SECTION 337 The Laws Pertaining to Sweeping One’s House [on Shabbos] and Performing [Forbidden Labors] Unintentionally (1-5)

סימן שלז דִּין כִּבּוּד הַבַּיִת וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן וּבוֹ ה' סְעִיפִים:

1 Any [forbidden labor performed] unintentionally is permitted,1 even if [it was] performed unnecessarily.2 For example, it is permitted to drag a bed, a chair, or a bench, whether large or small, over earth,3 provided one does not intend to create a groove [in the ground]. Thus, even if a groove was formed while doing so, it is of no consequence, because it was created unintentionally. Even though smaller articles can be carried by hand without the need to drag them,4 it is unnecessary to do so. Similar [laws apply] with regard to all [other forbidden labors] performed unintentionally.

Extremely large articles, by contrast, are forbidden to be dragged, for they will certainly create a groove; it is an inevitable outcome.5 [This applies] even though [when doing so]:

a) one is digging in an abnormal manner and one is liable [for the performance of the forbidden labor of digging] only when he digs with a spade or other similar implements that are used for digging,

b) he is damaging the floor of the house,6 and

c) it is a melachah she’einah tzerichah legufah, a forbidden labor which a person performs for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the forbidden labor was performed.7

Nevertheless, [dragging extremely heavy articles] is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law.8 [Moreover,] it is even forbidden to drag [such articles] on a floor paved with marble or the like, where it cannot possibly make a groove. [This is] a decree [imposed as a safeguard lest one do so on] an unpaved floor.

א כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן מֻתָּרא,1 אֲפִלּוּ אֶפְשָׁר בִּלְעָדָיו,ב,2 כְּגוֹן מִטָּה כִּסֵּא וְסַפְסָל,ג בֵּין גְּדוֹלִים בֵּין קְטַנִּיםד – מֻתָּר לְגָרְרָן עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע,3 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לַעֲשׂוֹת חָרִיץ. וְאַף אִם נַעֲשָׂה חָרִיץ מֵאֵלָיו – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,ה כִּי דָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקְּטַנִּים אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִטְּלָן בְּיָדָיוו וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְגָרְרָן4 – לֹא הִצְרִיכוּ לְכָךְ. וְכֵן בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן.ז,3

אֲבָל הַגְּדוֹלִים מְאֹד אָסוּר לִגְרוֹר, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי עוֹשִׂין חָרִיץ,ח וּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת" הוּא,ט,5 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחוֹפֵר כִּלְאַחַר יָד הוּא, וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁחוֹפֵר בְּמָרָא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ מֵהַכֵּלִים שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לַחְפּוֹר בָּהֶם,י וְגַם מְקַלְקֵל הוּא קַרְקָעִית הַבַּיִת,יא,6 וְגַם מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ הִיאיב,7 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.יג

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּקַרְקַע הַמְרֻצָּף בְּשַׁיִשׁיד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ חָרִיץ – אָסוּר לִגְרוֹר, גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְרֻצָּף:

2 It is permitted to sprinkle water on the floor of a home, because the person does not intend to level the crevices of the floor, only that dust should not rise.9 It is not inevitable [that by doing so he will level crevices].

It is, however, forbidden to sweep [the earthen floor of] a home, because it is inevitable [that he will level crevices].10 If, however, the earth of a home is paved with stones, and how much more so with wooden boards – in which instance, there is no concern about leveling crevices – it is permitted to sweep it.11 ([Our Sages] did not impose a decree [forbidding sweeping a paved floor lest one sweep] an unpaved floor, because sweeping the floor is a necessity for the [Shabbos]day.)12 Even if [on the floor] there are pebbles, nut shells, and other similar articles that are forbidden to be moved,13 it is permitted to sweep them away, since they are considered like a chamber pot, which a person is permitted to take to a garbage dump, out of consideration for his honor.14 There are authorities who even permit sweeping an unpaved floor, because [they maintain that] it is not inevitable that one [who sweeps it] will level crevices.

There are authorities who rule stringently [and forbid sweeping] even a paved [floor], as a decree [lest one sweep] an unpaved [floor].15 This is the custom in these countries; one should not deviate from it. It is, however, customary to be lenient and to sweep with a cloth, a strip of fabric, or a goose wing, which are [all] lightweight and will not level crevices.16 It is permitted to have a non-Jew [sweep] in any manner, for any [activity that is forbidden for a Jew to perform only because] it is inevitable [that a forbidden labor will be performed] is permitted to be performed by a non-Jew, as stated in sec. 253[:10].17

ב מֻתָּר לְרַבֵּץ הַבַּיִת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַשְׁווֹת הַגּוּמוֹת אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלֶה הָאָבָק,טו,9 וְלָאו "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" הוּא.טז

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְכַבֵּד הַבַּיִת,יז דִּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" הוּא.יח,10 וְאִם הוּא קַרְקַע מְרֻצָּף בַּאֲבָנִים,יט וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן בִּקְרָשִׁים,כ שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בּוֹ לְהַשְׁוָאַת גּוּמוֹת – מֻתָּר לְכַבְּדוֹכא,11 (וְלֹא גָזְרוּ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְרֻצָּף, לְפִי שֶׁהַכִּבּוּד הוּא דָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ הַיּוֹםכב).12

וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בּוֹ עַפְרוּרִית וּקְלִפֵּי אֱגוֹזִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מֵהַדְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל13 – מֻתָּר לְכַבְּדָם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם לוֹ כִּגְרָף שֶׁל רְעִי,כג שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ לָאַשְׁפָּה מִפְּנֵי כְבוֹדוֹ.כד,14

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןכה אֲפִלּוּ בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְרֻצָּף, דְּלָאו "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" הוּא שֶׁיַּשְׁוֶה גוּמוֹת.כו

וְיֵשׁ מַחְמִירִין אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְרֻצָּף,כז גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְרֻצָּף.כח,15 וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ,כט וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת.ל

אֲבָל נוֹהֲגִים לְהָקֵל לְכַבֵּד עַל יְדֵי בֶּגֶד אוֹ מַטְלִיתלא אוֹ כְּנַף אַוָּזלב הַקַּלִּים וְאֵינָן מַשְׁוִין גּוּמוֹת.לג,16

וְעַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי – מֻתָּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן,לד שֶׁכָּל "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" מֻתָּר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ג:לה,17

3 It is forbidden to brush clothes with brushes made from slivers of wood lest the slivers break; [indeed, it is] inevitable [that they will break,] and thus [the person] will be impairing a utensil. True, one who [performs a forbidden labor that involves] causing damage18 is exempt.19 Nevertheless, doing so is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law.20 See sec. 314.21

(Similarly, for this reason, even the authorities who permit sweeping a paved floor forbid doing so with brooms made from tree branches. The authorities who do grant license, only permit [sweeping] with brooms from date fronds, which will not break.)

ג אָסוּר לְכַבֵּד הַבְּגָדִים בְּמַכְבֵּדוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיִים מִקֵּסָמִים, שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁבְרוּ קִסְמֵיהֶם בִּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ",לו וַהֲרֵי זֶה סוֹתֵר כְּלִי.לז וְאַף שֶׁמְּקַלְקֵל18 פָּטוּר,לח,19 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,לט,20 עַיֵּן סִמָּן שי"ד.מ,21

(וְכֵן מַכְבֵּדוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיִין מֵעַנְפֵי אִילָן – אָסוּר לְכַבֵּד בָּהֶם מִטַּעַם זֶה, אֲפִלּוּ בְּקַרְקַע הַמְרֻצָּף לְדִבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִין. וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ הַמַּתִּירִין אֶלָּא בְּמַכְבֵּדוֹת שֶׁל תְּמָרָה, שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִשְׁבֶּרֶתמא):

4 It is forbidden to apply oil to an earthen [floor],22 nor may it be washed,23 nor may [its dust] be blown away, lest one come to level crevices. This is forbidden even when [the floor] is paved,24 even according to the authorities who permit sweeping a floor. [The rationale for the distinction is] that these acts are not as necessary as sweeping.25 Therefore, regarding these actions, the Sages did not want to make a distinction between paved and unpaved [floors], but rather forbade [doing so in] all instances.

ד אֵין סָכִין אֶת הַקַּרְקַע,22 וְאֵין מְדִיחִים אוֹתוֹ,מב,23 וְאֵין נוֹפְחִים הַקַּרְקַע,מג שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְהַשְׁווֹת גּוּמוֹת.מד וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּמְרֻצָּף אָסוּרמה,24 אַף לְדִבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִין בְּכִבּוּד,מו לְפִי שֶׁדְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ אֵין בָּהֶם צֹרֶךְ כָּל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ בְּכִבּוּד,25 לְפִיכָךְ לֹא רָצוּ לְחַלֵּק בָּהֶם בֵּין מְרֻצָּף לְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְרֻצָּף, וְאָסְרוּ הַכֹּל:מז

5 It is forbidden to position a full barrel in the place [where it will be left] on the earth. Since it is heavy, [the person placing down the barrel] will certainly come to level crevices at its sides.26 [Indeed,] it is inevitable that he will do so. Similarly, [one] should not tilt a barrel and pour from it. Instead, [the person] should lift [the barrel] from the ground and pour [from it], since if he does not do so, he will certainly dig up some of the earth [when returning the barrel to its upright position after tilting it]. True, a) he is damaging [the ground], b) it is a melachah she’einah tzerichah legufah, and c) he is digging in an abnormal manner. Nevertheless, doing so is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law.27

ה אָסוּר לְצַדֵּד חָבִיתמח מְלֵאָה עַל הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא כְּבֵדָהמט – יָבֹא לְהַשְׁווֹת גּוּמוֹתנ וַדַּאי בִּצְדָדֶיהָ,26 וּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" הוּא.נא וְכֵן לֹא יַכְרִיעַ חָבִית וְיִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנָּה, אֶלָּא מַגְבִּיהָהּ מִן הָאָרֶץ וְשׁוֹפֵךְ, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן – יַחְפִּיר מִן הָאָרֶץנב בְּוַדַּאי. וְאַף שֶׁמְּקַלְקֵל הוּא, וְגַם מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ הִיא, וְגַם חוֹפֵר כִּלְאַחַר יָד הוּא – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:נג,27