [the rights to the projection],11 and it is forbidden for the owner [of the home] to use [the projection] via his window even though [the window] opens to within three handbreadths [of the projection. This law applies] regardless of whether [the projection] is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] or not. The same law applies if [a projection] juts out into the open space of a karmelis within ten handbreadths of the ground.

ב זִיז, דְּהַיְנוּ דַּף הַבּוֹלֵט מִן הַכֹּתֶליד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,טו אִם הוּא לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָהטז וְחַלּוֹן הַבַּיִת פָּתוּחַ לוֹיז – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עָלָיו מִן הַבַּיִת7 דֶּרֶךְ הַחַלּוֹן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּחוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,יח וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה.יט,8

וְהוּא שֶׁהַחַלּוֹן פָּתוּחַ עָלָיו בְּסָמוּךְ לוֹכ תּוֹךְ [גֹּבַהּ י' טְפָחִיםכא]9 [שְׁלֹשָׁהכב].10 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ סָמוּךְ לוֹ – אֵינוֹ נִדּוֹן כְּחוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְכַרְמְלִית הוּא אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד'.כג

וְאִם הַזִּיז הוּא לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה מִן הָאָרֶץ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא בַּאֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים (ב) – זָכוּ בּוֹ רַבִּים,11 וְאוֹסְרִים הֵם עַל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ דֶּרֶךְ חַלּוֹנוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא פָּתוּחַ לוֹ תּוֹךְ שְׁלֹשָׁה, בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' בֵּין שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ.כד וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם הוּא בּוֹלֵט לַאֲוִיר כַּרְמְלִית תּוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה לָאָרֶץ:כה

3 [More stringent rules apply] if there are two projections [jutting out from the wall], one under the other, and [the projections] belong to two people,12 even though both [projections] are more than ten [handbreadths above the ground]. If the upper projection in front of the window is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area], it is forbidden to place articles that were inside the home at the onset of the Shabbos upon it. [The rationale is that the upper projection] is [considered as] a domain in its own right, while the projection below it is [considered as] a separate domain. Thus, [the projections] cause each other to be forbidden to be used for articles that were inside a home13 at the onset of the Shabbos, as is the rule applying to two roofs or two courtyards belonging to two people. Similar principles apply to all comparable [places] that are not usually used in an ongoing manner as one makes use of a home, as will be explained in sec. 372[:1].14

ג אִם הָיוּ ב' זִיזִין זֶה לְמַטָּה מִזֶּה, וְהֵם שֶׁל ב' אֲנָשִׁים,כו,12 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה, אִם יֵשׁ בַּזִּיז הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַחַלּוֹן רֹחַב ד' עַל ד' – אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עָלָיוכז בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת,כח,10 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְהַזִּיז שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו רְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת, וְאוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה לְעִנְיַן כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת בִּלְבָד,13 כְּדִין שְׁתֵּי גַגּוֹת אוֹ שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁל שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן, שֶׁאֵין תַּשְׁמִישָׁן תָּדִיר כְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַבַּיִת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ב14:

4 Even if the lower projection is less than four [handbreadths by four handbreadths in area],15 it causes the upper projection to be forbidden to be used when [the upper projection] is four [handbreadths by four handbreadths in area].16

If, however, the upper projection is less than four [handbreadths by four handbreadths in area] and the lower projection is also less than four [handbreadths by four handbreadths], one may use both of [the projections], and [similarly, he may use] the entire wall until its lowest ten handbreadths.17

If the lower [projection] is four [handbreadths by four handbreadths in area] and the upper [projection] is less than [that size], one may use only the portion of the upper [projection] that is [directly] opposite the window, for that space is considered like an aperture extending from the window.18 It is, however, forbidden to use the remainder of the projection on both sides of the window, because of the projection below [the upper projection], which is defined as a domain in its own right19 since it is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area].

ד וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם זִיז הַתַּחְתּוֹן אֵין בּוֹ ד'15 – אוֹסֵר הוּא עַל הָעֶלְיוֹן אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ ד',כט,16

אֲבָל אִם אֵין בָּעֶלְיוֹן ד', וְגַם בַּתַּחְתּוֹן אֵין ד' – מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם וּבְכָל הַכֹּתֶל עַד עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים.ל,17

וְאִם הַתַּחְתּוֹן יֵשׁ בּוֹ ד', וְהָעֶלְיוֹן אֵין בּוֹ ד' – אֵין מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּעֶלְיוֹן אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד חַלּוֹנוֹ בִּלְבָד,לא שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא כְּחוֹרֵי חַלּוֹנוֹ.לב,18 אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר הַזִּיז שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵי צְדָדֵי הַחַלּוֹן אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ, מִפְּנֵי זֶה הַזִּיז שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו שֶׁחָלַק רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ,19 שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד':

5 Whenever one is permitted to use a projection extending over the space of the public domain, when he makes use of it, he may only place on [the projection] or remove from [the projection] glass utensils, earthenware utensils, or the like, [i.e., utensils] that will break if they fall into the public domain [and that the person will not bother to bring back in when they break].20 It is forbidden, however, to [place] other utensils on [the projection] lest they fall and [the person] will bring them [in]. By contrast, if [a projection] extends over the space of a karmelis, it is permitted [to place] all types of utensils [on the projection] since such a decree was not imposed concerning a karmelis.21

Even in a public domain, a decree was imposed only on a [narrow] projection or the like that extends over an open space. When, by contrast, a person stands on a wide surface together with the utensil, e.g., on a roof,22 he is permitted to use [the surface] for all [types of] utensils.

ה כָּל זִיז הַיּוֹצֵא עַל אֲוִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עָלָיו, כְּשֶׁהוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ אֵין נוֹתְנִים עָלָיו וְאֵין נוֹטְלִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא כְּלֵי זְכוּכִית וּכְלֵי חֶרֶס וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן, שֶׁאִם יִפְּלוּ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים יִשָּׁבְרוּ.לג,20 אֲבָל שְׁאָר כֵּלִים אֲסוּרִים, שֶׁמָּא יִפְּלוּ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וִיבִיאֵם. אֲבָל אִם הוּא יוֹצֵא עַל אֲוִיר כַּרְמְלִית – מֻתָּר בְּכָל הַכֵּלִים, שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ גְּזֵרָה זוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית.לד,21 וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לֹא גָזְרוּ אֶלָּא בְּזִיז וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא לָאֲוִיר, אֲבָל אִם הוּא דָבָר רָחָב, כְּגַג שֶׁהַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עוֹמֵד שָׁם עִם הַכְּלִי22 – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּכָל הַכֵּלִים:לה