SECTION 328 The Laws Governing [Care for] the Sick on Shabbos (1-58)

סימן שכח דִּין חוֹלֶה בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ נ"ה סְעִיפִים:

1 [When] a person feels mere discomfort1 and there is no concern regarding danger [to life or limb] at all,2 [and on the contrary,] his strength [and overall health] increases and he goes about like a healthy person, it is forbidden to perform any therapeutic activity for him on Shabbos,3even if it is performed by a non-Jew,4 except according to the guidelines to be explained.5

[The prohibition includes] even activities which are not associated with the most minimal degree of forbidden labor, not even [acts that are forbidden merely] by Rabbinic Law, and would not be forbidden for a healthy person [to perform]. Nevertheless, since the person is performing [these acts] for a therapeutic purpose, and it is evident that this is his intent, performing such acts is forbidden.6

[This prohibition] is a decree [instituted] because, if it were permitted to perform therapeutic activities,7 it is possible that one would grind herbs for therapeutic purposes8 and thus become liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] grinding.

א מִישֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מִחוּשׁ בְּעָלְמָאא,1 שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָה כְּלָל,2 וְהוּא מִתְחַזֵּק וְהוֹלֵךְ כְּבָרִיא – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שׁוּם רְפוּאָה בְּשַׁבָּת,3 אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,ב,4 אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.ג,5

וַאֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם סְרַךְ מְלָאכָה אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ד וְאֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם אִסּוּר כְּלָל לְבָרִיא, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה לִרְפוּאָה וְנִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה – אָסוּר,ה,6 מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁחוֹק סַמְמָנִיםו לִרְפוּאָה8 כְּשֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻתָּר לַעֲסוֹק בִּרְפוּאוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת,ז,7 וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם טוֹחֵן:ח

2 When a person9 is in mortal danger because of illness, it is a mitzvah to desecrate the Shabbos for his sake.10 One who does so eagerly is praiseworthy,11 while one who asks [whether it is permitted to do so is considered as if he] sheds blood.12 [Indeed, even the authority] who is asked is dishonored, for he should have expounded [upon this matter] publicly [beforehand, teaching] that it is permitted [to do so].

Even when there is a mere doubt that one is in mortal danger, [any activity necessary to save his life] supersedes the Shabbos [prohibitions. This is derived13 from] the verse,14 “that which a person shall perform to live through them.” What is the Torah teaching with the phrase “to live through them”? The implication is that one should see to it that the person should definitely live through the observance of the mitzvos and not that they should lead him to possible mortal danger.15

Nevertheless, even in an instance where the person is definitely in mortal danger, the Shabbos may be desecrated only when performing a therapeutic activity whose [effectiveness] is recognized by everyone16 or according to [the directives of] a [medical] expert [in that field]. When there is a therapeutic activity whose [effectiveness] is recognized, [the Shabbos] should be desecrated to perform it even if there is a question whether or not [the medical intervention] will be effective in healing this particular person.

ב מִי9 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חֹלִי שֶׁל סַכָּנָה – מִצְוָה לְחַלֵּל עָלָיו אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת,ט,10 וְהַזָּרִיז – הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח.י,11 וְהַשּׁוֹאֵל – הֲרֵי זֶה שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים,יא,12 וְהַנִּשְׁאָל – הֲרֵי זֶה מְגֻנֶּה,יב שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לִדְרוֹשׁ בָּרַבִּים שֶׁמֻּתָּר.יג

וַאֲפִלּוּ סְפֵק נְפָשׁוֹת8 דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת,יד,13 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרטו,14 "אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם",טז מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "וָחַי בָּהֶם"? כְּלוֹמַר, רְאֵה שֶׁיְּהֵא חַי וַדַּאי בַּעֲשִׂיַּת הַמִּצְווֹת, וְלֹא שֶׁיָּבֹא עַל יְדֵי כָךְ לִידֵי סְפֵק סַכָּנָה.יז,15

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֲפִלּוּ בְּוַדַּאי סַכָּנָה – אֵין מְחַלְּלִין אֶלָּא בִּרְפוּאָה שֶׁהִיא יְדוּעָה לַכֹּל,16 אוֹ עַל פִּי מֻמְחֶה.יח וּכְשֶׁהִיא רְפוּאָה יְדוּעָה, אַף שֶׁאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם זֶה יִתְרַפֵּא בָּהּ אִם לָאו – מְחַלְּלִין מִסָּפֵק:יט

3 Any wound that affects the body’s inner cavity, i.e., its internal organs – beginning with and including the teeth,17 is sufficient cause to desecrate the Shabbos.18The [intent] is that the teeth or another one of the inner organs became damaged because of a wound, a blister has formed on them, or the like. Discomfort, however, is not considered a wound and is not cause to desecrate [the Shabbos], even if one suffers great pain.19

If one’s suffering is so aggravated that his entire body ails, it is permitted to have a non-Jew desecrate the Shabbos for his sake. He may even have [the non-Jew] perform an act that definitively constitutes a [Scripturally] forbidden labor. (If [the Jew’s] suffering is not that severe, it is [only] permitted to have a non-Jew perform any activity that is forbidden as a shvus),20 as will be explained.21 Therefore, [a person] who has a toothache and suffers to the extent that his entire body ails (in which instance, it is permitted to have a non-Jew desecrate the Shabbos [for his sake]),22 may instruct a non-Jew to extract [the tooth].23

Although the Jew makes his tooth accessible to the non-Jew, and assists him somewhat in its extraction, [giving] that [assistance] is of no consequence because [in a halachic sense, merely] giving assistance is not at all significant.24 [The rationale is that] even if the Jew would not render the non-Jew this assistance, but would merely not prevent the non-Jew from [extracting the tooth], the non-Jew would be able to perform this task on his own.

(According to the authorities who maintain that a melachah she’einah tzerichah legufah, a forbidden labor which a person performs for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the forbidden labor was performed,25 is forbidden only according to Rabbinic Law, it is permitted to have [an aching tooth] extracted by a non-Jew26 even if his entire body does not ail because of it, as will be explained.)27

ג כָּל מַכָּה שֶׁל חָלָל,כ דְּהַיְנוּ בְּאֵיבָרִים הַפְּנִימִיִּיםכא מֵהַשִּׁנַּיִם וְלִפְנִים,כב וְשִׁנַּיִם עַצְמָן בִּכְלָלכג,17 – מְחַלְּלִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת.18 וְהוּא שֶׁנִּתְקַלְקְלוּ הַשִּׁנַּיִם אוֹ אֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר אֵיבָרִים הַפְּנִימִיִּים מֵחֲמַת מַכָּה, אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם בּוּעָא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה. אֲבָל מִחוּשִׁים בְּעָלְמָא אֵינָן נִקְרָאִים מַכָּה, וְאֵין מְחַלְּלִין עֲלֵיהֶםכד אֲפִלּוּ אִם כּוֹאֵב לוֹ מְאֹד.כה,19

וְאִם מִצְטַעֵר כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁחָלָה מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל גּוּפוֹ – אֲזַי מֻתָּר לְחַלֵּל עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה (וְאִם אֵינוֹ מִצְטַעֵר כָּל כָּךְ – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי כָּל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת20), כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.כו,21 וְלָכֵן מִי שֶׁחוֹשֵׁשׁ בְּשִׁנּוֹ וּמִצְטַעֵרכז כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁחָלָה מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל גּוּפוֹכח (אֲזַי מֻתָּר לְחַלֵּל עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי)22 – אוֹמֵר לְנָכְרִי לְהוֹצִיאוֹ.23

וְאַף שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מַמְצִיא לוֹ שִׁנּוֹ וּמְסַיֵּעַכט קְצָתל בְּהוֹצָאָתוֹ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁמְּסַיֵּעַ אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ,לא,24 לְפִי שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא הָיָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מְסַיְּעוֹ סִיּוּעַ זֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה מְעַכֵּב עַל יָדוֹ – הָיָה הַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר זֶה בִּלְבַדּוֹ.לב

(וּלְהָאוֹמְרִיםלג מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ25 אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי26 אַף אִם לֹא חָלָה מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל גּוּפוֹ,לד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרלה,27):

4 A wound in one’s body cavity does not require [evaluation by] an expert [doctor]. Even in a situation where there are no expert [doctors] who are knowledgeable [regarding the wound] to recognize [when] it is necessary to desecrate [the Shabbos because of it],28 nor does the sick person say anything, everything that is ordinarily done during the week for a person with such a wound – be it [partaking of special] foods29 or [performing] therapeutic practices that will benefit the patient – should be done [for him as well. This leniency applies] even when there is no [increased] danger if these remedies are withheld, since, after all, the ailment [itself] involves mortal danger.30 When, however, we know and are aware [of the exact ailment and its nature – i.e., it is] an ailment that proceeds slowly and does not require the desecration [of the Shabbos],31 – it is forbidden to desecrate [the Shabbos] for the sake of the sick person even though [the ailment affects] his inner cavity. How much more so does [the above apply] if the sick person himself or an expert [doctor] says that there is no need [to desecrate the Shabbos].

There are authorities who maintain that even in an instance where it is necessary to desecrate [the Shabbos], it should not be desecrated by a Jew except in an instance where there is concern that if [the remedy] is withheld [until a non-Jew is found to administer it], the person’s [life] will be endangered. If, however, there is no [mortal] danger in withholding [that remedy, then] even though [the remedy] is necessary for [the patient] and it is common practice to give such a patient [the remedy] during the week, nevertheless, on Shabbos, [the remedy] may only be given to [the patient] by non-Jews, as is the law that applies to the needs of a person who is not dangerously ill.32

(This [approach] should be followed in these countries, for the custom is to be stringent and not to have a Jew administer a remedy even when there is mortal danger in withholding it, if it is possible to have the [remedy] administered by a non-Jew without even the slightest delay or postponement, as will be explained.33 If so, a remedy whose being withheld would not lead to [mortal] danger at all should be administered by a non-Jew, even if there is concern that he will be somewhat tardy [in applying it]. If, however, there is absolutely no non-Jew present, the first opinion may be relied on. Nevertheless, any conscientious person34 should be careful regarding his own [conduct]35 where a Scriptural prohibition [is involved].)

ד מַכָּה שֶׁל חָלָל אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה אֹמֶד,לו,18 אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ בִּסְתָםלז שֶׁאֵין שָׁם בְּקִיאִין שֶׁמַּכִּירִין בָּהּ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ חִלּוּל,28 וְגַם הַחוֹלֶה אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר כְּלוּםלח – עוֹשִׂין לוֹ כָּל מַה שֶׁרְגִילִין לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בְּחֹל מִמַּאֲכָלִים29 וּרְפוּאוֹת16 שֶׁהֵם יָפִים לַחוֹלֶה,לט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין סַכָּנָה כְּלָל בִּמְנִיעַת הַדָּבָר הַהוּא,מ כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם הַחֹלִי יֵשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה.מא,30 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁיּוֹדְעִים וּמַכִּירִים בְּאוֹתוֹ חֹלִי שֶׁהוּא מַמְתִּין וְאֵין צָרִיךְ חִלּוּל31 – אָסוּר לְחַלֵּל עָלָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא מַכָּה שֶׁל חָלָל,מב וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם הַחוֹלֶה אוֹ הַבָּקִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ.מג

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמד שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ חִלּוּל – אֵין מְחַלְּלִין עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁאִם לֹא יַעֲשֵׂהוּ לוֹ יִסְתַּכֵּן, אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁאֵין בִּמְנִיעַת אוֹתוֹ דָבָר סַכָּנָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ הוּא לוֹ וּרְגִילִין לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ לוֹ בְּחֹל – אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִים, כְּדִין צָרְכֵי חוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה.מה,32

(וְכֵן יֵשׁ לִנְהוֹג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לְהַחֲמִיר אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ סַכָּנָה בִּמְנִיעָתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי בְּלֹא דִחוּי וְעִכּוּב כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,מו,33 אִם כֵּן בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין בִּמְנִיעָתוֹ שׁוּם סַכָּנָה כְּלָל – יֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, אַף אִם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיִּתְעַצֵּל קְצָת. אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁם נָכְרִי כְּלָל – יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כָּל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ34 יָחוּשׁ לְעַצְמוֹ35 בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָהמז):

5 [When one has] a wound that does not affect his inner cavity, an expert [doctor] and the sick person himself should be consulted.36 If either of them says that [the Shabbos laws] should be desecrated or that if they are not desecrated, it is possible that the illness will become more severe, and in that instance there is concern that – were the patient’s illness to become more severe – he could be in [mortal] danger, the Shabbos [laws] should be desecrated. If [the illness would] not [become more severe, and the patient would not be in mortal danger, the Shabbos laws] should not be desecrated.

ה מַכָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל חָלָל – נִשְׁאָלִין בְּבָקִי וּבְחוֹלֶה,36 אִם יֹאמַר אֶחָד מֵהֶם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְחִלּוּלמח, אוֹ שֶׁיֹּאמַר שֶׁאִם לֹא יְחַלְּלוּ אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיַּכְבִּיד עָלָיו חָלְיוֹ,מט וְהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁאִם יַכְבִּיד עָלָיו חָלְיוֹ אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁמִּסְתַּכֵּןנ – מְחַלְּלִין, וְאִם לָאו – אֵין מְחַלְּלִין:

6 [The following] – even where there is merely a doubt whether or not mortal danger is involved – are considered wounds that affect one’s inner cavity:

a) a wound on the back of the hand37 or the foot, even if it appeared there as a natural consequence and not as the result of being struck by an iron [object];38

b) a person who swallowed a leech39 – a wormlike creature found in [fresh or marine] water; when [this creature] comes in contact with a [person’s] body, it sucks his blood until it looks like a small jug; if a person swallows [this creature while drinking] water, it sucks up his gastric juices and his stomach swells; and

c) a person bitten by a rabid dog40 or a venomous crawling creature.41

ו מַכָּה שֶׁעַל גַּב הַיָּד37 אוֹ עַל גַּב הָרֶגֶל,נא אֲפִלּוּ עָלְתָה שָׁם מֵאֵלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא מֵחֲמַת הַכָּאַת בַּרְזֶל,נב,38 וְכֵן מִי שֶׁבָּלַע עֲלוּקָהנג,39 וְהִיא תּוֹלַעַת קְטַנָּה וּמְצוּיָה בַּמַּיִם וּכְשֶׁבָּאָה לִבְשַׂר אָדָם מוֹצֶצֶת הַדָּם עַד שֶׁהִיא כְּמוֹ חָבִית קְטַנָּה, וּכְשֶׁאָדָם בּוֹלְעָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם הוּא מוֹצֶצֶת לֵחָה שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו וְנִמְצָא כְּרֵסוֹ צָבָה,נד וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנְּשָׁכוֹ כֶּלֶב שׁוֹטֶהנה,40 אוֹ אֶחָד מִזּוֹחֲלֵי עָפָר הַמְּמִיתִים,נו,41 אֲפִלּוּ סָפֵק אִם מֵמִית אִם לָאונז – הֲרֵי הֵם כְּמַכָּה שֶׁל חָלָל:נח

7 Similarly, [Shabbos] may be desecrated for any wound inflicted by iron,42 even on the surface of the flesh, [even when] it is not on the hand or foot.43 One may also desecrate [Shabbos to treat] a boil at one’s anal opening,44 for a furuncle45 (which is called plunkro in the local vernacular), and for malaria accompanied by a very high fever, or even if [the patient] is not running a high fever but his condition is accompanied by icy shivers (called schaudern in German), i.e., [the patient] concurrently is running a fever accompanied by cold [shivers]. Ordinary malaria, however, where one feels cold at the start and only later runs a fever, does not involve [mortal] danger.

