SECTION 333 Not to Empty a Storage Place on Shabbos (1-6)

סימן שלג שֶׁלֹּא לְפַנּוֹת אוֹצָר בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ו' סְעִיפִים:

1 It is permitted to take grain or barrels of wine from their respective storehouses [on Shabbos], for they are not considered as muktzeh.1 Nevertheless, it is forbidden to empty [the storehouse] for one’s own purposes2 because of the effort [involved]. It is, however, permitted to empty [a wine barrel or move grain] for a purpose associated with a mitzvah, e.g., to [use that space to] host guests3 or [to host] another feast associated with a mitzvah, or to establish there a place for Torah study.4 [This applies] even when doing so involves much effort, e.g., lifting [the sheaves or the barrels] and lowering them via windows in a wall, carrying them down ladders, or moving them from one roof to another.5

א אוֹצָר שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה אוֹ שֶׁל כַּדֵּי יַיִן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּא וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶהב,1 – אָסוּר לְפַנּוֹתוֹ לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת,ג,2 מִפְּנֵי הַטֹּרַח.ד אֲבָל לִדְבַר מִצְוָה,ה כְּגוֹן לְהַכְנִיס שָׁם אוֹרְחִיםו,3 אוֹ שְׁאָר סְעֻדַּת מִצְוָה,ז אוֹ לִקְבּוֹעַ שָׁם בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁח – מֻתָּר לְפַנּוֹתוֹ4 אֲפִלּוּ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ טֹרַח יָתֵר, כְּגוֹן לְהַגְבִּיהָם וּלְשַׁלְשְׁלָם בְּחַלּוֹנוֹת שֶׁבַּכֹּתֶל, אוֹ לְהוֹרִידָם בְּסֻלָּמוֹת, אוֹ לְטַלְטְלָם מִגַּג לְגַג:ט,5

2 How should [the person] clear it? If it was a large storehouse, he should remove five bales [of grain], each bale containing three seah,6i.e., [a total of] fifteen seah.7 If [the storehouse] contained only five bales [of grain], [the person] should [only] remove four [bales]. However, he should not clear [the storehouse] entirely, lest he see hollows in its floor and level them.8

ב כֵּיצַד מְפַנֵּהוּ? אִם הָיָה הָאוֹצָר גָּדוֹל – מְפַנֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ ה' קֻפּוֹתי,4 שֶׁבְּכָל קֻפָּה ג' סְאִין,6 דְּהַיְנוּ ט"ו סְאִין.יא,7 לֹא הָיָה בּוֹ אֶלָּא ה' קֻפּוֹת – מְפַנֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ ד' קֻפּוֹת.יב אֲבָל כֻּלּוֹ לֹא יְפַנֶּה, שֶׁמָּא יִרְאֶה גּוּמוֹת בְּקַרְקָעִיתוֹ וְיַשְׁוֶה אוֹתָן:יג,8

3 When [one] removes these four or five bales, he should not divide them into smaller bales and carry them in many trips to lighten his load, because he is [thereby] increasing the distance that he must walk.9 (See sec. 323[:5].)10

ג כְּשֶׁמְּפַנֶּה אֵלּוּ ד' אוֹ ה' קֻפּוֹת – לֹא יְחַלְּקֵן בְּקֻפּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת לְהוֹלִיכָן בְּהַרְבֵּה פְעָמִים כְּדֵי לְהָקֵל מַשָּׂאוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּרְבֶּה בְּהִלּוּךְיד,9 (עַיֵּן סִמָּן שכ"גטו,10):

4 The four or five bales mentioned11 are for one guest or one student so that he can sit in their space.12 If, however, one has many guests, this measure may be cleared out for each guest, provided the entire storehouse is not [emptied]. One [person] should not clear [space] for everyone.13 Instead, each [guest or student] should empty his own space, or another person should empty the space for only [one guest or student].