ז וְכֵן מְחַלְּלִין עַל כָּל מַכָּה שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית מֵחֲמַת בַּרְזֶל,נט,42 אֲפִלּוּ עַל הַבָּשָׂר מִבַּחוּץ שֶׁלֹּא עַל גַּב הַיָּד וְהָרֶגֶל.ס,43 וְכֵן מְחַלְּלִין עַל שְׁחִין הַבָּא בְּפִי הַטַּבַּעַת,סא,44 וְעַל סִמְטָאסב,45 (וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא פלונקר"ו בְּלַעַ"זסג), וְעַל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ קַדַּחַת חַם בְּיוֹתֵר,סד אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ חַם בְּיוֹתֵר אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא עִם סִימוּר,סה דְּהַיְנוּ עִם קְרִירוּתסו (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שוידרי"ן בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַזסז). וְהוּא שֶׁבְּפַעַם אַחַת בָּא עָלָיו הַחֲמִימוּת וְהַקְּרִירוּת, אֲבָל קַדַּחַת הַמָּצוּי שֶׁתְּחִלָּתוֹ קַר וְסוֹפוֹ חַם – אֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה:סח

8 One who experiences a swelling of blood46 (and there is a potential threat of mortal danger) may have his blood let.47 [This applies] even if [the person] is able to walk around and even if it is the first day of the swelling. (If there is no potential threat of mortal danger, he may cool off in water,48 because it appears that he is [merely] cooling off and not intending [to perform a] therapeutic activity.)

ח מִי שֶׁאֲחָזוֹ דָם46 (וְהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָהסט) – מַקִּיזִין אוֹתוֹ,ע,47 וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹלֵךְ עַל רַגְלָיו, וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁאֲחָזוֹ הַדָּם.עא

(וְאִם אֵין בּוֹ חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָה – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהִצְטַנֵּן בַּמַּיִם,עב,48 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּמֵקֵר וְלֹא כְּמִתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָהעג):48

9 When a person suffers discomfort in his eyes or in one eye, and it fills with fluid, or tears flow from it due to the pain, or it begins bleeding, or it secretes mucus that continually forms a scab, or [it hurts with] a piercing pain [as if his eye was being stabbed with] a needle, or it feels burning and feverish, one may desecrate [the Shabbos because of it] at the initial stages of all these types of illnesses.49 [The rationale is that] if the eye bursts, the person will die50 because the power of sight is rooted in the heart.

In contrast, during the final stages of all these ailments, i.e., when [the patient is almost] healed and only a small aspect of the ailment remains – i.e., he feels slightly feverish – nothing may be done [for the person], not even via a non-Jew, except for activities [that are only] forbidden as a shvus, e.g., applying herbs that were ground during the previous day, as will be explained.51

ט הַחוֹשֵׁשׁ בְּעֵינָיו,עד אוֹ בְּעֵינוֹ אַחַת וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ צִיר, אוֹ שֶׁשּׁוֹתֵת מִמֶּנָּה דְּמָעוֹתעה מֵחֲמַת הַכְּאֵב,עו אוֹ שֶׁשּׁוֹתֵת דָּם,עז אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ רִירעח שֶׁמַּגְלִיד תָּמִיד,עט אוֹ שֶׁהַכְּאֵב נוֹעֵץ בָּהּ כְּמוֹ מַחַט,פ אוֹ שֶׁהוּא שׂוֹרֵף וְקוֹדֵחַפא – מְחַלְּלִין בִּתְחִלַּת הַחֹלִיפב שֶׁל כָּל אֵלּוּ,פג,49 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ סַכָּנָה שֶׁאִם תִּפָּקַע הָעַיִן – יָמוּת,פד,50 שֶׁמְּאוֹר הָעַיִן תָּלוּי בַּלֵּב.פה

אֲבָל בְּסוֹף הַחֹלִיפו שֶׁל כָּל אֵלּוּ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁכְּבָר הוּא קָרוֹב לְהִתְרַפְּאוֹתפז וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר בָּהּ אֶלָּא מִקְצָת חֹלִי שֶׁקּוֹדַחַת מְעַטפח – אֵין עוֹשִׂין אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אֶלָּא דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת20, כְּגוֹן לִכְחוֹל בְּסַמָּנִים הַשְּׁחוּקִים מֵאֶתְמוֹל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:פט,51

10 The Shabbos may be desecrated for any ailment that the doctors say is [mortally] dangerous, even though it is only on the surface [of the person’s] flesh. If one doctor says that the Shabbos must be desecrated and another says it is not necessary to do so, [the Shabbos] should be desecrated,52 for whenever there is a doubt whether [or not] there is mortal danger, we rule leniently.53

Even if there is no expert doctor present, but there is a person who says that he recognizes this ailment and it appears to him that it is necessary to desecrate [the Shabbos], it may be desecrated because of his statement.54 [The rationale is that] all people are considered as somewhat expert [with regard to these matters], and whenever there is a doubt whether [or not] there is mortal danger, we rule leniently. ([Indeed, this leniency applies] even if [the person] says that it is doubtful whether it is necessary to desecrate [the Shabbos, nonetheless the Shabbos] should be desecrated,55 provided the person states that he is familiar with the ailment.) However, [even] if such a person states that [the ailment] definitely requires that [the Shabbos] be desecrated, his word is not accepted if he contradicts an expert who says that it is not necessary to desecrate [the Shabbos].

All of the above applies regarding a Jew. In contrast, an ordinary non-Jew who is not a doctor is not assumed to be an expert to the extent that the Shabbos may be desecrated on the basis of his statements when there is no Jew there who is familiar with this ailment.

י כָּל חֹלִי שֶׁהָרוֹפְאִים אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהוּא סַכָּנָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עַל הַבָּשָׂר מִבַּחוּץ – מְחַלְּלִין עָלָיו אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת.צ וְאִם רוֹפֵא אֶחָד אוֹמֵר צָרִיךְ חִלּוּל וְרוֹפֵא אֶחָד אוֹמֵר אֵין צָרִיךְ חִלּוּל – מְחַלְּלִין,צא,52 שֶׁכָּל סְפֵק נְפָשׁוֹת לְהָקֵל.צב,53

וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם רוֹפֵא מֻמְחֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֶחָד אוֹמֵר שֶׁהוּא מַכִּיר בְּחֹלִי זֶהצג וְנִרְאֶה לוֹ שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ חִלּוּל – מְחַלְּלִין עַל פִּיו,54 כִּי כָּל בְּנֵי אָדָם חֲשׁוּבִין מֻמְחִין קְצָת, וּסְפֵק נְפָשׁוֹת לְהָקֵל.צד (וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אוֹמֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא הוּא צָרִיךְ לְחִלּוּל – מְחַלְּלִין.צה,55 וְהוּא שֶׁאוֹמֵר שֶׁהוּא מַכִּיר חֹלִי זֶהצו). וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְהַכְחִישׁ אֶת הַמֻּמְחֶה הָאוֹמֵר שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ חִלּוּל, אֲפִלּוּ אִם זֶה אוֹמֵר שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי צָרִיךְ חִלּוּל.צז

וְכָל זֶה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲבָל סְתָם נָכְרִים שֶׁאֵינָן רוֹפְאִים – אֵין מַחֲזִיקִים אוֹתָם כִּבְקִיאִיםצח לְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת עַל פִּיהֶם,צט כְּשֶׁאֵין שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמַּכִּיר חֹלִי זֶה:

11 If the sick person does not wish to accept medical treatment because he does not want the Shabbos to be desecrated for his sake, he should be compelled to do so because it is foolish piety [to refuse treatment].56

יא אִם לֹא רָצָה הַחוֹלֶ[ה] לְקַבֵּל הַתְּרוּפָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה שֶׁיְּחַלְּלוּ עָלָיו שַׁבָּת – כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ,ק שֶׁהִיא חֲסִידוּת שֶׁל שְׁטוּת:קא,56

12 When a sick person states that he requires a specific treatment and a doctor says that he does not require it, we listen to the sick person,57 because a person’s own heart knows the bitterness of his soul.58 If, however, the doctor says that the medication [the sick person requests] will harm him, we listen to the doctor.59

יב חוֹלֶה אוֹמֵר צָרִיךְ אֲנִי לִתְרוּפָה פְלוֹנִית, וְרוֹפֵא אוֹמֵר אֵין צָרִיךְ – שׁוֹמְעִין לַחוֹלֶה,קב,57 כִּי "לֵב יוֹדֵעַ מָרַת נַפְשׁוֹ".קג,58 וְאִם הָרוֹפֵא אוֹמֵר שֶׁאוֹתָהּ הַתְּרוּפָה מַזִּיק לוֹ – שׁוֹמְעִין לָרוֹפֵא:קד,57

13 [The following law applies when] a person who is mortally ill is assessed [by doctors] on Shabbos [and it is decided] that for eight [consecutive] days it is necessary to administer a known therapy to him that involves a labor that is a desecration of the Shabbos. [The therapy] is not postponed until the night [so that] only one Shabbos would have to be desecrated for his sake. Instead, [the therapy] is begun immediately, even though, as a result, two Shabbasos will be desecrated for his sake. True, [the patient] will definitely not die today; after all, [the doctors] assessed that he would live for another eight days.60 Nevertheless, there is concern that [the patient] will die after eight days if this treatment is not begun immediately.

In a situation where, by contrast, it will be possible to administer the therapy for [the patient almost] immediately without desecrating the Shabbos, but doing so will require waiting a brief amount of time, one should not desecrate [the Shabbos] to begin the treatment immediately without waiting at all, provided there is no concern about mortal danger in waiting this brief amount of time. [The rationale is that the prohibitions of] Shabbos are suspended in an instance of a threat to life, but they are not released entirely.61 [Therefore,] whenever it is possible to save a person’s life without desecrating the Shabbos, [those prohibitions] are not suspended for his sake.

Nevertheless, even when non-Jews [who are not obligated to observe mitzvos] or minors, who are not [yet] obligated [to observe] the mitzvos, are present, we do not say that this [forbidden labor] can be performed by these individuals and thus the Shabbos will not be desecrated by Jews who are obligated in the commandments. [The rationale is that] since there is no way to save [the person’s life] except by performing a labor forbidden on Shabbos [on his behalf], the [forbidden labors] of Shabbos are suspended with regard to him for the Jews who are obligated to save [his life]. Thus, it is [as if] the Shabbos is not being desecrated at all.

Moreover, even if a Jew desires to be stringent and have [the forbidden labor] performed by a non-Jew or a minor, or he [is indolent and] does not wish to trouble himself [to perform the task], there is a Rabbinic prohibition involved [in doing so].62 For an observer may say that it is only with difficulty that [the Sages] permitted [the Shabbos laws to be violated in an instance of] mortal danger, and initially, the prohibitions are not released for those who are obligated in the observance of the mitzvos. As a result, it is possible that a situation will arise when [the adults present] will not find non-Jews or minors [who are not yet obligated to observe the mitzvos], and no one will want to have the Shabbos desecrated by adult Jews.

[Indeed, the performance of such tasks] should not be delegated [only] to women, though they are obligated in the observance of mitzvos, and thus the above concern does not apply. Even so, the performance of such tasks for the sake of saving [a person’s life] should not be entrusted exclusively to [women], lest they act indolently or negligently. Instead, they [should] join together with [adult male] Jews. The task should be entrusted to [the adult male] and the woman should act according to his [directives. The rationale is that] since [the adult male] is involved, [the woman] will also be motivated to act wholeheartedly.

Nevertheless, the optimum manner of performing the mitzvah is to endeavor that everything be performed by Jews who are great in knowledge63 and not by ordinary men or women, so that the Shabbos will not be viewed lightly in their eyes, and they [will not] come to adopt leniencies even when there is no threat to life. Also, this will be a public exposition of how the law should be practiced.

There are other authorities who maintain that since [the prohibitions of] Shabbos are [only] suspended and not released, whatever can be done so that there is no desecration [of the Shabbos]according to Scriptural Law should be done. Accordingly, if it is possible to perform [the forbidden task] without postponement or delay in an abnormal manner, it should be performed in an abnormal manner because then a Scriptural prohibition is not involved. [Similarly,] if it is possible to have [the forbidden task] performed by a non-Jew without delay, then according to Scriptural Law, it must be performed by a non-Jew. The [Rabbinical] prohibition against having [the forbidden task] performed by a non-Jew applies only when there is concern that the non-Jew will act indolently and thus the matter will be delayed or postponed, but not when a Jew stands over [the non-Jew] and encourages him, and thus there is no concern at all.

Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion. Nevertheless, the prevailing practice in these countries is to follow the second opinion. Even so, it is desirable not to conduct oneself in this manner,64 because there is concern that when people see that in this situation, [the forbidden task] is being performed only by a non-Jew, they will think that in all instances there is a prohibition in having [such forbidden tasks] performed by a Jew. At times, there will not be a non-Jew present and, as a result, the sick person will be endangered by having to wait for the non-Jew. At the very least, one who desires to have [the forbidden task] performed by a non-Jew should make it known publicly that it is permitted for a Jew [to perform the task]; it is just that in this situation, the non-Jew is at hand.

יג חוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה שֶׁאֲמָדוּהוּ בְּיוֹם שַׁבָּת שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ רְפוּאָה יְדוּעָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מְלֶאכֶת חִלּוּל שַׁבָּת שְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים – אֵין אוֹמְרִים נַמְתִּין עַד הַלַּיְלָה וְנִמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא נְחַלֵּל עָלָיו אֶלָּא שַׁבָּת אַחַת, אֶלָּא יַעֲשׂוּ מִיָּד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּחַלְּלִין עָלָיו שְׁתֵּי שַׁבָּתוֹת,קה,59 שֶׁאַף שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יָמוּת הַיּוֹם, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲמָדוּהוּ שֶׁיִּתְקַיֵּם שְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים,60 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יָמוּת לְאַחַר הַשְּׁמוֹנָה יָמִים אִם לֹא יַתְחִילוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ הָרְפוּאָה מִיָּד.קו

אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ הָרְפוּאָה מִיָּד בְּלִי חִלּוּל שַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא שֶׁיִּצְטָרְכוּ לִשְׁהוֹת שָׁעָה מֻעֶטֶת – לֹא יְחַלְּלוּ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד בְּלִי שׁוּם שִׁהוּי כְּלָל, אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָה כְּלָל בְּשִׁהוּי מֻעָט זֶה,קז לְפִי שֶׁהַשַּׁבָּת דְּחוּיָה הִיא אֵצֶל פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ וְלֹא הֻתְּרָה לְגַמְרֵי,קח,61 וְכָל שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַצִּילוֹ בְּלֹא חִלּוּל שַׁבָּת – אֵינָהּ נִדְחֵית בִּשְׁבִילוֹ.קט

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם,קי אַף אִם יֵשׁ לְפָנֵינוּקיא נָכְרִים אוֹ קְטַנִּים שֶׁאֵינָן בְּנֵי מִצְווֹת – אֵין אוֹמְרִים הֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי אֵלּוּ וְלֹא יִתְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים בְּנֵי מִצְווֹת, לְפִי שֶׁמִּכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהַצִּילוֹ אֶלָּא בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה הָאֲסוּרָה בְּשַׁבָּת – הֲרֵי נִדְחֶה הַשַּׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִילוֹקיב לְגַבֵּי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים הַמְחֻיָּבִים בְּהַצָּלָתוֹ, וְאֵין כָּאן חִלּוּל כְּלָל.

וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אִם בָּא הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אוֹ קָטָן,קיג אוֹ מֵחֲמַת שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לִטְרוֹחַ בְּעַצְמוֹ – יֵשׁ אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קיד,62 שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ הָרוֹאִים בְּקֹשִׁי הִתִּירוּ פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ, וְאֵין מַתִּירִים אוֹתוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה עַל יְדֵי הַמְחֻיָּבִים בְּמִצְווֹת, וְשֶׁמָּא יָבֹא הַדָּבָר שֶׁכְּשֶׁלֹּא יִמְצְאוּ נָכְרִים אוֹ קְטַנִּים – לֹא יִרְצוּ לְחַלֵּל עַל יְדֵי גְּדוֹלֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל.קטו

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּנָשִׁיםקטז שֶׁהֵן מְחֻיָּבוֹת בְּמִצְווֹת וְאֵין בָּהֶן חֲשָׁשׁ זֶה – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין מוֹסְרִין לָהֶן לְבַדָּן הָעֵסֶק וְהַפִּקּוּחַ הַזֶּה שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה עַל יָדָן, כִּי שֶׁמָּא יִתְעַצְּלוּ אוֹ יִפְשְׁעוּ בּוֹ. אֲבָל מִצְטָרְפִין עִם יִשְׂרָאֵל, וּמוֹסְרִין הַדָּבָר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָאִשָּׁה מִתְעַסֶּקֶת עַל יְדֵי הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹסֵק בּוֹ – אַף הִיא מִזְדָּרֶזֶת עַל יָדוֹ.קיז

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָרקיח לְהִשְׁתַּדֵּל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַכֹּל עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים גְּדוֹלִים בְּחָכְמָה,קיט וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹתקכ וְנָשִׁים, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא שַׁבָּת קַלָּה בְּעֵינֵיהֶםקכא וְיָבֹאוּ לְהָקֵל שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ,קכב וְגַם כְּדֵי לְהוֹרוֹת הֲלָכָה לְמַעֲשֶׂה בָּרַבִּים.קכג

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַשַּׁבָּת דְּחוּיָה הִיא וְלֹא הֻתְּרָה כְּלָל,61 מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא חִלּוּל מִן הַתּוֹרָה – צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא חִלּוּל בִּמְלָאכָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה.קכד וְלָכֵן אִם אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּלֹא דִחוּי וּבְלֹא אִחוּר עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי – עוֹשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי,קכה שֶׁאָז אֵין אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְאִם אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי בְּלֹא אִחוּר כְּלָל – צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִיקכו מִן הַתּוֹרָה.קכז וְלֹא אָסְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִתְעַצֵּל הַנָּכְרִי וְיָבֹא לִידֵי דִחוּי וְעִכּוּב,קכח אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹמֵד עָלָיו וּמְזָרְזוֹ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לִכְלוּם.

וְהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קכט וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ כִּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.קל אֲבָל טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לִנְהוֹג כֵּן,64 כִּי יֵשׁ חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִרְאוּ עַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין רַק עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, יִסְבְּרוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ אִסּוּר בָּזֶה לְעוֹלָם עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְלִפְעָמִים לֹא יִהְיֶה נָכְרִי מָצוּי וְעַל יְדֵי זֶה יִסְתַּכֵּן הַחוֹלֶה בְּמַה שֶּׁיַּמְתִּינוּ עַל הַנָּכְרִי. וְעַל כָּל פָּנִים, הָרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי – יְגַלֶּה לָרַבִּים בְּאוֹתוֹ פַעַם שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶתֵּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַצְמוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי הוּא מְזֻמָּן כָּאן:קלא

14 Anyone who acts wholeheartedly to desecrate the Shabbos [prohibitions] in a situation of mortal danger is praiseworthy,65 even if by doing so he facilitates another situation – for example, one spread out a net to hoist up a young child who fell into a river and [along with the child] also caught fish.66 Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

יד כָּל הַזָּרִיז לְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת בְּדָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה – הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח,קלב,65 אֲפִלּוּ אִם מְתַקֵּן עִמּוֹ דָּבָר אַחֵר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁפֵּרַשׂ מְצוּדָה לְהַעֲלוֹת תִּינוֹק שֶׁנָּפַל לַנָּהָר וְצָד עִמּוֹ דָּגִים,66 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה:קלג

15 When a door is locked [and as a result] a young child [is trapped inside the building], one should break down the door and retrieve, lest the child become panic-stricken and die.67

טו נִנְעֲלָה דֶלֶת בִּפְנֵי תִינוֹק – שׁוֹבֵר הַדֶּלֶת וּמוֹצִיאוֹ,קלד שֶׁמָּא יִבָּעֵת הַתִּינוֹק וְיָמוּת:קלה,67

16 When a mortally ill person requires meat, [an animal] may be slaughtered for him. One should not say: Feed him meat from an animal that was not ritually slaughtered, for by [giving a Jew meat from an animal that was not ritually slaughtered one] will merely violate an [ordinary] prohibition, rather than desecrate the Shabbos [by slaughtering an animal],which [involves the violation of] a prohibition punishable with execution by stoning.

[The reason this course of action is taken is that, in this instance,] the Shabbos [prohibitions] have already been suspended [to allow] kindling a fire and cooking [to be performed].68 Furthermore, when one eats meat from an animal that was not ritually slaughtered, he commits a transgression with every olive-sized portion [he swallows].69 [Indeed,] even when one eats less than an olive-sized portion, he commits a Scriptural transgression with every [mouthful] he eats.70 In contrast, when slaughtering, one violates only one prohibition, even though it is more severe. Also, it is possible that the sick person will be revolted by [the idea of] eating forbidden food, refuse [to eat], and [his life will] become endangered.71

Nevertheless, if the sick person is required to eat [the meat] immediately, and the meat from the animal that was not ritually slaughtered is immediately available while the meat from the animal that was ritually slaughtered will take time [to obtain], he should be fed the meat from the animal that was not ritually slaughtered.

If, however, it is necessary to cook wine for [a sick person, the cooking utensil] should be filled by a Jew and heated by a non-Jew in accordance with the custom explained above.72 [The Jew] should supervise [the non-Jew] (see Yoreh Deah, sec. 15373 and sec. 155),74 [making sure that] he does not touch the wine before it boils.75 [Moreover,] even if the non-Jew touches the wine, it is of no consequence because [drinking it] is forbidden only according to Rabbinic Law. By contrast, should a Jew heat [the wine], he will be violating a Scriptural prohibition.76 There is no concern that [the sick person] will be revolted [by drinking wine boiled by the non-Jew], because that is not [as] severe a prohibition [as that of eating the meat of an animal not ritually slaughtered].77

טז הָיָה חוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה צָרִיךְ בָּשָׂר – שׁוֹחֲטִין לוֹ, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים נַאֲכִילֶנּוּ נְבֵלָה שֶׁהִיא אִסּוּר לָאו וְאַל נְחַלֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת שֶׁהִיא אִסּוּר סְקִילָה,קלו כִּי הַשַּׁבָּת נִתְּנָה לִדָּחוֹת כְּבָר בְּהַבְעָרָה וּבְבִשּׁוּל.קלז,68 וְעוֹד, שֶׁבְּנֵבָלה עוֹבֵר עַל כָּל כְּזַיִת וּכְזַיִת.קלח,69 וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת – יֵשׁ אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָהקלט בְּכָל אֲכִילָה וַאֲכִילָה,קמ,70 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּשְׁחִיטָה אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה אֶלָּא אִסּוּר אֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חָמוּר.קמא וְעוֹד, שֶׁמָּא יִהְיֶה הַחוֹלֶה קָץ בַּאֲכִילַת אִסּוּר וְיִפְרוֹשׁ וְיִסְתַּכֵּן.קמב,71

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הַחוֹלֶה צָרִיךְ לַאֲכִילָה לְאַלְתַּר וְהַנְּבֵלָה מוּכֶנֶת מִיָּד וְהַשְּׁחוּטָה מִתְאַחֶרֶת לוֹ – מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ הַנְּבֵלָה.קמג

אֲבָל אִם הוּא צָרִיךְ לְהַרְתִּיחַ לוֹ יַיִן – יְמַלֵּא יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיָחֵם נָכְרִיקמד לְפִי הַמִּנְהָג שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קמה,72 וְיַשְׁגִּיחַ עָלָיו (עַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִימָן קנ"גקמו,73 וקנ"הקמז,74) שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בּוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּרְתִּיחַ,75 וְאַף אִם יִגַּע בּוֹ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כִּי אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ אֶלָּא אִסּוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁיָּחֵם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲשֶׂה אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.76 וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ כְּלָל שֶׁיָּקוּץ הַחוֹלֶה בּוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ חָמוּר כָּל כָּךְ:קמח,77

17 When doctors assess [that a sick person] requires one fig, and ten people run, and each one brings one [back] for him, they are all exempt [from transgression] – moreover, they receive reward from G‑d78 even though [the sick person] recovered after eating the first [fig brought to him].

יז אֲמָדוּהוּ הָרוֹפְאִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ גְּרוֹגֶרֶת אַחַת, וְרָצוּ עֲשָׂרָה וְהֵבִיאוּ לוֹ כָּל אֶחָד גְּרוֹגֶרֶת – כֻּלָּן פְּטוּרִין,קמט וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם שָׂכָר מֵאֵת ה',78 אֲפִלּוּ הִבְרִיא בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה:קנ

18 [The following rules apply when] it is assessed that [a sick person] requires two figs, but all that is found are [five figs]: two figs, each connected [to the tree] by a separate stem, and three figs all connected to [the tree with] one stem. The stem with three figs connected to it should be cut off [from the tree].79 [The rationale is that] although one is picking more figs [with this act], he, nevertheless, performs the act of detaching – which is the fundamental dimension of the forbidden labor – [only once].80 If, however, there are two [figs] on one stem and three [figs] on another, he should cut off the stem that has two [figs]. [The rationale is that] it is forbidden to increase the outcome of a forbidden labor even though one does not increase the trouble taken in performing the forbidden labor, [as in this instance,] when everything is performed with one act – [i.e., cutting the stem]. Nevertheless, in an urgent situation, care is not taken in this regard, lest doing so lead to postponement and delay.

יח אֲמָדוּהוּ לִשְׁתֵּי גְרוֹגְרוֹת, וְלֹא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי גְרוֹגְרוֹת מְחֻבָּרוֹת כָּל אַחַת בְּעֹקֶץ אֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְעוֹד שָׁלֹשׁ גְרוֹגְרוֹת מְחֻבָּרוֹת שְׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּעֹקֶץ אֶחָד – כּוֹרֵת הָעֹקֶץ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ,קנא,79 שֶׁאַף שֶׁמַּרְבֶּה בִּגְרוֹגְרוֹת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מְמַעֵט בִּתְלִישָׁהקנב שֶׁהִיא עִקַּר הַמְּלָאכָה.קנג,80

אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שְׁתַּיִם בְּעֹקֶץ אֶחָד וְשָׁלֹשׁ בְּעֹקֶץ אֶחָד – לֹא יִכְרְתוּ אֶלָּא הָעֹקֶץ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שְׁתַּיִם,קנד שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּשִׁעוּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בּוֹ,קנה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַרְבֶּה בְּטֹרַח הַמְּלָאכָה, שֶׁהַכֹּל נַעֲשֵׂית בְּבַת אַחַת.קנו

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הַדָּבָר בָּהוּל – אֵין מְדַקְדְּקִים בְּכָךְ, שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי דִּחוּי וְעִכּוּב:קנז

19 When a sick person becomes bedridden because of his illness even though he is not in mortal danger, or he has [a condition that causes him] so much pain that his entire body is weakened as a result – in which instance, even though he goes about, it is as if he were bedridden – his needs should be tended to by a non-Jew.81 [This leniency] even [includes the performance of] labors absolutely [forbidden] by Scriptural Law, e.g., baking or cooking for [the sick person]82 if that is necessary. [Seemingly, there is a difficulty in granting such leniency, because] a sick person who is not in mortal danger is not permitted forbidden foods – even those prohibited [merely] by Rabbinic Law.83 Nevertheless, the prohibition against eating food cooked by a non-Jew on Shabbos was released for [a sick person] since there is no other alternative.84 [The rationale is that,] in and of itself, [the food] is permitted [i.e., its ingredients are kosher]; it is only that the non-Jew’s actions cause [the food to be] prohibited.85

However, the Shabbos may not be desecrated on behalf of such a person through a Jew’s performance of a Scriptural prohibition, even if [the person] is in danger of losing a limb, as long as he is not in mortal danger.

A Jew may, [nevertheless,] desecrate [the Shabbos] for the sake of [such a person] [even] by actively performing a Rabbinic prohibition, e.g., performing a therapeutic activity [which is] forbidden because of the decree [that safeguards] against grinding herbs, when in and of itself, [the act] does not have any connection to the forbidden labor, not even to a Rabbinic prohibition.86 [Moreover,] even if [the therapeutic activity] is inherently forbidden by Rabbinic Law, it may be performed without any deviation from one’s weekday practice on behalf of a person who is in danger of losing a limb, even though he is not bedridden nor has his entire body become sickened as a result.

If, however, [the person] is not in danger of losing a limb even though he is bedridden, or he is in such discomfort that his entire body becomes sickened, any activity forbidden by Rabbinic Law may not be performed on his behalf by a Jew87 unless he deviates from his ordinary weekday practice. If, however, [the Jew treating the patient] makes such a deviation, it is permitted to perform even [an activity that is] definitely [defined as a Scripturally] forbidden labor – for example, a person who is sighing heavily {is permitted to nurse} [from an animal] with his mouth, as will be explained.88 [The rationale is that] performing [a forbidden labor] while deviating [from the ordinary practice] is forbidden only according to Rabbinic Law.89

If [such a person] must eat foods for a purpose that is obviously [strictly] medicinal, permission was granted for him even though [eating such foods] is prohibited according to Rabbinic Law as part of the decree [that is a safeguard] against grinding herbs, as will be explained.90 Nevertheless, it is permitted [in this case] since it is (an activity that is impossible for a non-Jew to perform, and [the person] is) sick [to the extent that] his entire body is affected. There are authorities who forbid [such leniencies]. With regard to the halachah, [since the matter involves] Rabbinic Law, the lenient approach should be followed.