ד ד' אוֹ ה' קֻפּוֹת שֶׁאָמְרוּ11 – לְאוֹרֵחַ אֶחָד אוֹ לְתַלְמִיד אֶחָד שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב שָׁם בִּמְקוֹמָן,12 אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ הַרְבֵּה אוֹרְחִים – מְפַנֶּה כְּשִׁעוּר זֶה לְכָל אוֹרֵחַ וְאוֹרֵחַ,טז וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִגְמוֹר אֶת הָאוֹצָר.יז וְלֹא יְפַנֶּה אֶחָד לְכֻלָּם,13 אֶלָּא כָּל אֶחָד יְפַנֶּה לְעַצְמוֹ,יח אוֹ אַחֵר יְפַנֶּה לוֹ לְבַדּוֹ:יט

5 When barrels of wine were brought on a wagon, it is forbidden to unload them on Shabbos unless one intends to have guests sit there or [to use the space] for [another] purpose associated with a mitzvah. [Even in such an instance, leniency is only granted] provided [the barrels] do not contain more than 15 seah, as explained [above]14 with regard to clearing a storehouse.

Even if a person needs to drink from [the barrels] on Shabbos, he should draw [the wine] from [the barrels while they are on the wagon] and drink it. He should not unload [the barrels], nor even have a non-Jew [do so] unless there is a substantial loss involved, as stated in sec. 307[:37].15 Nevertheless, if it is impossible to draw [wine] from [the barrels while they are still on the wagon], it is permitted even for a Jew to unload as many [barrels] as he needs for that Shabbos.

ה חָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן שֶׁהוּבְאוּ עַל עֲגָלָה – אָסוּר לְהוֹרִידָם בְּשַׁבָּת, אִם לֹא לְהוֹשִׁיב שָׁם אוֹרְחִים אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה.כ וְהוּא שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן יוֹתֵר מִט"ו סְאִין,כא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר14 בִּמְפַנֶּה אֶת הָאוֹצָר.כב

וְאַף אִם צָרִיךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת – יִמְשׁוֹךְ מִשָּׁם וְיִשְׁתֶּה.כג וְלֹא יוֹרִידֵן אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,כד אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ז.כה,15 אֲבָל אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְשׁוֹךְ מִשָּׁם – מֻתָּר לְהוֹרִידכו אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּמָּה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ לְאוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת:

6 Just as in the above instance, license was granted for the sake of [providing hospitality to] guests as it was granted for [the sake of] purposes associated with a mitzvah, so too, whenever license was granted for [the sake of] purposes associated with a mitzvah, license is also granted for the sake of [providing hospitality to] guests.

The term “guests” refers only to people who come from another city, whether they lodge in one’s house or he invites guests who lodge with others [for a meal]. If, however, [one] invites another person from his town to join him for a meal, that person is not called a “guest” and [the meal] is considered a commonplace meal,16 unless he invites [the local people] to come to him in honor of the guest visiting [from another city]. In such an instance, the local person also has the status of a guest in this context.17

ו כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִתִּירוּ כַּאן לְצֹרֶךְ אוֹרְחִים כְּמוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ דְּבַר מִצְוָה, כָּךְ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהִתִּירוּ אֵיזֶה דָבָר לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה – מֻתָּר גַּם כֵּן לְצֹרֶךְ אוֹרְחִים.כז

וְאֵינָן נִקְרָאִים אוֹרְחִים אֶלָּא שֶׁבָּאוּ מֵעִיר אַחֶרֶת,כח בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְאָרְחוּ אֶצְלוֹ,כט בֵּין שֶׁזִּמֵּן אוֹרְחִים שֶׁנִּתְאָרְחוּ אֵצֶל אֲחֵרִים,ל אֲבָל כְּשֶׁזִּמֵּן חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁבְּאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר שֶׁיִּסְעוֹד אֶצְלוֹ – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא אוֹרֵחַ, וּסְעֻדַּת הָרְשׁוּת הִיא,לא,16 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן זִמְּנוֹ לָבֹא אֶצְלוֹ לִכְבוֹד הָאוֹרֵחַ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ, שֶׁאָז גַּם חֲבֵרוֹ בִּכְלַל אוֹרֵחַ לְעִנְיָן זֶה:לב,17