יט חוֹלֶה שֶׁנָּפַל מֵחֲמַת חָלְיוֹ לְמִשְׁכָּב וְאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה,קנח אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מִחוּשׁ שֶׁמִּצְטַעֵרקנט כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁנֶּחֱלַשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל גּוּפוֹ,קס שֶׁאָז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ כְּנָפַל לְמִשְׁכָּב הוּא דוֹמֶהקסא – הֲרֵי צְרָכָיו נַעֲשִׂין עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,קסב,81 אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְלָאכוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,קסג כְּגוֹן לֶאֱפוֹת לוֹ אוֹ לְבַשֵּׁל לוֹקסד,82 אִם צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ.קסה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מַאֲכָלוֹת הָאֲסוּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לֹא הִתִּירוּ אוֹתָן לְחוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָהקסו,83 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הִתִּירוּ לוֹ אִסּוּר בִּשּׁוּלֵי נָכְרִים בְּשַׁבָּת,קסז שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר,84 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר מֵחֲמַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂה הַנָּכְרִי גּוֹרֵם לוֹ הָאִסּוּר.קסח,85

אֲבָל אֵין מְחַלְּלִין עָלָיו שַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנַת אֵבֶר,קסט כָּל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנַת נֶפֶשׁ.

וּלְחַלֵּל עָלָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים בְּיָדַיִם,קע כְּגוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ כָּל רְפוּאָה, שֶׁהִיא אֲסוּרָה מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת שְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִיםקעא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ בְּעַצְמָהּ שׁוּם סְרַךְ מְלָאכָה בַּעֲשִׂיָּתָהּ אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,86 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ גַּם בָּהּ בְּעַצְמָהּ אִסּוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים בַּעֲשִׂיָּתָהּקעב – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ לוֹ בְּלֹא שׁוּם שִׁנּוּי מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל, אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנַת אֵבֶר,קעג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָפַל לְמִשְׁכָּב וְגַם לֹא חָלָה מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל גּוּפוֹ.קעד

אֲבָל אִם אֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנַת אֵבֶר, אֶלָּא שֶׁנָּפַל לְמִשְׁכָּב,קעה אוֹ שֶׁמִּצְטַעֵר כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁחָלָה מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל גּוּפוֹקעו – אֵין עוֹשִׂין לוֹ דָּבָר הָאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵלקעז,87 אֶלָּא בְּשִׁנּוּי מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל.קעח וְעַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֲפִלּוּ מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה, כְּגוֹן הַגּוֹנֵחַ [שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִינַק] בְּפִיו,קעט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,קפ,88 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּשַׁנֶּה בַּעֲשִׂיָּתָהּ – אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.89

וְאִם צָרִיךְ לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל מַאֲכָלִים הַנִּכָּרִים שֶׁהֵם לִרְפוּאָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּזֶה אִסּוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת שְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,קפא,90 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא (דָּבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְעוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִיקפב וְהוּא) חוֹלֶה בְּכָל גּוּפוֹ – הִתִּירוּ לוֹ.קפג וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִין.קפד וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל:קפה

20 If a sick person did not become bedridden, nor is he suffering to the extent that his entire body becomes ill (even though he does feel great suffering), it is permitted for a Jew to perform any act forbidden as a shvus [for him] when it is performed in an irregular manner, even if it [involves] a labor [that would be] forbidden [by Rabbinical decree when performed in the regular manner].91

It is, however, forbidden for [the patient] to eat foods that are obviously [being eaten solely as] medications, nor may [a Jew] perform other activities forbidden as shvusim [on the patient’s behalf] without deviating from their ordinary manner of performance, even if they are not associated in any manner with a Scripturally forbidden labor. Similarly, [it is forbidden] to have a non-Jew perform an act that is definitely a Scripturally forbidden labor [on the patient’s behalf], for [having him do so] constitutes a shvus in a complete sense, [since the activity is being performed] without deviation from the norm.

If the person does not feel great pain, nor is he [afflicted by] a sickness that affects his entire body, but merely a partial sickness, he is permitted to have any shvus that is forbidden by Rabbinic Law performed by a non-Jew, even when [the non-Jew] does not deviate from the norm, as stated in sec. 307[:12. Such activities] may not, however, be performed by a Jew, even if he deviates from the norm [when performing them]. For this reason, it is permitted to have a non-Jew apply external medication to such a person’s body,92 since the [ailing Jew] is not performing any [forbidden] activity in doing so. Even though he assists the non-Jew somewhat,93 that is of no consequence, as explained above.94 (The person is, however, forbidden to eat foods that are obviously intended as medications, as will be explained.)95

If, however, a person does not feel even partially ill, but merely has a general sense of discomfort, it is forbidden – even for a non-Jew – to perform for him any activity that is clearly being carried out for therapeutic purposes, as explained above.96

כ וְאִם לֹא נָפַל לְמִשְׁכָּב, וְגַם אֵינוֹ מִצְטַעֵר כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁנֶּחֱלַשׁ כָּל גּוּפוֹ (אֲבָל עַל כָּל פָּנִים יֵשׁ לוֹ צַעַר גָּדוֹלקפו) – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל שְׁבוּת20 הַנַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׁנּוּי,קפז אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מְלָאכָה.קפח,91 אֲבָל אָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל מַאֲכָלִים הַנִּכָּרִים שֶׁהֵם לִרְפוּאָה,קפט וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שְׁאָר שְׁבוּתִים שֶׁלֹּא בְשִׁנּוּי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם סְרַךְ מְלָאכָה. וְכֵן לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,קצ שֶׁזֶּהוּ שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר, שֶׁלֹּא בְשִׁנּוּי.קצא

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ צַעַר גָּדוֹל וְלֹא חֹלִי הַכּוֹלֵל כָּל הַגּוּף,קצב אֶלָּא מִקְצָת חֹלִי – אֲזַי מֻתָּר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל שְׁבוּת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִיקצג אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְשִׁנּוּי,קצד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ז,קצה אֲבָל לֹא עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ בְּשִׁנּוּי.קצו וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ רְפוּאָה מִבַּחוּץ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי שֶׁיַּנִּיחֶנָּה שָׁם עָלָיו,קצז,92 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂה בָּזֶה. וְאַף שֶׁמְּסַיֵּעַ לוֹ קְצָת93 – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,קצח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקצט,94 (אֲבָל אָסוּר לֶאֱכוֹל מַאֲכָלִים הַנִּכָּרִים שֶׁהֵם לִרְפוּאָה עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרר,95).

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מִקְצָת חֹלִי, אֶלָּא מִחוּשׁ בְּעָלְמָא – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי שׁוּם דָּבָר הַנִּכָּר שֶׁהוּא לִרְפוּאָה,רא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:רב,96

21 Any activity that is forbidden to be performed by a Jew [on behalf of the sick person] is even forbidden to be performed by the sick person himself. When, however, a non-Jew performs [a therapeutic activity] for him, the sick person can assist [the non-Jew] somewhat. For example, when a non-Jew applies kohl97 to a Jew’s eye in the final stages of his illness when he is still somewhat feverish, [the Jew] may open and close his eye so that the kohl can enter it effectively. [The rationale is that] as long as the non-Jew could perform the activity without the Jew’s assistance, with the proviso that the Jew does not impede him, [the Jew’s] providing [assistance] is not significant,98 as explained above.99 [Moreover,] even when the non-Jew performs an actual [Scripturally forbidden] labor in a situation where doing so is permitted, the sick person may assist him in this matter in the manner explained above.

(True, one who assists in the performance of an actual [Scripturally forbidden] labor is [considered to have violated] an actual shvus, [which is forbidden by] Rabbinic Law, as will be stated in sec. 346,100 and assisting the performance of a shvus constitutes, at the very least, a shvus d’shvus.101Nevertheless, in this instance, [an exception was made]. Since the shvus of instructing a non-Jew [to perform a forbidden activity] was permitted for the sake of a person who is sick,102 there are also grounds to permit the shvus of assisting [the performance of a forbidden therapeutic activity], since this is also necessary for the sake of the sick person. Through [the sick person’s] assistance, the therapeutic activity is performed more effectively than it would be otherwise, were it to have been performed by the non-Jew alone – for example, closing one’s eyes so that the kohl will enter more effectively, opening one’s eyes [wide] so that the kohl can be inserted [more effectively], or opening one’s mouth [wide] so that a tooth can be extracted [with greater ease].103 Although the non-Jew could perform the [entire] activity by himself, nonetheless our Sages did not require this; i.e., [they did not] impose [the entire performance of] the task on the non-Jew without [minimal assistance from the] person he was helping, i.e., – the sick person himself. When, however, a non-Jew is performing a different forbidden activity,104 even one [forbidden only] by Rabbinic Law, (another) Jew should not assist [the non-Jew] in its performance, for there is no need at all for his assistance, since the non-Jew is capable of performing the activity [entirely] by himself. If, however, there is any need for [a Jew’s] assistance – for with [his assistance] the therapeutic activity will be performed more effectively than if the non-Jew performs it alone – it is permitted even for another Jew to help somewhat.)

If it is impossible for [the therapeutic activity] to be performed without the help of a Jew, it is forbidden even for the sick person to assist [the non-Jew].

כא כָּל שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הַחוֹלֶה בְּעַצְמוֹ.רג,92 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי – מֻתָּר לַחוֹלֶה לְסַיְּעוֹ קְצָת,רד,93 כְּגוֹן נָכְרִי הַכּוֹחֵל 97 לְעֵין יִשְׂרָאֵלרה בְּסוֹף הַחֹלִירו שֶׁהִיא קוֹדַחַת מְעַטרז – מֻתָּר לוֹ לִפְתּוֹחַ וְלִסְגּוֹר הָעַיִן שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס בָּהּ הַכְּחוֹל יָפֶה,רח שֶׁמְּסַיֵּעַ אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ,רט,98 כָּל שֶׁהָיָה יָכוֹל הַנָּכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בִּלְבַדּוֹ בְּלֹא סִיּוּעַ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵלרי אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מְעַכֵּב עַל יָדוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.ריא,99

וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה לוֹ מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמֻּתָּר – מֻתָּר לַחוֹלֶה לְסַיְּעוֹריב בְּעִנְיָן זֶה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמְסַיֵּעַ לִמְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה הוּא שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ריג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שמ"ו,ריד,100 וְאַף כְּשֶׁמְּסַיֵּעַ לִשְׁבוּת עַל כָּל פָּנִים הוּא שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת,101 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתִּירוּ שְׁבוּת אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי לְצֹרֶךְ הַחוֹלֶה102 – הוּא הַדִּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהַתִּיר שְׁבוּת הַסִּיּוּעַ,רטו כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ גַם כֵּן צֹרֶךְ הַחוֹלֶה, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כָךְ נַעֲשֵׂית הָרְפוּאָה יוֹתֵר בְּטוֹב מִמַּה שֶּׁהָיְתָה נַעֲשֵׂית עַל יְדֵי הַנָּכְרִי לְבַדּוֹ, כְּגוֹן סְגִירַת הָעַיִן שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס בּוֹ הַכְּחוֹל יָפֶה, וְכֵן פְּתִיחַת הָעַיִן לְהַכְנִיס בּוֹ הַכְּחוֹל, אוֹ לִפְתִיחַת הַפֶּה לְהוֹצִיא הַשֵּׁן,רטז,103 אַף שֶׁהָיָה הַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בִּלְבַדּוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא הִצְרִיכוּ חֲכָמִים לְכָךְ לְהָטִיל זֶה עַל הַנָּכְרִי וְשֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֵׂהוּ מִי שֶׁהַדָּבָר שַׁיָּךְ לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ הַחוֹלֶה בְּעַצְמוֹ.

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה שְׁאָר דָּבָר הָאָסוּר,104 אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אֵין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל (אַחֵר) לְסַיְּעוֹ בַּעֲשִׂיָּתוֹריז, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין צֹרֶךְ כְּלָל בְּסִיּוּעוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בִּלְבַדּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ אֵיזֶה צֹרֶךְ בְּסִיּוּעוֹ, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כָךְ נַעֲשֵׂית הָרְפוּאָה יוֹתֵר בְּטוֹב מִמַּה שֶּׁהָיָה עוֹשֶׂה הַנָּכְרִי בִּלְבַדּוֹ – מֻתָּר אַף לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר לְסַיְּעוֹ קְצָתריח).

וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כְּלָל בִּלְתִּי סִיּוּעַ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר אַף לַחוֹלֶה עַצְמוֹ לְסַיְּעוֹ:ריט

22 It is permitted to instruct a non-Jew to prepare a cooked dish for a child who has no other food to eat.105 [The rationale is that] any [of the] child’s needs are considered as the needs of a person who is [ill, but] not mortally ill.106 It is even permitted to take [food that is] muktzeh107and feed it to him if there is no other alternative.

כב מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת תַּבְשִׁיל לְקָטָן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַה לֶּאֱכוֹל,רכ,105 שֶׁסְּתָם צָרְכֵי קָטָן דִּינָם כְּצָרְכֵי חוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה.רכא,106 וּמֻתָּר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ מֻקְצֶה107 אֲפִלּוּ בְּיָדַיִם, אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר:רכב

23 [Our Sages] did not permit instructing a non-Jew [to perform forbidden tasks] for the sake of a sick person except when [those tasks] are required on Shabbos itself, but not when they are required on Saturday night.108

כג לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי בִּשְׁבִיל חוֹלֶה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ לָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲבָל לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת:רכג,108

24 When a person lets blood and then catches a chill, he is [considered to be in mortal] danger,109 and a fire may be kindled for him on Shabbos even during [the hottest days of] the summer. Otherwise, cold does not pose such a threat for sick people, even one who is in [mortal] danger, since it is possible to warm him with garments. Therefore, a fire is not kindled for [a sick person’s] sake unless [it can be kindled] by non-Jews or there are no garments with which to warm him.

According to the authorities110 who maintain that when a sick person is in [mortal] danger, a Jew should perform any tasks for him that he would perform during the week even though withholding one of them would not lead to [mortal] danger,111 it is also permitted for a Jew to kindle a fire on [the patient’s] behalf as he would during the week. (It was already explained how one should conduct himself in these countries.)112

כד הִקִּיז דָּם וְנִצְטַנֵּןרכד – סַכָּנָה הִיא,רכה,109 וְעוֹשִׂין לוֹ מְדוּרָה בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בִּתְקוּפַת תַּמּוּז.רכו אֲבָל לְחוֹלֶה אַחֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין בְּצִנָּה סַכָּנָה לוֹ, שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְחַמְּמוֹ בִּבְגָדִים,רכז לָכֵן אֵין עוֹשִׂין לוֹ מְדוּרָה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִים,רכח אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵין שָׁם בְּגָדִים לְחַמְּמוֹ בָּהֶם.

וּלְהָאוֹמְרִיםרכט,110 שֶׁכָּל חוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה עוֹשִׂין לוֹ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל מַה שֶּׁרְגִילִין לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בְּחֹל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בִּמְנִיעַת הַדָּבָר הַהוּא סַכָּנָה111 – (מִכָּל מָקוֹם) מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ גַם כֵּן מְדוּרָה עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל (וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה הֵיאַךְ יֵשׁ לִנְהוֹג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ):112

25 Wine should not be dropped into one’s eye, because it is obvious that one is doing so for therapeutic purposes.113 It is, however, permitted to apply [wine] to the outer surface of the eye, because then the person merely appears to be rinsing [his eye] and does not [appear to be doing it for] therapeutic purposes. [This act is permitted] provided [the person] does not open and close his eye. If, however, [the person] opens and closes his eye so that the wine will enter, it is obvious that he is doing so for therapeutic purposes, and it is prohibited.

In the present age, when it is not common to rinse [one’s eyes] with wine, doing so is forbidden in all cases114 when one has a therapeutic intent.

כה אֵין נוֹתְנִין יַיִן לְתוֹךְ הָעַיִן,רל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה.רלא,113 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתְּנוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הָעַיִן,רלב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה אֶלָּא כְּרוֹחֵץרלג וְלֹא כְּמִתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה.113 וְהוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ וְסוֹגֵר הָעַיִן, אֲבָל אִם פּוֹתְחָהּ וְסוֹגְרָהּ שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס בָּהּ הַיַּיִןרלד – נִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָהרלה וְאָסוּר. וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִרְחוֹץ בְּיַיִןרלו – אָסוּר בְּכָל עִנְיָןרלז כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה:רלח,114

26 Saliva that is tafeil, i.e., saliva that collects from the time a person awakes from sleep until he tastes [food], is powerful and has therapeutic properties. It is, [therefore,] forbidden to apply [such saliva] even to the outer surface of the eye, because it does not appear that he is rinsing [his eye], since it is not common to rinse with saliva, for doing so is distasteful. One may, however, rinse his mouth with water and then pass it over his eyes, because even though tafeil saliva is mixed with [the water], it is not distasteful to wash [with water that also contains saliva]. If the person cannot open his eyes, he may moisten them even with such saliva alone, for our Sages forbade [this act] only when one has a therapeutic intent, and [moistening the outside of one’s eyes] is not a therapeutic act.115

כו רֹק תָּפֵל,רלט דְּהַיְנוּ כָּל שֶׁלֹּא טָעַם כְּלוּם מִשֶּׁנֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ,רמ וְהוּא חָזָק וּמְרַפֵּארמא,113 – אָסוּר לִתְּנוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי הָעַיִן, שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּרוֹחֵץ, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִרְחוֹץ בְּרֹק מִפְּנֵי מְאִיסוּתוֹ.רמב אֲבָל אִם רוֹחֵץ פִּיו בְּמַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲבִירָם עַל עֵינָיו, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֹק תָּפֵל מְעֹרָב בָּהֶם – מֻתָּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן מְאוּסִין לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם.רמג וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִפְתּוֹחַ עֵינָיו – מֻתָּר לְלַחְלְחָם אֲפִלּוּ בְּרֹק תָּפֵל לְבַדּוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה, אֲבָל זוֹ אֵינָהּ רְפוּאָה:רמד,115

27 A person may soak soft and clear collyrium116 on Friday and apply it to his eye on Shabbos for therapeutic purposes. This is not [forbidden because] of the decree [safeguarding against] grinding herbs. [The rationale is that] since [our Sages] required [the person] to soak [the collyrium] on Friday, this [serves] as a reminder that it is forbidden to engage in therapeutic activities on Shabbos. There is no concern for the impression that might be created,117 because it merely appears that [the person] is washing [his face]. Since [the collyrium] is soft and clear, an observer will think that it is wine, provided he does not open and close his eye, because then it is evident that he intends [to perform] a therapeutic act.

When, by contrast, the collyrium is thick, it is forbidden to apply it to one’s eye on Shabbos, because it is obvious one is doing so as a remedy. If, however, he applied [the collyrium] to [his eye] before Shabbos, it is permitted [to leave it there on Shabbos], as stated in sec. 252[:14].118

כז שׁוֹרֶה אָדָם קִילוֹרִיןרמה,116 רַכִּין וּצְלוּלִיןרמו מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְנוֹתֵן עַל גַּבֵּי הָעַיִן בְּשַׁבָּת לִרְפוּאָה,113 וְאֵין גּוֹזְרִים מִשּׁוּם שְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִים, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהִצְרִיכוּהוּ לִשְׁרוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – יֵשׁ לוֹ הֶכֵּר בָּזֶהרמז שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲסוֹק בִּרְפוּאוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת.רמח וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן,117 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה אֶלָּא כְּרוֹחֵץ,רמט שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא רַךְ וְצָלוּלרנ – סָבוּר הָרוֹאֶה שֶׁהוּא יַיִן.רנא וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִפְתַּח וְיִסְגּוֹר הָעַיִן,רנב,113 שֶׁאָז מוּכָח שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה.רנג אֲבָל קִילוֹר עָב – אָסוּר לִתְּנוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי עַיִן בְּשַׁבָּת,רנד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּכָּר שֶׁהוּא לִרְפוּאָה.רנה וְאִם הִנִּיחוֹ עָלֶיהָ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – מֻתָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ב:רנו,118

28 In those regions where oil is commonly applied even for non-therapeutic purposes, one may remove the scab of a wound on Shabbos119 and [then] apply oil,120 as stated in sec. 327[:1]. [One] should not, however, apply fat [to the wound], because it will dissolve, and that is forbidden for the reason explained in sec. 326[:10].121 Even in the final [healing] stages of a wound, i.e., when [the wound] has already healed and no longer causes pain, it is permitted to remove the scab and apply [oil, even if he does so merely] for the sake of pleasure.

By contrast, one may not place a mixture of oil and hot water on a wound122 nor on a wad of cotton to be placed on [a wound], because [then] it is obvious that he is doing so for a therapeutic purpose. One may, however, place [such a mixture] on his skin [around] the wound – so that it is not evident that he is applying [the oil and hot water] with a therapeutic intent – so that [the liquids] will then flow down into the wound.

It is [also] permitted to place oil alone on the wound, in places where it is common to [rub] oil [on one’s skin] for non-medicinal purposes. It is likewise permitted to place hot water alone on the wound, provided it was heated on Friday.123 Similarly, it (is permitted to place oil alone) on a wad of cotton in order to place it on [the wound]. {By contrast, hot water – even by itself – may not (be placed on a wad of cotton if the wad of cotton is not set aside for such a purpose.) (See sec. 301[:59].) [This is prohibited as] a decree, lest one wring out [the cotton].124 With regard to oil, a prohibitive decree was not instituted [out of concern] lest one wring it out, as stated in sec. 320[:21].}125

כח מַעֲבִירִין גֶּלְדֵי מַכָּה וְסָכִין בַּשֶּׁמֶן,רנז,120 בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לָסוּךְ אַף שֶׁלֹּא לִרְפוּאָה,119 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ז.רנח אֲבָל לֹא יָסוּךְ בַּחֵלֶב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּמּוֹחַ,רנט,120 וְאָסוּר מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ו.רס,121 וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּגְמַר מַכָּה,רסא דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְרַפְּאָהרסב וְאֵין לוֹ צַעַר מִמֶּנָּהרסג – מֻתָּר לְהַעֲבִיר גִּלְדֶיהָ וּלְסוּכָהּ לְתַעֲנוּג בְּעָלְמָא.רסד

אֲבָל אֵין נוֹתְנִין שֶׁמֶן וְחַמִּיןרסה מְעֹרָבִים יַחַדרסו עַל גַּבֵּי מַכָּה,122 וְלֹא עַל גַּבֵּי מוֹךְ לִתְּנוֹ עָלֶיהָ,רסז,122 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּכָּר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה.רסח אֲבָל נוֹתְנָן עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ חוּץ לְמַכָּה,רסט,122 שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ מוּכָח שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה,ער וְהֵם שׁוֹתְתִים וְיוֹרְדִים לַמַּכָּה. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לָתֵת עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן לְבַדּוֹרעא בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לָסוּךְ שֶׁלֹּא לִרְפוּאָה.ערב וְכֵן מֻתָּר לָתֵת עָלֶיהָ חַמִּין לְבַדָּן,רעג אִם הוּחַמּוּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,עדר,123 וְכֵן (מֻתָּר לִתֵּן שֶׁמֶן לְבַדּוֹ) עַל גַּבֵּי מוֹךְ לִתְּנוֹ עָלֶיהָ.ערה (אֲבָל לֹא חַמִּין אֲפִלּוּ לְבַדָּןרעו (אִם אֵין הַמּוֹךְ (עַיֵּן סִימָן ש"ארעז) מְיֻחָד לְכָךְרעח), מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט.רעט,124 אֲבָל בַּשֶּׁמֶן אֵין גּוֹזְרִים שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט,רפ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"כרפא):125

29 It is permitted to place a sponge and scraps of dried clothes on a wound, provided they are new,126 because they are not [being placed there as] a remedy, but [for protection] so that one’s clothes will not tear open the wound. However, scraps of old clothes may not [be used], because they will promote [the wound’s] healing.127

When does the above [restriction] apply? When [the scraps of old clothes] have not been placed on the wound before. If, however, [the scraps of old clothes] had been placed on the wound previously, they do not [promote its] healing and it is permitted to place them on the wound on Shabbos.

כט מֻתָּר לִתֵּן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה סְפוֹג וַחֲתִיכוֹת בְּגָדִים יְבֵשִׁיםרפב אִם הֵם חֲדָשִׁים,רפג,126 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן לִרְפוּאָה, אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְסָרְטוּ בְּגָדָיו אֶת הַמַּכָּה.רפד אֲבָל לֹא חֲתִיכוֹת בְּגָדִים יְשָׁנִים, שֶׁהֵן מְרַפְּאוֹת.רפה,127

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ מֵעוֹלָם עַל הַמַּכָּה, אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כְּבָר עַל הַמַּכָּה – שׁוּב אֵינָן מְרַפְּאוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן יְשָׁנוֹת,רפו וּמֻתָּר לִתְּנוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי מַכָּה בְּשַׁבָּת:

30 It is permitted to place a leaf on a wound on Shabbos,because it [serves merely] as protection.128 Grape leaves – and similarly, other leaves that promote healing – are exceptions,129 since they promote healing. [However,] if one placed [leaves that promote healing] on [a wound] while it was still day [on Friday] and then removed them after nightfall – even if he did so intentionally – he is permitted to put them back on [the wound on] Shabbos.[The rationale is that] the prohibition against all therapeutic activities [stemming from the concern] that one will [violate the decree against] grinding herbs applies only when [the therapeutic activity was] begun on Shabbos,but not when it was performed before Shabbosand then returned [to the wound] on Shabbos.

When, however, a poultice130 is intentionally removed from a wound [on Shabbos], even if it is still [being held] in the person’s hands, it is forbidden to return it to [the wound.131 This is] a decree [instituted] lest one smooth out [the salve] and level the hollows in it, thus causing him to be liable for [performing a derivative of the forbidden labor of] smoothing a hide, as stated in sec. 314[:21].

If, however, the poultice slipped from the wound as a matter of course132 after nightfall, [the Sages] did not institute a decree concerning it, and it is permitted to return [the poultice to the wound]. Even if [the poultice] fell off [the wound] entirely, it is considered as if it [merely] slipped [from its place].

When does the above [leniency] apply? When [the poultice] fell on a utensil. If, however, [the poultice] fell on the ground, should [the person] desire to return it to the wound, it is as if he is initially placing [the poultice] on the wound on Shabbos,and it is forbidden [for him to do so. This is] a decree lest [the person] smooth out [the salve on the poultice], and [also] because of the decree [prohibiting therapeutic activity] lest one grind herbs.

When a person suffers pain as a result of a wound and [hence is] somewhat sick, he may have a non-Jew place [a poultice]133 on the wound [on Shabbos]even initially, as stated above.134 It is, however, forbidden to instruct a non-Jew to make a poultice on Shabbos,because smoothing out a poultice constitutes [the performance of a] forbidden labor in the complete sense. [Thus,] having a non-Jew [prepare a poultice] constitutes a shvusin a complete sense, and [the performance of a shvus] was permitted only when the person’s entire body ails or he is in danger [of losing] a limb, as stated above.135

A person may uncover part of a poultice, wipe [clean part of] the opening of the wound, and then return [the poultice] to it.136 He may then uncover the other side and wipe [clean the other portion of] the opening of the wound, and then replace [the poultice]. Since [the person] does not remove the entire [poultice] all at once, it is permitted to return it. However, [the person] may not wipe the poultice, because [then] he will be smoothing it.

ל נוֹתְנִין עָלֶה עַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,רפז שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כִּמְשַׁמְּרָהּ,128 חוּץ מֵעֲלֵי גְפָנִים שֶׁהֵם לִרְפוּאָה,רפח וְהוּא הַדִּין כָּל עָלִין שֶׁהֵן מְרַפְּאִין.רפט,129 וְאִם נְתָנָם עָלֶיהָ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וֶהֱסִירָם מֵעָלֶיהָ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵזִיד – מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ כָּל רְפוּאָה מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת שְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִים אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמַּתְחִילָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁכְּבָר עֲשָׂאָהּ לוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וּמַחֲזִירָהּ לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.רצ

אֲבָל רְטִיָּה130 שֶׁהֱסִירָהּ מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה בְּמֵזִיד,רצא אֲפִלּוּ עוֹדָהּ בְּיָדוֹ – אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ,131 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְמָרֵחַ וְיַחֲלִיק הַגּוּמוֹת שֶׁבָּהּ וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מְמַחֵק,רצב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ד.רצג

אֲבָל אִם הֻחְלְקָה מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה מֵאֵלֶיהָרצד,132 מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה – לֹא גָזְרוּ בָּזֶה,רצה וּמֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ.130 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נָפְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ לְגַמְרֵי – דִּינָהּ כְּהֻחְלְקָה.רצו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנָּפְלָה עַל גַּבֵּי כְּלִי,רצז אֲבָל אִם נָפְלָה עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע,רחצ אִם בָּא לְהַחֲזִירָהּ – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַנִּיחָהּ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,רצט וְאָסוּר, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְמָרֵחַש וּמִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת שְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִים.שא

וְעַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחָהּ133 עַל הַמַּכָּה אֲפִלּוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה,שב אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה צַעַר וּמִקְצָת חֹלִי,שג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.דש,134 אֲבָל אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרְטִיָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁמֵּרוּחַ הָרְטִיָּה הוּא מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה, וְעַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי הוּא שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר, וְלֹא הִתִּירוּהוּ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חָלָה כָּל גּוּפוֹ אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ סַכָּנַת אֵבֶר,שה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.שו,135

מְגַלֶּה אָדָם קְצָת רְטִיָּה וּמְקַנֵּחַ פִּי הַמַּכָּהשז וּמַחֲזִירָהּ עָלֶיהָ,136 וְחוֹזֵר וּמְגַלֶּה קְצָתָהּ הַשֵּׁנִי וּמְקַנֵּחַ פִּי הַמַּכָּה וּמַחֲזִירָהּ עָלֶיהָ,131 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְסִירָהּ כֻּלָּהּ בְּבַת אַחַת – מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ. אֲבָל לֹא יְקַנֵּחַ אֶת הָרְטִיָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְמָרֵחַ:שח

31 Once a wound has healed, one may initially place a bandage on it on Shabbos.137[The rationale is] that [the person] is only [bandaging the healed wound] for protection, so that his clothes will not tear [it open]. There is no concern that [the person] will [apply a salve and thus] will [come to] smooth [it out] or grind herbs. Since [the wound] has already healed, [the person] is not so overly concerned about it to the extent that he will come to smooth out a salve [when applying it] or grind herbs.

לא מַכָּה שֶׁנִּתְרַפְּאָה – מֻתָּר לִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ רְטִיָּה בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,137 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כִּמְשַׁמְּרָהּשט שֶׁלֹּא יְסָרְטוּהָ בְּגָדָיו.שי וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְמָרֵחַ אוֹ יִשְׁחוֹק סַמָּנִים, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְרַפְּאָה – אֵינוֹ בָּהוּל עָלֶיהָ כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁיָּבֹא לִידֵי מֵרוּחַ וּשְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִים:שיא

32 [The following rules apply when one] pierces a blister138 on Shabbos:139 If [his intent is] to make an opening so that air will enter as a remedy [to heal the blister], he is liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] “striking with a hammer”140 because he is making an opening [for the blister]. And anyone who makes an opening for an entity that is detached from the ground is liable for improving a utensil, which is a derivative of [the forbidden labor of] “striking with a hammer,” as explained in sec. 314[:2. There are no grounds for stating that there is no comparison between the actions, for indeed,] what difference is there between improving a utensil and improving a wound? Therefore, making an opening for a wound is also [included in the forbidden labor of] striking with a hammer.

True, one is only liable [if he makes] an opening that enables both inflow and outflow, as stated in that source. Nevertheless, this opening is also made [for both inflow and outflow, i.e.,] to continuously enable air to enter and fluid to drain out.

If one pierced [the blister] solely to drain the fluid which causes him discomfort and not to enable air to enter as a remedy, it is permitted to do so.141 True, [as a result of his act,] an opening that enables both inflow and outflow was made. Nevertheless, since the person does not require [both inflow and outflow], it is considered a melachah she’einah tzerichah legufah, a forbidden labor which a person performs for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the forbidden labor was performed.142

[This leniency applies even according to the authorities who maintain that] one is liable for performing a melachah she’einah tzerichah legufah. In this instance, [they too would grant license] because [for piercing a blister,] one would be liable for “improving” the wound. Thus, if one does not need this improvement and does not intend to bring it about, even though it is brought about [via his actions] as a matter of course, it is not considered as an improvement at all. Thus, it is as if the person did absolutely nothing. [One might think that] a decree [forbidding this] should have [nonetheless] been established, lest one intend to make an opening. [Nevertheless,] such a decree was not established due to the person’s suffering.

There is an authority who maintains that license was only granted when [the person] pierces [the blister] to drain the fluid it presently contains, without concern that [the blister] may become closed again. If, however, [the person] desires that [the blister] remain open so that the fluid will continuously drain out, it is forbidden [to pierce the blister] even if he does not intend for air to enter. It is preferable to give weight to his words and have [the blister pierced] by a non-Jew.

לב הַמֵּפִיס מֻרְסָא138 בְּשַׁבָּת,139 אִם כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהּ פֶּהשיב בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס בָּהּ הָאֲוִירשיג לִרְפוּאָהשיד – הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם "מַכֶּה בַּפַּטִּישׁ",שטו,140 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְתַקֵּן לָהּ פֶּתַח,שטז וְכָל הַמְתַקֵּן פֶּתַח לְשׁוּם דָּבָר תָּלוּשׁ – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם תִּקּוּן כְּלִי שֶׁהוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת "מַכֶּה בַּפַּטִּישׁ", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"[ד],שיז וּמַה לִּי תִּקּוּן כְּלִי וּמַה לִּי תִּקּוּן מַכָּה,שיח לָכֵן גַּם בְּתִקּוּן פֶּתַח לְמַכָּה יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם "מַכֶּה בַּפַּטִּישׁ". וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין חַיָּבִין אֶלָּא עַל פֶּתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לְהַכְנִיס וּלְהוֹצִיא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם – הֲרֵי אַף פֶּתַח זֶה עָשׂוּי לְהַכְנִיס אֲוִיר וּלְהוֹצִיא לֵחָהשיט תָּמִיד.שכ

וְאִם הֱפִיסָהּ כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנָּה הַלֵּחָהשכא הַמְצַעַרְתּוֹשכב בִּלְבַד, וְלֹא כְּדֵי לְהַכְנִיס בּוֹ אֲוִיר לִרְפוּאָה – מֻתָּר.שכג,141 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּמֵּילָא נַעֲשֶׂה פֶּתַח הָרָאוּי לְהַכְנִיס וּלְהוֹצִיא,שכד מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ – הֲרֵי זוֹ מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ.שכו,142

וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ,שכז מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן כֵּיוָן שֶׁחִיּוּבוֹ הוּא מִשּׁוּם תִּקּוּן הַמַּכָּה, אִם כֵּן כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְתִקּוּן זֶה וְאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לוֹ, אַף שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה מֵאֵלָיו – אֵין זֶה חָשׁוּב תִּקּוּן כְּלָל,שכח וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ לֹא עָשָׂה וְלֹא כְּלוּם,שכט אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לְפֶתַח,של וּמִשּׁוּם צַעֲרוֹ לֹא גָזְרוּ.שלא

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרשלב שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּפִיסָהּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַלֵּחָה שֶׁל עַכְשָׁו בִּלְבַד, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ אִם תַּחֲזוֹר וְתִסְתּוֹם. אֲבָל אִם חָפֵץ שֶׁתִּשָּׁאֵר כָּךְ פְּתוּחָה לְהוֹצִיא לֵחָה תָּמִיד,שלג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַכְנִיס לָהּ אֲוִיר – אָסוּר. וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי:שלד

33 It is, however, forbidden to cut open a blister from which blood will emerge, for doing so [causes one to be liable] for causing blood to flow.143 [Causing blood to emerge] is not comparable to removing fluid: The fluid is not connected to nor absorbed in [the person’s] flesh. It is as if [the fluid] is set aside and placed in a container.144 Piercing the blister to drain it is merely like opening a container to remove its contents. In contrast, blood is connected to and absorbed in [the person’s] flesh.

לג אֲבָל אָסוּר לָחוּךְ שְׁחִין, שֶׁמּוֹצִיא דָם,שלה וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם חוֹבֵל.שלו,143 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְהוֹצָאַת לֵחָה,שלז שֶׁהַלֵּחָה אֵינָהּ מְחֻבֶּרֶת וּמֻבְלַעַת בַּבָּשָׂר אֶלָּא כְּמֻפְקֶדֶתשלח וּנְתוּנָה בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי,שלט,144 וּכְשֶׁמֵּפִיס הַשְּׁחִין לְהוֹצִיאָהּ – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּפוֹתֵחַ כְּלִי לְהוֹצִיא מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ,שמ מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּדָם, שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר וּמֻבְלָע בַּבָּשָׂר:שמא

34 When a wound has already opened and one [merely] seeks to widen [the opening] – even if only minutely – on Shabbos, it is forbidden [to do so].145 If [such an opening] closes up again, it is questionable whether it is permitted to reopen it to its original state like it is permitted to open a hole in a container that became closed, as stated in sec. 314[:6]. Similar [laws apply] when a person has an aperture in his forearm, called an aptura.146If the aptura becomes a little bit closed, it is questionable whether it is permitted to place a bean inside [the aptura] so that it will remain open.147 It is permitted to place a bandage on an aptura, because it resembles a wound that was healed, over which one may place a bandage, as stated (in this section).148 There is an authority who forbids placing [a bandage] on an aptura (and weight should be given to his words).

If one knows that [an aptura] bleeds when it is cleaned, it should not be cleaned on Shabbos, because it is inevitable149 [that it will bleed].150 One may, however, change his clothing, because if he does not change, [his clothing] will become foul-smelling. [Leniency is granted because] “the consideration of personal dignity is very weighty.”151 Moreover, [the person himself] will suffer discomfort from [wearing bloody clothing].

When does the above apply? To this [type of] wound that has an aperture. If, however, a wound does not have an aperture, it is forbidden to change the cloth or the paper [over it], (because removing them from the wound) would draw out fluid from it. This would be prohibited because [of the forbidden labor] of extracting, as will be explained.152 How much more so [is it forbidden for] one [to] place a sugar salve on a wound that does not have an aperture.

לד נֶקֶב שֶׁבַּמַּכָּה שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְתַּח וּבָא לְהַרְחִיבוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,שמב אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּאשמג – אָסוּר.145 אֲבָל אִם חָזַר וְנִסְתַּם – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּקשדמ אִם מֻתָּר לַחֲזוֹר וּלְפָתְחוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת כְּבַתְּחִלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִפְתּוֹחַ נֶקֶב שֶׁנִּסְתַּם בִּכְלִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ד.שמה וְכֵן אוֹתָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם נֶקֶב בַּזְּרוֹעַ שֶׁקּוֹרִין אַפְטוּרָ"א146 וְנִסְתַּם הַנֶּקֶב קְצָת – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם מֻתָּר לִתֵּן בְּתוֹכוֹ קִטְנִית שֶׁיִּפָּתַח.147 וּרְטִיָּה מֻתָּר לִתֵּן עַל הָאַפְטוּרָ"א,שמו שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא כְּמַכָּה שֶׁנִּתְרַפְּאָה שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ רְטִיָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר (בְּסִימָן זֶהשמז).148 וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹסֵרשמח לִתֵּן עַל הָאַפְטוּרָ"א (וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו).

וְאִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁמּוֹצִיא דָם כְּשֶׁמְּקַנְּחָהּ150 – לֹא יְקַנְחָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, דִּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ"149 הוּא.שמט אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַחֲלִיף בֶּגֶד אַחֵר, שֶׁאִם לֹא יַחֲלִיף יַסְרִיחַ, וְגָדוֹל כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת,151 וְגַם יֵשׁ לוֹ צַעַר מִזֶּה.שנ

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמַכָּה זוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ נֶקֶב, אֲבָל בְּמַכָּה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ נֶקֶב – אָסוּר לְהַחֲלִיף הַבֶּגֶד אוֹ הַנְּיָר, (לְפִי) שֶׁמּוֹשֵׁךְ לֵחָה מֵהַמַּכָּהשנא (בִּנְטִילָתוֹ אוֹתָם מֵעָלֶיהָ), וְאָסוּר מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.שנב,152 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יַנִּיחַ צוק"ר זל"ב עַל הַמַּכָּה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ נֶקֶב:שנג

35 When [a person] receives a blow to his hand or foot from an object not made from iron,153 he may place it in wine to stop the [flow of] blood.154 [He may] not, however, [place the wound] in vinegar, because it is powerful and it has therapeutic properties. If [the injured] is a delicate person, wine is as effective for him as vinegar, and it is forbidden [for him to place his hand or foot in it] unless the wound is not on the upper surface of the hand or the foot. In this instance, it is permitted to desecrate [Shabbos] [to treat the injury], and even perform absolutely [Scripturally] forbidden labors.155 The same applies with regard to [a wound caused] by a blow from an iron [object], as explained above.156

לה מִי שֶׁנִּגְּפָה יָדוֹ אוֹ רַגְלוֹשנד שֶׁלֹּא מֵחֲמַת בַּרְזֶלשנה,153 – צוֹמְתָהּ בְּיַיִן כְּדֵי לְהַעֲמִיד הַדָּם,שנו,154 אֲבָל לֹא בְחֹמֶץ,שנז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא חָזָק,154 וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם רְפוּאָה.שנח וְאִם הוּא מְעֻנָּג – אַף הַיַּיִן מוֹעִיל לוֹשנט כְּמוֹ הַחֹמֶץ,שס,154 וְאָסוּר כְּשֶׁאֵין הַמַּכָּה עַל גַּב הַיָּד אוֹ עַל גַּב הָרֶגֶל,154 שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר לְחַלֵּל עָלֶיהָשסא אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה,155 וְכֵן אִם הִיא מֵחֲמַת הַכָּאַת בַּרְזֶל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:שסב,156

36 When a person dislocates his forearm or shin, i.e., the bone has slipped from its place,157 he should not rub it excessively in cold water, because that is its remedy. Instead, he should wash in his ordinary manner. If [as a result] he is healed, then he will have been healed, [i.e., it is not of any consequence].

לו מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁמַט פֶּרֶק יָדוֹ אוֹ רַגְלוֹ,שסג דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיָּצָא הָעֶצֶם מִמְּקוֹמוֹשסד,157 – לֹא יְשַׁפְשְׁפֶנּוּ הַרְבֵּה בְּצוֹנֵן, שֶׁזֶּהוּ רְפוּאָתוֹ,שסה אֶלָּא רוֹחֵץ כְּדַרְכּוֹ, וְאִם נִתְרַפֵּא – נִתְרַפֵּא:שסו

37 [The following rules apply to] a [finger or toe] nail that became torn or thin strips of skin which split off from the skin [of the cuticle] around a nail:158 If the majority of [the nail or the small pieces of skin] have torn, since they are close to becoming fully detached, [the prohibition against] shearing would not apply according to Scriptural Law, even if one would cut them off with a utensil. [Cutting them off with a utensil] is, nevertheless, forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. To remove [the nail or skin] by hand, by contrast, is permitted even initially if they cause the person discomfort, because this is not the ordinary way in which they are removed.159

[The above applies] provided [the nail or skin] split off facing upward, i.e., they began splitting off toward [the center of] the nail. Other authorities interpret “splitting off facing upward” as [meaning] toward the body and not toward [the center of] the nail. Weight must be given to both interpretations [and the appropriate stringencies taken]. If the majority [of the nail or skin] has not split off, one is exempt for removing them by hand, but doing so is forbidden.160 If one trims [the nail or skin] with a utensil, he is liable for shearing. [This applies] even according to the authorities who maintain that one is exempt for performing a melachah she’einah tzerichah legufah,161 [because] there are commentaries162 who maintain that all authorities agree that one is liable for shearing [even in such circumstances] for the reason to be explained in sec. 340[:2].163

לז צִפֹּרֶן שֶׁפֵּרְשָׁה, וְצִיצִיןשסז שֶׁהֵם כְּמִין רְצוּעוֹת דַּקּוֹת שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ מֵעוֹר הָאֶצְבַּע סְבִיב הַצִּפֹּרֶן,שסח,158 אִם פֵּרְשׁוּ רֻבָּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם קְרוֹבִים לְהִנָּתֵקשסט – אֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם גּוֹזֵז מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁחוֹתְכָן בִּכְלִי, אֶלָּא שֶׁאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.שע,158

אֲבָל לְהָסִיר בְּיָד, שֶׁאֵין זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ גְּזִיזָהשעא – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה,שעב אִם הֵן מְצַעֲרוֹת אוֹתוֹ.שעג,159 וְהוּא שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה,שעד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ לִפְרוֹשׁ [לְ]צַד הַצִּפֹּרֶן.שעה וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםשעו שֶׁ"כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה" הוּא כְּלַפֵּי הַגּוּף, וְלֹא כְּלַפֵּי הַצִּפֹּרֶן. וְצָרִיךְ לָחוּשׁ לִשְׁנֵי הַפֵּרוּשִׁים.שעז

וְאִם לֹא פֵרְשׁוּ רֻבָּן וּנְטָלָן בְּיָד – פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּר.160 חֲתָכָן בִּכְלִי – חַיָּבשעח מִשּׁוּם גּוֹזֵז,שעט וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ161 פָּטוּר – (ו)יֵשׁשפ,162 אוֹמְרִיםשפא שֶׁבְּגוֹזֵז חַיָּב לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"מ:שפב,163

38 A person who has a toothache should not gargle with vinegar and then spit it out,164 for then it is obvious that he is doing so as a remedy.165 [The person] may, however, gargle with [vinegar] and [then] swallow it or dip his bread in [vinegar] and [then] eat it166 as he would during the week.

[For such an ailment,] it is forbidden to have a non-Jew perform any activity, even if it is not at all connected to forbidden labor even according to Rabbinic Law, for it is obvious that [the non-Jew] is performing [the activity] as a remedy.

When does the above apply? When [the person] merely feels discomfort. If, however, he feels pain to the extent that his entire body is weakened as a result, [it is permitted to perform even an activity that actually constitutes a [Scripturally] forbidden labor. If, by contrast, his entire body has not become weakened,]167 it is permitted [only] to have a non-Jew perform any task that is forbidden merely by Rabbinic Law, as explained above.168

לח הַחוֹשֵׁשׁ בְּשִׁנָּיו – לֹא יְגַמֵּעַ בָּהֶן חֹמֶץשפג וְיִפְלֹט,שפד,164 שֶׁנִּכָּר הוּא שֶׁהוּא לִרְפוּאָה,שפה,165 אֲבָל מְגַמֵּעַ וּבוֹלֵעַ,שפו,165 אוֹ מְטַבֵּל בּוֹ פִּתּוֹ וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ166 כְּדַרְכּוֹשפז בְּחֹל.165

וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שׁוּם דָּבָר,שפח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּאוֹתוֹ דָבָר שׁוּם סְרַךְ מְלָאכָה אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,שפט אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּכָּר שֶׁהִיא לִרְפוּאָה.שצ

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמִחוּשׁ בְּעָלְמָא, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ צַעַר כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁנֶּחְלַשׁ כָּל גּוּפוֹ מִמֶּנּוּשצא,167 – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִישצב כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:שצג,168

39 A person who has a sore throat should not treat it with oil,169 i.e., hold oil in his mouth without swallowing it [right away], because it is obvious that he is doing so as a remedy. He may, however, swallow oil, and if he is healed, it is of no consequence. There are authorities who forbid even swallowing [oil], because oil is harmful to the body170 and it is not commonly drunk except as a remedy. [In practice,] everything [depends on the accepted practice] in that place and era. If it is not common for healthy people to swallow [oil], it is forbidden.

It is, however, permitted to place a large amount of oil in water in which beets were cooked171 and swallow it. In that instance, [the oil] is not harmful to the body and it is not obvious that [the person] intends [the mixture] to serve as a remedy, rather as a drink, provided he swallows it immediately and does not hold it in his mouth. Needless to say, [the person] should not spit out [the mixture], because then it is obvious that he intends it to serve as a remedy.

לט הַחוֹשֵׁשׁ בִּגְרוֹנוֹ – לֹא יְעָרְעֶנּוּ בַּשֶּׁמֶן,שצד,169 דְּהַיְנוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹת שֶׁמֶן בְּפִיו טֶרֶם שֶׁיִּבְלָעֶנּוּ, שֶׁנִּכָּר שֶׁמְּכַוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה,שצה אֲבָל בּוֹלֵעַ הוּא שֶׁמֶן, וְאִם נִתְרַפֵּא – נִתְרַפֵּא.שצו

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיםשצז אֲפִלּוּ לִבְלוֹעַ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶן הוּא מַזִּיק לַגּוּף,שצח,170 וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא לִרְפוּאָה.שצט וְהַכֹּל לְפִי הַמָּקוֹם וְהַזְּמַן, שֶׁאִם אֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּרִיאִים לִבְלוֹעַ – אָסוּר.ת

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתֵּן שֶׁמֶן הַרְבֵּה לְתוֹךְ אֲנִיגְרוֹןתא,171 וְלִבְלוֹעַ,תב,170 שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ מַזִּיק לַגּוּף,תג,170 וְאֵינוֹ נִכָּר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָהתד אֶלָּא לִשְׁתִיָּה. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּבְלָעֶנּוּ מִיָּד וְלֹא יַשְׁהֶנּוּ בְּפִיו,תה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא יִפְלְטֶנּוּ,תו שֶׁאָז נִכָּר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה:תז

40 The remedy for a person who moans heavily because of pain in his chest172 is [for him] to nurse from an animal with his mouth.173 The person is permitted to nurse on Shabbos because he is expressing [the milk] in an abnormal manner,174 since it is not common to nurse [from animals], but [rather the common way is] to express the milk into a container and drink from it.175 Therefore, nursing [from an animal] is not forbidden according to Scriptural Law, only according to Rabbinic decree, and because of [the person’s] suffering, [the Sages] did not impose this decree.176

When does the above apply? With regard to suffering that causes [the person] to moan heavily. If, however, a person merely suffers hunger pangs, he may not nurse from an animal on Shabbos. On a festival, by contrast, it is permitted to nurse [from an animal] (if it is impossible for the person to have a non-Jew milk the animal and he does not have food into which the milk could be [directly] expressed.)177

מ הַגּוֹנֵחַתח מִכְּאֵב לֵב,תט,172 שֶׁרְפוּאָתוֹ לִינַק בְּפִיו מִן הַבְּהֵמָהתי,173 – מֻתָּר לִינַק בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּפָרֵק כִּלְאַחַד יָד הוּא,תיא,174 שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִינַק בְּפִיו אֶלָּא לַחֲלוֹבתיב לְתוֹךְ כְּלִיתיג וְלִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ,175 לְפִיכָךְ אֵין בִּינִיקָה אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וּמִשּׁוּם צַעֲרוֹ לֹא גָזְרו.תיד,176

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּצַעַר שֶׁל הַגּוֹנֵחַ,172 אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא צַעַר שֶׁל רָעָב – אָסוּר לִינַק מֵהַבְּהֵמָה בְּשַׁבָּת,תטו אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב מֻתָּר לִינַקתטז (אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לַחֲלוֹב עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,תיז וְגַם אֵין לוֹ מַאֲכָל לַחֲלוֹב לְתוֹכוֹתיח):177

41 A woman should not release milk from her breasts into a cup or a pot to provide milk for her child,178 because releasing milk into a container is considered extracting in the complete sense and one is liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] threshing. [The performance of] an actual forbidden labor was permitted only in instances of [mortal] danger.

A woman may, however, express milk [from her breast] so that her infant will take hold of the breast and nurse. Since the milk [that is expressed] is being wasted, it is not considered as extracting according to Scriptural Law, only according to Rabbinic decree, as stated in sec. 320[:21], and [our Sages] did not impose a prohibitive decree because of the child’s needs. It is, however, forbidden [for a woman] to squirt milk over one who is possessed by an untoward spirit, because he is not in [mortal] danger, nor is he suffering enough pain to permit a Rabbinic prohibition to be violated by a Jew for his sake, as was permitted for someone groaning [because of chest pains], and others in similar [situations].179 See also the end of sec. 330.180

מא לֹא תַקִּיל אִשָּׁה חָלָב מִדַּדֶּיהָ לְתוֹךְ הַכּוֹס אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה לְהָנִיק אֶת בְּנָהּ,תיט,178 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַחוֹלֵב לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי מְפָרֵק גָּמוּר הוּא, וְחַיָּב מִשּׁוּם דָּשׁ,תכ וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סַכָּנָה.תכא

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְאִשָּׁה לְקַלֵּחַ מֵהֶחָלָב בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֶּאֱחוֹז הַתִּינוֹק אֶת הַדַּד וְיִנוֹק,תכב שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶחָלָב הַזֶּה הוֹלֵךְ לְאִבּוּד – אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,תכג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"כ,תכד וּלְצֹרֶךְ הַתִּינוֹק לֹא גָזְרוּ.

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַתִּיז מֵחֲלָבָהּ עַל מִי שֶׁנָּשַׁף בּוֹ רוּחַ רָעָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה וְגַם לֹא צַעַר גָּדוֹלתכה כְּדֵי שֶׁנַּתִּיר לוֹ אִסּוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִתִּירוּ בְּגוֹנֵחַתכו וְדוֹמָיו,179 עַיֵּן סוֹף סִימָן ש"ל:תכז,180

42 One may not chew the type of sap referred to as gum.181 A person may not brush his teeth with herbs [on Shabbos].182

When [does this prohibition apply]? When [the person chews the gum or brushes his teeth] intending [for these actions] to serve as a remedy. If, however, he intends merely to improve the fragrance of his breath, it is permitted.183

מב אֵין לוֹעֲסִיןתכח מִין שְׂרָףתכט הַנִּקְרָא מַצְטְכִי,תל,181 וְלֹא שָׁפִין אֶת הַשִּׁנַּיִם בְּסַם.תלא,182 אֵימָתַי? בִּזְמַן שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם רֵיחַ הַפֶּה – מֻתָּר:תלב,183

43 Any food or beverage that is eaten or drunk by healthy people may be eaten or drunk as a remedy184 even though they cause certain undesirable [side] effects, [thereby] making it somewhat apparent that one intends [them to serve] as a remedy. For example, the spleen [of an animal] is difficult to digest, but [eating it] is beneficial and helpful for the teeth. [Conversely,] horse [fava] beans are harmful to the teeth, but beneficial and helpful for the digestive system.185 Nevertheless, since [these foods] are occasionally eaten by healthy people without any therapeutic intent, it is also permitted to eat them as a remedy.

Any food or beverage which is not eaten or drunk by healthy people is forbidden to be eaten or drunk as a remedy186 [because of] the decree [instituted lest one] crush herbs. [This restriction] applies when [one] suffers undefined ailment, and [despite that,] he braces himself and goes about like a healthy person, even though he suffers great pain.187 However, it was already explained above that if [the person’s] entire body ails as a result of [the pain], even though he braces himself and goes about – and needless to say, if he becomes bedridden –there are authorities who permit [eating such foods as remedies].188

By contrast, a person who feels no discomfort at all and is not [eating a particular food as] a remedy, but for another reason – e.g., one who eats sweet plant sap or swallows a raw egg to improve his voice – is permitted to do so. If, however, he has a therapeutic intent, it is forbidden, even though he is entirely healthy and feels absolutely no discomfort.

מג כָּל אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁהֵם מַאֲכַל בְּרִיאִים – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָן וְלִשְׁתּוֹתָן לִרְפוּאָה,תלג,184 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם קָשִׁים לִקְצָת דְּבָרִיםתלד וְנִכָּר קְצָת שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה,תלה כְּגוֹן טְחוֹל שֶׁקָּשֶׁה לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם אֶלָּא שֶׁיָּפֶה וּמוֹעִיל לְשִׁנַּיִם, אוֹ כַּרְשִׁינִין שֶׁקָּשִׁין לְשִׁנַּיִם אֶלָּא שֶׁיָּפִין וּמְרַפְּאִין לִבְנֵי מֵעַיִם,תלו,185 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַבְּרִיאִים לְאָכְלָן לִפְעָמִים גַּם שֶׁלֹּא לִרְפוּאָה – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָן גַּם לִרְפוּאָה.תלז

וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲכַל וּמַשְׁקֵה בְּרִיאִים – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ וְלִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ לִרְפוּאָה,תלח,186 גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם שְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִים.תלט וְהוּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מִחוּשׁ בְּעָלְמָא וּמִתְחַזֵּק וְהוֹלֵךְ כְּבָרִיא, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכּוֹאֵב לוֹ מְאֹד.תמ,187 אֲבָל אִם חָלָה מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל גּוּפוֹ,תמא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְחַזֵּק וְהוֹלֵךְ, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם נָפַל לְמִשְׁכָּבתמב – כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהתמג שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין.188

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ מִחוּשׁ כְּלָל, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל לִרְפוּאָהתמד אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ אַחֵר,תמה כְּגוֹן הָאוֹכֵל שְׂרָפִים מְתוּקִיםתמו וְגוֹמֵעַ בֵּיצָה חַיָּה כְּדֵי לְהַנְעִים הַקּוֹל – מֻתָּר.תמז אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה – אָסוּר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בָּרִיא גָמוּר וְאֵין לוֹ שׁוּם מִחוּשׁ:תמח

44 A person may not use [an emetic] to induce vomiting189 if he does not have a therapeutic intent, even during the week,190 because he will be wasting the food in his digestive system, since as a result [of vomiting] he will become hungry and return and eat more. If [a person] feels discomfort because he overate,191 it is permitted to [induce vomiting] during the week and even take an emetic [to do so]. On Shabbos, it is forbidden to take an emetic because this resembles [taking] medication, but it is permitted to insert his hand into his throat until he vomits.

מד אֵין עוֹשִׂים אַפִּיקְטְוִזִין,תמט דְּהַיְנוּ גְּרָמַת קִיא,189 שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ רְפוּאָה,תנ אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל,190 מִשּׁוּם הֶפְסֵד אֳכָלִיןתנא שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו,190 שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ כָּךְ הוּא רָעֵב וְחוֹזֵר וְאוֹכֵל.תנב וְאִם מִצְטַעֵר מֵרֹב הַמַּאֲכָל190 – בְּחֹל מֻתָּרתנג אֲפִלּוּ בְּסַם,תנד,190 וּבְשַׁבָּת אָסוּר בְּסַם,תנה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לִרְפוּאָה,תנו אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַכְנִיס יָדוֹ לְתוֹךְ גְּרוֹנוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּקִיא:תנז,190

45 A person who suffers digestive discomfort may place on his stomach an overturned cup from which hot water was poured out, even though it still contains warm vapor.192

Similarly, it is permitted to raise – either by hand or with a utensil – the tendons of the ears193 which descend at times and cause the cheeks to drop, as well as to raise a lobe of cartilage opposite the heart194 that turned inward. [The rationale is that] none of these [activities] are performed with herbs and thus [there is no reason to be concerned] about crushing [herbs], and these [conditions] all cause suffering.195

מה הַחוֹשֵׁשׁ בְּמֵעָיו – מֻתָּר לִכְפּוֹת עֲלֵיהֶם כּוֹסתנח שֶׁעֵרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ חַמִּין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן יֵשׁ בּוֹ הֶבֶל.תנט,192

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַעֲלוֹת אָזְנַיִם,תס דְּהַיְנוּ גִּידֵי הָאֹזֶן שֶׁיּוֹרְדִין לִפְעָמִים וּמִתְפָּרְקִין הַלְּחָיַיִםתסא – מַעֲלִין אוֹתָם בֵּין בְּיָד בֵּין בִּכְלִי.תסב,193 וְכֵן לְהַעֲלוֹת אֻנְקְלִי,תסג דְּהַיְנוּ תְּנוּךְ שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד הַלֵּב194 שֶׁנִּכְפָּף לְצַד פְּנִים.תסד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ בְּסַמְמָנִים כְּדֵי שֶׁנָּחוּשׁ לִשְׁחִיקָה, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ צַעַר מֵהֶם:תסה,195

46 Similar concepts apply regarding a person who became intoxicated. The remedy is to apply oil and salt to his palms and the bottoms of his feet.196 [The oil and salt] may be applied on Shabbos for the above reason.197 However, one may not derive license from this [ruling] to apply [the remedy] for intoxication practiced in some places: to place ashes from crushed grass in one’s nose. [The rationale is that] these ashes function as remedies for other ailments as well. Thus, the decree [instituted to safeguard against] crushing herbs is relevant.

מו וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּכֵּר, שֶׁרְפוּאָתוֹ לָסוּךְ כַּפּוֹת יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו בְּשֶׁמֶן וּמֶלַח196 – מֻתָּר לְסוּכָם בְּשַׁבָּתתסו מִטַּעַם זֶה.תסז,197 וְאֵין לִלְמוֹד מִזֶּה הֶתֵּר לְאוֹתָם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים בִּקְצָת מְדִינוֹת לְהָשִׂים תּוֹךְ הַחֹטֶם אֵפֶר מֵעֵשֶׂב כָּתוּשׁ לְהָפִיג הַשִּׁכְרוּת, כִּי אוֹתוֹ אֵפֶר פְּעֻלָּתוֹ כִּרְפוּאָה לִשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים גַּם כֵּן, וְשַׁיָּךְ בּוֹ גְּזֵרַת שְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִים:תסח

47 It is forbidden to vigorously massage the body, even if merely for the sake of pleasure, as stated in sec. 327[:2].198 Needless to say, [it is forbidden to massage so vigorously that] one will become weary and sweat. Similarly, it is forbidden to weary oneself with any other activity so that he will sweat for a therapeutic purpose.199 [These safeguards were instituted as] a decree lest one grind and drink [tea made from] herbs that induce sweat.

It is forbidden to press the stomach of an infant so that he will defecate, lest one give him medication that will induce diarrhea.

מז אָסוּר לְשַׁפְשֵׁף עַל הַגּוּף בְּכֹחַ, אֲפִלּוּ לְתַעֲנוּג בְּעָלְמָא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ז,תסט,198 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּיגַע וְיַזִּיעַ. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְיַגֵּעַ עַצְמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דָּבָר כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּזִּיעַתע לִרְפוּאָה,תעא,199 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁחַק וְיִשְׁתֶּה סַמָּנִים הַמְּבִיאִים זֵעָה.תעב

וְאָסוּר לִדְחוֹק כְּרֵסוֹ שֶׁל תִּינוֹק כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא הָרְעִי, שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְהַשְׁקוֹתוֹ סַמָּנִים הַמְשַׁלְשְׁלִים:תעג

48 One may bathe in the waters of Gerar, Chamasan, Tiberias, and the pleasant waters of the Mediterranean Sea200 for therapeutic reasons. Even though [these waters] are salty, since it is common for people to bathe in them without any therapeutic intent, it is not evident that one is doing so for therapeutic reasons. One may not, however, [bathe] in the unpleasant waters of the Mediterranean Sea, nor in water in which flax was soaked, [because] they are offensive and it is not common to bathe in them except for therapeutic reasons.

When does this [restriction] apply? When one stays in [such water] for an extended time. If, however, he does not stay for an extended time, it is permitted because it appears that he is merely cooling off. In places where it is common to bathe in the hot springs of Tiberias201 only for therapeutic reasons, it is forbidden to bathe in them on Shabbos202for therapeutic reasons, even if one does not stay in them for an extended time.

מח רוֹחֲצִיןתעד לִרְפוּאָהתעה בְּמֵי גְרָר וּבְמֵי חַמְתָן וּבְמֵי טְבֶרְיָאתעו וּבַמַּיִם הַיָּפִים שֶׁבַּיָּם הַגָּדוֹל,תעז,200 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מְלוּחִים,תעח לְפִי שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם אַף שֶׁלֹּא לִרְפוּאָה, וְאֵינוֹ נִכָּר שֶׁמְּכַוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה.תעט

אֲבָל לֹא בַּמַּיִם הָרָעִים שֶׁבַּיָּם הַגָּדוֹל,תפ וְלֹא בְּמֵי מִשְׁרֶה,תפא שֶׁהֵם מְאוּסִים,200 וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם שֶׁלֹּא לִרְפוּאָה.תפב

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹהֶה בָּהֶם, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ שׁוֹהֶה – מֻתָּר,תפג שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה אֶלָּא כְּמֵקֵר.תפד,197

וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִרְחוֹץ בְּחַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא201 אֶלָּא לִרְפוּאָה – אָסוּר לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם בְּשַׁבָּתתפה,202 לִרְפוּאָה, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ שׁוֹהֶה בָּהֶם:תפו

49 One may not wash in water that causes diarrhea, nor in quicksand, nor may one drink a beverage that causes diarrhea, even if healthy people also drink it, and he is not drinking for therapeutic reasons. [The rationale is that] all these activities cause discomfort, and it is written:203 “[If…] you shall call Shabbos ‘A delight….’”204

מט אֵין רוֹחֲצִין בְּמַיִם הַמְשַׁלְשְׁלִים, וְלֹא בְּטִיט שֶׁטּוֹבְעִין בּוֹ.תפז וְאֵין שׁוֹתִין מַשְׁקֶה הַמְשַׁלְשֵׁל,תפח אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מַאֲכַל בְּרִיאִים וְאֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֵהוּ לִרְפוּאָה כְּלָל.תפט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ צַעַר הֵם, וְכָתוּב:תצ,203 "וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג":תצא,204

50 One may recite incantations over snakes and scorpions205 so that they will not harm him even if they are not pursuing him.206 [Doing so is] not [a violation of the prohibition against] trapping animals. [This license applies] even according to the authorities who hold one liable for [performing] a melachah she’einah tzerichah legufah.207

נ לוֹחֲשִׁין עַל נְחָשִׁים וְעַקְרַבִּיםתצב,205 בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקוּ,תצג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן רָצִין אַחֲרָיו,תצד,206 וְאֵין בְּכָךְ מִשּׁוּם צֵידָה,תצה אֲפִלּוּ לְהַמְחַיְּבִים בִּמְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ:תצו,207

51 One may place a utensil on his eye to cool off his eye, provided it is permitted to move the utensil.208 [Similarly,] it is permitted to follow the practice commonly [used to treat] a person who feels discomfort in his eyes: [the affected eye] is circled with a ring so that the swelling will not spread.209

נא נוֹתְנִין כְּלִי עַל גַּבֵּי הָעַיִןתצז לְהָקֵר,תצח,205 וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא כְּלִי הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל.תצט,208 וְהוּא הַדִּין מַה שֶּׁעוֹשִׂין לְאָדָם שֶׁחָשׁ בְּעֵינָיו, שֶׁמַּקִּיפִין אוֹתוֹ בְּטַבַּעַתתק כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַנֶּפַח:תקא,209

52 When a bone is dislocated, it is forbidden to return it to its place, because that resembles building.210 (Moreover, all therapeutic activities are forbidden.) It is even forbidden to rub it excessively with cold water, as stated above.211 If, however, a bone is broken, it may be set in its original place,212 because if it is not set in its original place on Shabbos, the [person] is in danger of losing that limb. And [our Sages did not impose] their decrees in an instance where there is danger of losing a limb.

נב עֶצֶם שֶׁיָּצָא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ – אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְבוֹנֶהתקב,210 (וְעוֹד שֶׁכָּל רְפוּאָה אֲסוּרָהתקג). וַאֲפִלּוּ לְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ הַרְבֵּה בְּצוֹנֵן – אָסוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תקד,211

אֲבָל עֶצֶם שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּר – מַחֲזִירִים אוֹתוֹ לִמְקוֹמוֹ,תקה,212 שֶׁאִם לֹא יַחֲזִירוּהוּ בְּשַׁבָּת – יֵשׁ בָּזֶה סַכָּנָה לְאוֹתוֹ אֵבֶר, וּבִמְקוֹם סַכָּנַת אֵבֶר לֹא גָזְרוּ:תקו

53 It is forbidden to place a cloth on a bleeding wound, because the blood will color [the cloth].213 Even though [the person] is damaging the cloth,214 nevertheless, doing so is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. How much more so does this apply to a red cloth, which is improved [by absorbing the blood].215 He may not [avoid this issue by] first removing the blood from the wound,216 since [that involves the forbidden labor of] causing blood to flow, as stated above.217

What, then, should [the person] do? He should wind spider webs around [the wound] until he covers all the blood and the entire wound. Afterwards, he should wind a rag around [the wound]. There are authorities who raise issues and forbid winding spider webs around [the wound], because they promote healing. [According to these authorities, the person] should first wash the wound with water or with wine to remove the blood of the wound. Afterwards, he should wind a rag around [the wound]. It is desirable to give weight to their words [and act stringently (if possible), although theoretically,] the halachah follows the first opinion.

נג אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ בֶּגֶד עַל מַכָּה שֶׁיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנָּה דָּם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַדָּם יִצְבַּע אוֹתוֹ.תקז,213 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקַלְקֵל הוּא,214 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.תקח וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן בְּבֶגֶד אָדֹם, שֶׁמְּתַקְּנוֹ.תקט,215 וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהוֹצִיא תְּחִלָּה אֶת הַדָּם מֵהַמַּכָּה,תקי,216 מִשּׁוּם חוֹבֵל,תקיא,143 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תקיב,217

אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה? כּוֹרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ קוּרֵי עַכָּבִישׁ וּמְכַסֶּה בָהֶם כָּל הַדָּם וְכָל הַחַבּוּרָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ כּוֹרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ סְמַרְטוּט.תקיג וְיֵשׁ מְפַקְפְּקִים לֶאֱסוֹר כְּרִיכַת קוּרֵי עַכָּבִישׁ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּרַפְּאִים,תקיד אֶלָּא יִרְחוֹץ בַּמַּיִם אוֹ בַּיַּיִן תְּחִלָּה לְהַעֲבִיר הַדָּם שֶׁבַּמַּכָּה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִכְרוֹךְ עָלֶיהָ הַסְּמַרְטוּט.תקטו וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם,תקטז אֲבָל הָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:תקיז

54 It is forbidden to suck blood from a wound with one’s mouth, because [that involves the forbidden labor of] causing blood to flow. [Sucking the blood at a] circumcision (metzitzah) was permitted only because of the danger [to the child].218 For this reason, it is forbidden to suck blood that is between the teeth. (Even though [the person] is [performing the forbidden labor of] extracting in an irregular manner,219 it is nevertheless forbidden [to do so] according to Rabbinic Law.)

It is forbidden to place an article [on the wound] that draws out blood and fluid [from it] because [that involves the forbidden labor of] extracting. True, the article draws out [the blood and the fluid] on its own accord. Nevertheless, since [the person] places [the article] there to draw out [the blood and the fluid], he is actively performing [the forbidden labors of] causing blood to flow and extracting.

נד אָסוּר לִמְצוֹץ בְּפִיו דָּם מֵהַמַּכָּה, מִשּׁוּם חוֹבֵל.תקיח,143 וּבַמִּילָה לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי הַסַּכָּנָה.תקיט,218 וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִמְצוֹץ דָּם שֶׁבֵּין הַשִּׁנַּיִםתקכ (וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְפָרֵקתקכא כִּלְאַחַר יָד,תקכב,219 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםתקכג).

וְאָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ עַל הַמַּכָּה דָּבָר הַמּוֹשֵׁךְ דָּם וְלֵחָה, מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק.קכד וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹשֵׁךְ מֵעַצְמוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מַנִּיחוֹ שָׁם כְּדֵי לִמְשׁוֹךְ – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּחוֹבֵל וּמְפָרֵק בְּיָדָיו:תקכה

55 It is forbidden to insert a cord in a person’s anal opening as is done for one suffering from constipation, unless it is done in an irregular manner, i.e., [the person] holds [the cord] with two fingers and inserts it gently so he will not rupture the anal sphincter, as explained in sec. 312[:12].

It is, however, forbidden to give [the person] an enema, even in an irregular manner, and even if it was prepared on the previous day (– [this was forbidden] because of the decree [instituted as a safeguard lest] one grind herbs –) unless the person is sick. Even if the person is sick, one must be careful not to actually perform a Scripturally forbidden labor. (Similarly,) if it is possible to have [the act] performed by a non-Jew, the non-Jew should perform it.

נה אָסוּר לָשׂוּם פְּתִילָה בְּפִי הַטַּבַּעַת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לַעֲשׂוֹת לְמִי שֶׁהוּא עָצוּר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יָשִׂים אוֹתָהּ בְּשִׁנּוּי, שֶׁיֹּאחֲזֶנָּה בִּשְׁתֵּי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו וְיַנִּיחֶנָּה בְּנַחַת, מִשּׁוּם הַשָּׁרַת נִימִין,תקכו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ב.תקכז

אֲבָל אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת קריסטי"ר אֲפִלוּ עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי, אֲפִלּוּ הֱכִינָהּ מֵאֶתְמוֹל (מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת שְׁחִיקַת סַמָּנִים), אִם לֹא בְּחוֹלֶה. וְגַם בְּחוֹלֶה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, (וְכֵן) אִם אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי – יַעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי:תקכח